from the Circuit Court of McLean County No. 15CF275 The
Honorable Scott D. Drazewski, Judge Presiding.
JUSTICE STEIGMANN delivered the judgment of the court, with
opinion. Justice Knecht concurred in the judgment and
1 In February 2015, defendant, Taryll Musgrave, was pulled
over by the police while driving. During the traffic stop,
defendant consented to being searched. Later that month, the
State charged defendant with (count I) unlawful possession of
a controlled substance with intent to deliver and (count II)
unlawful possession of a controlled substance. 720 ILCS
570/401(a)(2)(A), 402(a)(2)(A) (West 2014). In September
2015, defendant filed a motion to suppress evidence obtained
from the search conducted during the traffic stop. The trial
court denied this motion.
2 In August 2016, the State and defense counsel presented the
trial court with a proposed plea agreement in which defendant
would plead guilty and be sentenced to 13 years in prison.
Defendant rejected this agreement in open court and elected
to proceed to trial.
3 In October 2016, the State dismissed count I and the
parties proceeded to a stipulated bench trial on count II.
The trial court found defendant guilty of count II (unlawful
possession of a controlled substance). In December 2016, the
court sentenced defendant to 16 years in prison.
4 Defendant appeals, arguing (1) the trial court should have
granted his motion to suppress because the police prolonged
the traffic stop beyond the time necessary to complete the
mission of the stop, (2) the trial court's sentence was
an abuse of discretion, and (3) the trial court imposed
"a trial tax." We disagree and affirm.
5 I. BACKGROUND
6 A. The Charges
7 In February 2015, the State charged defendant with (count
I) unlawful possession of a controlled substance with intent
to deliver (more than 15 grams but less than 100 grams of a
substance containing cocaine) and (count II) unlawful
possession of a controlled substance (more than 15 grams but
less than 100 grams of a substance containing cocaine).
Id. §§ 401(a)(2)(A), 402(a)(2)(A). The
State noted that defendant was extended-term eligible for
count II due to his prior criminal record. After the trial
court initially appointed the public defender's office at
defendant's request, he chose to proceed pro se.
8 B. The Motion To Suppress
9 In September 2015, defendant pro se filed a motion
to suppress evidence obtained from a search conducted during
his traffic stop. In his motion, defendant wrote that on
February 26, 2015, he "was pull[ed] over for a traffic
violation" and that "Officer Jared Johnson asked if
I had anything illegal on me. He also ask[ed] for consent to
search me. I granted the consent." In pertinent part,
defendant essentially argued that his consent was
"tainted" because the police prolonged the stop
beyond the time necessary to complete the mission of the
10 In November 2015, the trial court conducted a hearing on
defendant's pro se motion to suppress. Defendant
first called Officer Tyrel Klein as a witness.
111. Officer Klein
12 Klein testified that he was a police officer with the
Bloomington Police Department. On February 26, 2015 at 2:10
p.m., he pulled over a taxicab that defendant was driving.
Klein noted that defendant had a passenger in the back seat
of his taxicab. Klein stated that he pulled defendant over
because he was speeding, failed to use his turn signal, and
made an improper left turn. During the State's
cross-examination, Klein testified as follows:
"Q. Now when you made the traffic stop, what did you
initially do or say to the defendant?
A. I-like I do with every traffic stop-I introduced myself,
and I explained the reason for the stop and I asked for
[defendant's] driver's license and proof of
Q. And so you explained the speeding, as well as the signal
and the turn issues?
Q. Was that at about 14:10:59 [2:10 p.m.]?
Q. And did, in fact, did you take his driver's license
and insurance card?
Q. And as part of your routine traffic stop, what do you do
with those items?
A. I completed a records check through the Illinois Secretary
of State using my in-car computer.
Q. Do you have to walk back to your squad car [to do that]?
Q. Initially you received the traffic driver's license
and insurance card from the defendant at 14:11 and 33 seconds
Q. And did you go back to your car to fill out paperwork?
Q. And as far as that goes, there is more than one form,
Q. Did you find out who [the] passenger was?
A. I did.
Q. Did you go on your computer to check to see whether that
person was clear or had any active warrants or anything like
A. I checked that person as well.
Q. And did you check the defendant?
Q. And what, if anything, did he as far as him being clear or
A. His license was valid.
Q. Does that take a few minutes to run those records through
A. To type it in and run it, yes.
Q. Likewise, you had to obtain the identification from both
individuals prior to that?
Q. And you did all that, is that right?
Q. And while you're doing that you also had to deal with
Q. Did you-Officer Jared Johnson arrive[d] while you were
dealing with paperwork and these records checks?
Q. Was that about 14:18 and 36 seconds [2:18 p.m.]?
Q. And as far as that goes, the paperwork you included,
let's specifically talk about that. Did you get out and
assist Officer Jared Johnson?
A. When I saw Officer Johnson placing the defendant into
custody, I stepped up to assist.
Q. In the interim you were just doing paperwork and not
helping [Officer Johnson] relating to his role?
Q. Officer Johnson, what was his role?
A. He's a backup officer.
Q. Did he come to back you up?
Q. As far as that goes, were you in the squad car when he was
dealing with the defendant?
Q. And did you see Officer Jared Johnson handcuff him?
Q. And when he handcuffed him, is it fair to say that was
about 14:20 and 25 seconds [2:20 p.m.]?
Q. You hadn't completed all of your paperwork after doing
the records check at ...