Searching over 5,500,000 cases.


searching
Buy This Entire Record For $7.95

Download the entire decision to receive the complete text, official citation,
docket number, dissents and concurrences, and footnotes for this case.

Learn more about what you receive with purchase of this case.

People v. Schuit

Court of Appeals of Illinois, First District, Fourth Division

September 30, 2016

THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS, Plaintiff-Appellee,
v.
JASON SCHUIT, Defendant-Appellant.

         Appeal from the Circuit Court of Cook County, No. 10 CR 5551 Honorable Colleen Ann Hyland, Judge Presiding.

          JUSTICE HOWSE delivered the judgment of the court, with opinion. Presiding Justice Ellis and Justice Burke concurred in the judgment and opinion.

          OPINION

          HOWSE JUSTICE

         ¶ 1 Following a bench trial, the circuit court of Cook County convicted defendant, Jason Schuit, of aggravated battery of a child. The victim was defendant's newborn son, Dylan (born October 2, 2009). The trial court denied defendant's motion for a new trial and sentenced him to ten years' imprisonment. For the following reasons, we affirm.

         ¶ 2 BACKGROUND

         ¶ 3 The State charged defendant with two counts of aggravated battery based on injuries to defendant's newborn son Dylan. Specifically, the State charged defendant with aggravated battery to a child in that defendant shook Dylan resulting in great bodily harm (count I) and permanent disability (count II). Before trial, defendant moved to bar evidence of "Shaken Baby Syndrome" and requested a hearing pursuant to Frye v. United States, 293 F. 1012 (D.C. Cir. 1923). The trial court denied defendant's motion. Following a bench trial the court convicted and sentenced defendant. On appeal defendant challenges the trial court's order denying his motion for a Frye hearing and the sufficiency of the evidence to prove his guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.

         ¶ 4 Dylan was born October 2, 2009. Dr. John McInerney delivered Dylan by C-section. The medical records from the delivery noted bruises on Dylan's lip and scalp after his birth. Dr. McInerney testified that photographs of Dylan show a bruise on Dylan's lip and a bruise or birthmark on Dylan's forehead. Dylan's mother, defendant's wife Jeanette, testified that during the delivery she was being jerked around and was vomiting. Defendant similarly testified that Dylan's birth was difficult. However, Dr. McInerney testified Dylan had a normal, non-traumatic birth by C-section and that Dylan was born healthy.

         ¶ 5 On October 14, 2009, Dylan's pediatrician, Dr. Christopher Calvert, examined Dylan. Dr. Calvert gave Jeanette medication for a yeast infection in Dylan's mouth and found Dylan to be healthy and thriving. Jeanette testified that on October 15 Dylan started crying and could not be soothed. The following day Jeanette called the pediatrician, who changed Dylan's formula and prescribed another medication. On that day Dylan cried most of the time and could not be consoled. Jeanette called the doctor again, and he saw Dylan on October 17, 2009. Dr. Calvert testified that on October 17 he talked to Dylan's parents about reflux and prescribed a medication to help. Dr. Calvert testified he saw no signs of abuse on Dylan. Jeanette testified the medication for reflux did not help and Dylan would not stop crying. Jeanette called Dr. Calvert's office on October 22 and November 3. Dylan saw an associate of Dr. Calvert on November 9, 2009 and again on November 18, 2009. The records from those two visits do not indicate any suspicions of abuse. Jeanette testified Dylan continued to cry and was throwing up more than a typical baby would in her experience (including as a daycare worker).

         ¶ 6 On December 13, 2009, Dylan suffered projectile vomiting. Jeanette called the pediatrician and as a result she and defendant took Dylan to the emergency room. Dylan's parents told doctors that Dylan's older brother had a pyloric stenosis. Pyloric stenosis can cause projectile vomiting. Increased intracranial pressure is another cause of projectile vomiting. Dylan was admitted for pyloric stenosis surgery. Dylan's surgery occurred on December 19, 2009. It was later determined Dylan did not have pyloric stenosis. After surgery, Dylan had another episode of projectile vomiting and he also vomited if he was fed more than one ounce. Dylan had a low fever and one radiologist believed that an October 16 chest X-Ray suggested bronchiolitis. The hospital discharged Dylan on December 17, 2009. On the day of his discharge, Dylan took one ounce of fluid without vomiting but vomited with a 1.5-ounce feeding.

