from the Circuit Court of the 14th Judicial Circuit, Rock
Island County, Illinois, Appeal No. 3-16-0455 Circuit No.
14-CF-827 Honorable Walter D. Braud, Judge, Presiding.
JUSTICE CARTER delivered the judgment of the court, with
opinion Presiding Justice Schmidt and Justice O'Brien
concurred in the judgment and opinion.
1 Defendant, Deanthony Terrance Parker, appeals following his
conviction for robbery. He raises numerous contentions of
error relating to his trial and sentencing. We affirm.
2 I. BACKGROUND
3 The State charged defendant with one count of armed robbery
(720 ILCS 5/18-2(a)(1)
(West 2014)). The charging instrument alleged that defendant,
while armed with a knife and threatening the imminent use of
force, took jewelry and $1400 from Corrina Shaffer.
4 Defendant filed a motion in limine requesting that
the court bar the State from introducing evidence relating
to, inter alia, defendant's prior criminal
record. In the same motion, defendant also sought to bar the
introduction of "[a]ny fingerprint evidence[, ] as the
testimony by the State's witness[es] regarding this
evidence will lead to comments, discussions or inferences of
Defendant's prior criminal history or arrest
5 The court considered defendant's motion prior to trial.
First, the parties agreed that the State would introduce
evidence of three prior convictions for impeachment purposes
only if defendant elected to testify at trial. On the topic
of the fingerprint evidence, defense counsel relayed to the
court an agreement between he and the State:
"I talked with [the prosecutor] a little bit about this
yesterday. I think he's in agreement, if Your Honor
allows all the fingerprint evidence in, that we have to
tip-toe kind of carefully around some of the issues. My
understanding is that Rock Island police officer Mr. Alderson
that got the fingerprints analysis, first runs it through the
AFIS, or their local computer system has a hit. I don't
want that mentioned, because that indicates that his
fingerprints are in the system already, thus being arrested
or charged with-.
The court interjected, stating: "All right. The
fingerprints will be admitted. State will be careful."
The State explained that its witness would not discuss the
computer match or mention the date on which the known prints
had been collected. The court concluded: "[The
fingerprints] will be admitted, but the jury will not be
advised that they-that the source of the fingerprints was
from the police database."
6 At trial, Shaffer testified that she and her friend,
Shanice, went to a number of bars or clubs on the evening of
September 26, 2014. At one point, Shaffer and Shanice met
Shanice's friend, Zach, and defendant. Shaffer identified
defendant in court. The four remained at a club until 3 a.m.,
at which time they decided to go to Zach's house to smoke
marijuana. Defendant rode in Shaffer's car while Shanice
drove with Zach. The plan had been for Shaffer to follow Zach
to his house. However, Zach and Shanice were pulled over by
the police almost immediately. After briefly waiting at a gas
station, Shaffer decided to return to her house with
7 After arriving at Shaffer's house, Shaffer and
defendant sat in her living room and talked. Shaffer
testified that they also drank wine and smoked marijuana.
During that time, Shaffer also made a number of phone calls
in an effort to find Shanice to determine how she could help
her. Shaffer eventually learned that Shanice's bond would
be $200. Shaffer went upstairs to retrieve the money while
defendant spoke to Zach on the phone. When Shaffer returned
to the living room, she and defendant decided they would go
to the police station together.
8 Shaffer described what happened next: "I stood up, and
that is when [defendant] blind-sided me and punched me in the
face." Defendant then demanded that she show him where
her safe was, as well as "all the pounds of weed."
Shaffer testified that she did not have a safe, nor did she
have pounds of marijuana. Defendant produced a box cutter and
threatened to cut or rape Shaffer.
9 Defendant and Shaffer went upstairs, where he instructed
her to pack her shoes and purses into bags. Defendant also
put jewelry from Shaffer's jewelry box into his pockets.
Shaffer recounted the jewelry that was taken: "a diamond
Rolex, a Movado watch, a Michael Kors watch, a custom-made
Johnny Dang diamond watch, a diamond pendant." Defendant
also took Shaffer's cell phone and the keys to her car.
Defendant forced Shaffer to take the bags of stolen items to
the car. Shaffer put the bags in the trunk. As defendant
turned to reenter the house, Shaffer ran away. When she
arrived at a gas station half a block away, the cashier
called 911. Police officers arrived in 5 to 10 minutes.
