from Circuit Court of McLean County No. 13CF362 Honorable
Scott Daniel Drazewski, Judge Presiding.
JUSTICE APPLETON delivered the judgment of the court, with
opinion. Justices Holder White and Steigmann concurred in the
judgment and opinion.
1 Defendant, Chad L. Dorsey, files this direct appeal from
his conviction of home invasion after a bench trial. He
claims the trial court erred when it held the victim's
psychological injury was sufficient to satisfy the injury
requirement of the home-invasion statute absent evidence of
physical contact. He also claims the evidence was
insufficient to prove his guilt beyond a reasonable doubt
when the State failed to prove he intentionally caused the
victim's psychological injury. We affirm.
2 I. BACKGROUND
3 In March 2013, the State filed a three-count information
against defendant, charging him with (1) home invasion for
entering the home of Trisha Convis (at trial, she was
referred to as Trisha Baker), knowing someone was present,
and armed himself with a dangerous weapon, a Taser (count I)
(720 ILCS 5/19-6(a)(1) (West 2012)); (2) home invasion for
entering Convis's home, remaining there after knowing
someone was present, and intentionally injuring Normal police
officer Ronald Stoll, who was inside (count II) (720 ILCS
5/19-6(a)(2) (West 2012)); and (3) disarming a peace officer
by taking Officer Stoll's Taser while the officer was
arresting him (count III) (720 ILCS 5/31-1a(a) (West 2012)).
The grand jury filed superseding indictments on all three
4 Initially, defendant entered into a plea agreement,
pleading guilty to count III. The trial court set counts I
and II for a jury trial. A few days later, defendant filed a
pro se motion to withdraw his guilty plea, alleging
his attorney gave him "inaccurate legal advice."
The court did not rule on defendant's motion. Thereafter,
the State charged defendant by indictment with another count
of home invasion, alleging defendant entered Convis's
home, remained in the home after knowing someone was present,
and intentionally caused injury to Convis, who was inside
(count IV) (720 ILCS 5/19-6(a)(2) (West 2012)). This count is
subject of this appeal.
5 The trial court conducted a bench trial. The State
presented testimony from Marcie Taylor, Matthew Baker, Trisha
Baker, Ronald Stoll, Todd Van Hoveln, and Shane Bachman.
Defendant did not present any evidence. The following is a
summary of the witnesses' testimony.
6 Normal police officers Stoll, Van Hoveln, and Bachman were
called upon to serve an arrest warrant on defendant.
Defendant was inside Taylor's second-floor apartment when
police arrived. As Taylor was talking to Stoll, defendant ran
from the bathroom out the back door. Stoll chased him. Van
Hoveln was standing near the back door of the apartment
building, so defendant turned and ran downstairs to the
lower-level apartments. Defendant tried to enter apartment
number two. Stoll caught up to defendant and ordered him to
place his hands behind his back. Defendant lowered his
shoulder and broke into apartment number two.
7 Matthew Baker testified he and his wife, Trisha Baker, live
in apartment number two. On the night of the incident, they
were home watching television with Trisha's two
daughters, ages 14 and 10. Defendant broke into their
apartment from the back door and ran through the apartment,
toward the front door. He was unable to unlock the deadbolt
to get out. Stoll chased defendant through the apartment,
caught him at the front door, and a struggle ensued in the
8 Matthew said Trisha was "[f]reaking out, "
saying, "oh, my God; oh, my God; oh, my God, " and
the two children were "[s]cared out of their
minds." The children had "shocked expressions on
their face[s]." Trisha said her younger daughter was
"screaming and shocked, " while her older daughter
had a look on her face like " 'I can't believe
this is happening.' " Trisha moved her children into
the kitchen to keep them "out of harm's way."
9 Stoll pulled out his Taser and ordered defendant to the
ground. Defendant feigned cooperation, but he turned around
and knocked the Taser out of Stoll's hand. Defendant
grabbed the Taser and shot it at Stoll, hitting the wall.
Stoll pulled out his service pistol and ordered defendant to
drop the Taser. Defendant complied but ran into the kitchen.
Bachman had entered the apartment to assist Stoll. They both
struggled with defendant, attempting to gain control over
him. A garbage can had been knocked over and the officers
were slipping on whatever was on the floor. Defendant broke
the kitchen window and jumped through. The officers chased
him and eventually took him into custody.
10 When the struggle moved to the kitchen, Matthew, Trisha,
and the children ran upstairs to their neighbors'
apartment. When Matthew and Trisha returned to their
apartment, they found their back door, kitchen window, and
furniture broken. Shattered glass and garbage were on the
floor in the kitchen. Trisha testified: "Myself and my
youngest [daughter], we were crying, very scared, very
shaken. I actually was really, really, really shaken."
Stoll said the family members "were very frightened, it
11 Trisha said, at the time of trial, she was "still
actually shaken" and "really scared." She arms
herself with a butcher knife when she hears noises in the
apartment. Her youngest daughter will not sleep in her own
bedroom and she gets ...