         ¶ 7 Jeanette testified that after Dylan was discharged from the hospital, Dylan slept more than usual and continued to have a fever. On December 19, 2009 Jeanette and Dylan returned to Dr. Calvert and she reported that Dylan was in pain. Dr. Calvert testified there was no bruising or indications of abuse on Dylan's body. He believed Dylan was completely normal. Later that afternoon, Jeanette left Dylan with defendant, their other son Tyler, and defendant's brother Michael. Defendant and Michael testified Dylan spent the afternoon sleeping, eating, playing, and in a bouncy chair. Defendant testified they tried to get Dylan to smile but could not. Jeanette attempted to call home but no one answered. Then, at approximately 6:50 p.m. defendant answered and told Jeanette that Dylan was getting sick. Jeanette planned to call the pediatrician for an appointment. Defendant testified that between 10 and 15 minutes later he put Dylan in his bouncy chair and put Tyler to bed. When defendant came back from putting Tyler to bed he found Dylan hunched over. Dylan had thrown up. When defendant picked Dylan up, Dylan's head went back. Dylan took a breath and defendant knew something was not right. Defendant called 9-1-1 and reported that Dylan was not breathing. Defendant was instructed to perform CPR. When a paramedic arrived and defendant let her in, she saw that Dylan was blue indicating a lack of oxygen. She immediately took Dylan from the floor and started performing CPR on her way back to the ambulance. The paramedic testified that when performing CPR on Dylan she did not taste, see, or smell vomit but she did taste "boogers, snots, and slime." Dylan's heartbeat and pulse were restored and he was eventually transferred to Hope Children's Hospital (also referred to as Christ Hospital).

         ¶ 8 Tests revealed that Dylan had both new and old bleeding all around his brain. Additional tests at Hope revealed severe "bilateral retinal hemorrhages, " a healing twisting fracture at the end of his left tibia, and a bruise on his forehead. Someone advised Jeanette that Dylan was the victim of "Shaken Baby Syndrome" (SBS). Jeanette utilized a computer at the hospital to do some research and as a result she requested an MRI for Dylan, but it was not performed. At the time of this incident, defendant was on a methadone maintenance program for a prior heroin addiction. As a result of his injuries Dylan is permanently disabled. He is blind and likely deaf, cannot breathe or eat on his own, and will never walk.

         ¶ 9 The State's Expert Witnesses

         ¶ 10 The following experts provided testimony for the State:

1.Dr. Richard Kampanatkosol
2.Dr. Nagendra Polavarapu
3.Dr. Jose Ramilo
4.Dr. Alexander Khammar
5.Dr. Mohamed Homsi
6.Dr. Jill Glick

         ¶ 111. Dr. Richard Kampanatkosol

         ¶ 12 Dr. Kampanatkosol testified as an expert in pediatrics and neonatology (the care of critically ill infants). Dr. Kampanatkosol first saw Dylan at Palos Hospital (Palos), where the ambulance took him, which was 4 or 5 days before Dylan was transferred to Christ Hospital (Christ). He learned that Palos Hospital had performed a CT scan of Dylan's head that showed an intracranial bleed. He also learned that Dylan was born full-term via C-section and was feeding normally. There were no developmental concerns at all. When Dr. Kampanatkosol saw Dylan at Christ, Dylan was intubated and unresponsive. He observed bruising on Dylan's forehead which was "bluish and faint" which can be indicative of a recent bruise. He also saw "mild petechiae" on Dylan's shoulder, which is usually indicative of low platelets. Dr. Kampanatkosol did not see anything indicative of a skull fracture. Dylan had a tremor in his left arm which is usually indicative of a seizure. Dr. Kampanatkosol's neurological exam revealed neurological injury and injury to the cranial nerves.