10 Shaffer testified that the only stolen item recovered by
police was the Johnny Dang watch. She identified People's
exhibit No. 4 as that watch. She identified People's
exhibit No. 8 as the box that held that watch. Shaffer also
identified People's exhibit No. 17 as a photograph of her
living room after her encounter with defendant. She
identified a wine glass sitting on an ottoman in the
photograph as the one used by defendant. Shaffer testified
that she had recently washed the wine glass before giving it
to defendant. Shaffer also testified that her cell phone had
service through T-Mobile, and that the phone was registered
to her grandmother, Marilyn Hoffman.
11 Rock Island police officer Luke Serra was dispatched to
Shaffer's residence at approximately 5 a.m. Shaffer had
been transported by another officer back to her home. Serra
observed bruising and swelling around Shaffer's left eye,
in addition to some dried blood. Serra asked if the person
who had robbed her had touched anything in the house. Shaffer
pointed out the wine glass on the ottoman. Serra took a
series of latent prints from the wine glass, preserving them
on a fingerprint evidence card.
12 Shannon Kizer of the Rock Island Police Department
testified that he was responsible for obtaining fingerprints.
Kizer was shown People's exhibit No. 1, a card showing 10
fingerprints, labeled with defendant's name. The
following colloquy ensued:
"[PROSECUTOR]: *** what is People's Exhibit No. 1?
[KIZER]: Fingerprints, Deanthony Parker.
Q: And did you obtain those fingerprints?
A: I don't know.
Q: Are they associated with [defendant]?
Q: Are they [defendant's] fingerprints?
counsel objected to the admission of exhibit No. 1 into
evidence, arguing that Kizer could not say if he personally
gathered the fingerprints and that Kizer likely only
testified that the fingerprints were defendant's because
the exhibit itself stated as much. The court did not rule on
the objection, instead suggesting that defense counsel could
cross-examine Kizer at the conclusion of the State's
13 The State next asked Kizer to view People's Exhibit
No. 1a. That exhibit was a Rock Island County booking report
dated August 3, 2014. The booking report, which lists 12
"prior bookings," shows Kizer as the
"Fingerprint Officer." It also has a photograph of
an African American male. The State asked Kizer only if the
information on exhibit No. 1a was "associated with the
fingerprint card, People's 1." Kizer agreed. The
State then asked if the exhibit contained a photograph, and
if that photograph was of defendant. Kizer responded
14 On cross-examination, defense counsel asked Kizer a number
of questions relating to the procedures he employed in
obtaining fingerprints as part of the booking process.
Counsel asked Kizer if defendant's fingerprints had been
scanned by a computer, and Kizer responded that they had.
15 Eugenio Barrera of the Rock Island Police Department
testified that he went to Tony's Pawn Shop in the course
of his investigation. The owner of the pawn shop showed
Barrera a photograph of a watch that someone had attempted to
pawn. The owner provided Barrera with a description of the
individual's car, the license plate number, and
surveillance footage. Barrera testified that the individual
who had attempted to pawn the watch was Joswa Lewis.
16 On October 6, 2014, Barrera confronted Lewis, telling him
that the watch was stolen property. Lewis denied taking any
part in a robbery. He told Barrera that he had purchased the
watch from a man at a car wash. Lewis went into the residence
at 1120 19½th Avenue, retrieved the watch, and gave it
to Barrera. Barrera testified that the residence belonged to
Pearline Morrow, Lewis's grandmother-in-law. Barrera
identified exhibit No. 4 as the watch that Lewis gave to him.
17 Following Barrera's testimony, the State moved to
admit exhibit Nos. 1 and 1a. Defense counsel objected, again
arguing that Kizer had no personal recollection of taking the
fingerprints. The court admitted the exhibits, but noted that
they would not go to the jury.
18 Garrett Alderson testified that he was a criminalist with
the Rock Island Police Department, responsible for, inter
alia, comparative fingerprint analysis. After a series
of preliminary questions about his qualifications and
training, the State submitted Alderson as an expert. Over the
defense's objection, the court found Alderson qualified
as an expert in the field of fingerprints.
19 Alderson testified that he compared the known prints found
on exhibit No. 1 to the latent prints recovered by Serra at
Shaffer's home. He concluded that the latent fingerprints
were left by the same person who provided the fingerprints in
exhibit No. 1. Alderson testified that the fingerprints
matched on approximately 20 points, which he considered a
high quality match for a ...