         ¶ 13 Dylan was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and tests were ordered. Tests for white blood cell count, hemoglobin, and platelets were "all within normal limits." Dr. Kampanatkosol testified that a CT of Dylan's head showed bleeding in the brain, specifically "a right frontal parietal bleed and left temporal subarachnoid hemorrhage." Dr. Kampanatkosol also testified that X-rays indicated multiple healing rib fractures.

         ¶ 14 The State asked Dr. Kampanatkosol if, based on his treatment of Dylan, he diagnosed what happened to Dylan. Dr. Kampanatkosol responded nonaccidental trauma. He stated he arrived at that diagnosis "[g]iven the findings of the intracranial bleeds, the retinal hemorrhages seen by the ophthalmologist and the multiple rib fractures, those combined."

         ¶ 15 On cross-examination, Dr. Kampanatkosol clarified his testimony that the bruising on Dylan's forehead was recent, stating "recent" meant "within a few days." Dr. Kampanatkosol testified that in his opinion, the bruise did not cause or contribute to Dylan's' condition. He had no opinion as to how old Dylan's intracranial bleed was. According to the report of the scan, there were both old and new bleeds. Dr. Kampanatkosol initially testified you do not need to do a vitamin D level to check for rickets because rickets is diagnosed by x-ray. But he later said that to rule out rickets you need to do a vitamin D level. He agreed that bone can lose a lot of calcium before there is any suggestion of that on an X-ray; bone can lose up to 30% of its calcium and still appear normal on an X-ray.

         ¶ 16 2. Dr. Nagendra Polavarapu

         ¶ 17 Dr. Nagendra Polavarapu testified as an expert pediatric critical care physician. He worked with his pediatric ICU physician "Dr. Kamp" when he evaluated Dylan. When Dr. Polavarapu saw Dylan, the infant was "somewhat comatose" and his brain stem functions were "inadequate or not there at all." Dr. Polavarapu observed "a few old bruise marks, a hemangioma also on the body as well as minimal swelling on the forehead or the scalp area." Dr. Polavarapu testified that they "followed up the Cat scan, " "touched base with some of our subspecialists, " and performed an EEG to assess brain wave function. An ophthalmology exam and a skeletal survey and blood work were also performed "to rule out other diseases or types of physiology that could present this way."

         ¶ 18 Dr. Polavarapu saw Dylan from the time he was admitted through the morning. A CAT scan of Dylan's head showed "intraparenchymal bleeding, and chronic subdurals." A skeletal survey showed "bilateral healing, anterolateral rib fractures that were healing." An eye exam showed extensive bilateral retinal hemorrhages. Dr. Polavarapu explained that Dylan had both intracranial (within the brain itself) and subdural bleeds. He was able to obtain a time line of how old those injuries were. Dylan's intracranial bleeds were acute, meaning within two days of the CAT scan, and there were chronic subdural bleeds, meaning anywhere from 7 to 14 days before the scan. Dr. Polavarapu testified the EEG showed minimal brain activity but no seizure activity. Dr. Polavarapu testified that because they knew Dylan "would not improve or get worse" they gave his mother an option to enter a DNR DNI (do not intubate) order. Dylan's breathing tube was removed and he survived. At the time of Dr. Polavarapu's testimony, Dylan was in a rehabilitation center. He still needed feeding through a tube. Dr. Polavarapu later testified Dylan will never walk, is blind, and he is not sure if Dylan can hear.

         ¶ 19 Dr. Polavarapu testified he had a diagnosis of what happened to Dylan. He stated: "It's a diagnosis of exclusion, meaning that we rule out other pathophysiological diagnoses and it was non-accidental or inflicted trauma." When asked if he formed an opinion as to the mechanism for this non-accidental trauma to Dylan, Dr. Polavarapu testified that he did not. He clarified:

"As physicians, what we try to do is we come up with a diagnosis, when it comes to suspected child abuse and non-accidental trauma, we don't make any assumptions. It's more of an objective finding. We go with the labs and go with the radiological studies, and if we rule out the other diagnoses that can be suggestive of how the child is presented, we rule that out, and then that is where the diagnosis comes from."

         Dr. Polavarapu agreed it is "consistent" with Shaken Baby Syndrome, but testified that term "is going out of phase now."

         ¶ 20 Dr. Polavarapu was aware of a controversy in the medical community as to whether or not shaking a child could cause the injuries thought to be indicative of Shaken Baby Syndrome. On recross-examination, Dr. Polavarapu agreed with the statement that "[o]ne of the reasons [he] didn't do any more testing is because the history and presentation [he] had was consistent with Shaken Baby Syndrome." The State later elicited testimony that numerous doctors from all of the different fields in the hospital aided in the diagnosis and they all agreed with it.

         ¶ 21 On cross-examination, Dr. Polavarapu testified that he practices evidence based medicine. He stated: "Evidence based medicine is what we call clinical evidence based medicine, that we follow certain peer reviewed studies, research and guidelines that would direct us in the type of medicine and care that we provide." He testified that he has been able to see retinal hemorrhages in infants using a direct ophthalmoscope, if they are severe enough. Dr. Polavarapu's report says that when he examined Dylan, he did not see any bruises on Dylan's head, back, or chest. He did not see any grab marks anywhere on Dylan. When asked whether he had an opinion as to whether Dylan had pyloric stenosis, Dr. Polavarapu testified that one of the diagnoses that had to be excluded was whether Dylan vomited and aspirated. He testified the size of Dylan's pyloric muscle was "at the border of whether he needed to go for surgery or not." Dr. Polavarapu agreed with defense counsel that if Dylan exhibited bruising on the head when he was delivered, that would indicate "some birth trauma to the head."

         ¶ 22 Dr. Polavarapu testified increased intracranial pressure can cause vomiting but he did not know if it would be projectile vomiting or not. Dr. Polavarapu thought that when testing for gestational rickets the mother's vitamin D level is important. He agreed that there could be significant bone loss before that bone loss shows upon on an X-ray. He did not check to see if Dylan had a viral infection. He also agreed that having a normal calcium level, alone, does not necessarily mean there is not metabolic bone disease. Dr. Polavarapu did not recall Dylan having bronchiolitis. Bronchiolitis can result in apnea, or a cessation of breathing for 20 seconds.

         ¶ 23 3. Dr. Jose Ramilo

         ¶ 24 Dr. Jose Ramilo testified as an expert in radiology and pediatric radiology. As part of his consultation on Dylan, Dr. Ramilo was in communication with a team of treating physicians from Christ Hope Children's Hospital. He reviewed the X-rays and CT scans that were done of Dylan. Dr. Ramilo reviewed a bone survey, and it was his opinion that there was a fracture at the end of Dylan's tibia, which appears like a spur, and the mechanism of the injury that led to that fracture was "a twisting and a pulling injury of the leg." The fracture was in Dylan's left metaphyseal, located at the end of the tibia in the area of the ankle. Dr. Ramilo testified Dylan's fracture was already healed, and stated that the bone starts to heal from 7 to 10 days, and when it is completely healed, it may be two weeks or more in age. This type of injury could be caused by a traumatic birth, but Dr. Ramilo had never seen one. It would not be usual to see this type of injury in only one bone if there had been a traumatic birth, and Dr. Ramilo had never seen one.

         ¶ 25 Dr. Ramilo also observed mild swelling in Dylan's left leg that could have been a few days old. Dr. Ramilo viewed an X-ray and testified that Dylan's fracture is at the very end of the tibia in the area of the ankle. He described the fracture as a healed corner fracture of the long bone. Dr. Ramilo noted injuries to Dylan's ribs. It was his opinion that there were "multiple hidden fractures of the ribs" on the left side, whereas on the right side, there were fractures located at the ends of the ribs "anteriorly" where there is cartilage joining the bone. On the left, the fractures were on the fourth rib to the ninth rib, on the side of the rib. The fractures on the right side were at the ends of the ribs on the same level as on the left. Dr. Ramilo estimated the age of the fractures at two weeks. He has seen rib fractures result from traumatic births one or two times in 35 years' experience. You would not be likely to see injury of this type in a nontraumatic C-section birth.

         ¶ 26 Dr. Ramilo testified it does not appear Dylan has rickets. In a child with rickets the ribs could break without any injury. Dr. Ramilo also reviewed Dylan's CT scan to look for the presence or absence of intracranial bleeds. Dr. Ramilo testified he saw acute, or new, blood along the surface of the brain and a small amount in the tissue of the brain close to the surface, and he saw chronic, or older, subdural fluid underneath the membrane of the inner membrane of the skull above the surface of the brain. The acute blood could be between a few minutes to a week old. He testified chronic bleeding is usually about two weeks old. He did not feel it was necessary to look at an MRI in this case because "it's practically seen in the CT scanner that there are two types of fluid along the surface of the brain; hence I don't think it's necessary to do that." Dr. Ramilo testified that most brain bleeds are secondary to dropping or hitting the head, but in those cases there would be a fracture. Where there is no fracture, there would be other mechanisms that might produce the bleeding. He stated that in conjunction with the findings in the ribs and in the long bone, "it's the usual way of mechanism that when a child is shaken with the person holding *** the chest and shaking it, then the brain goes into back and forth motion and hence you will break the veins along the surface of the brain and the blood will come out along the surface of the brain." Dr. Ramilo viewed images of Dylan's CT scan. He identified areas where sutures (which he later testified were the plates that make up the skull) in the brain were beginning to separate, which indicates increased pressure in the skull from the older bleeds filling the space in the brain. He testified he saw fresh blood throughout Dylan's brain, as well as some old brain bleeds.

         ¶ 27 The State asked Dr. Ramilo for his opinion as to the mechanism of injury regarding Dylan's healed rib fractures. He stated: "Generally rib fractures are secondary to a squeezing injury of the chest. When you hold the chest sideways or backwards or in front and you force, you produce a force within the hands, then the ribs will crack." This "usually" includes the shaking of a baby backwards and forwards, "or shaken baby."

         ¶ 28 On cross-examination, Dr. Ramilo testified he did not actually see a fracture in the leg, but a bone spur. You could have a bone spur without trauma. He agreed the "fracture" was, at minimum, three to four weeks old, and it could be as much as 10 weeks old. Someone could have inadvertently done the twisting that would have caused the fracture, including in childbirth. Dr. Ramilo could point to no research that says that rickets is bilateral and symmetrical, but he stated that all of the textbooks say it is bilateral. He testified that you could see a spur on the distal end of the left tibia in a child with rickets but you would also get a spur on the opposite side. He testified the rib fractures could be as much as 10 weeks old, but that is unlikely. Dr. Ramilo agreed gestational rickets occurs because the mother's vitamin D level is low and the child receives its vitamin D from the mother; and with regard to rickets you also want to know the vitamin D level of the child and the child's parathyroid hormone because they work together to maintain blood calcium, which influences the rate at which calcium is deposited on a fracture and consequently the rate of healing. Dylan's rib fractures were "more or less" in alignment on the same ribs on each side. Dr. Ramilo did not agree "that is exactly what you see in rickets" because, he testified, "usually in rickets, it involves the ends of the long bones" and on the left side of the chest Dylan's fractures are in the middle of the bone and not the end. Dylan's fractures would be painful during the acute phase, which would last 7 to 10 days or longer if healing were delayed.

         ¶ 29 Dr. Ramilo opined Dylan did not have pyloric stenosis because the measurement of the pylorus was within normal limits. Dr. Ramilo testified that if Dylan did not have pyloric stenosis then projectile vomiting would not be related to pyloric stenosis. He stated intracranial bleeding is one of the causes of projectile vomiting. He also stated that separation of the sutures in the skull is seen with increased intracranial pressure, and that intracranial bleeding is a cause of increased intracranial pressure. Dr. Ramilo could not say how many episodes that caused intracranial bleeding Dylan had, but he could say there was at least one remote and then at least one more recent episode causing intracranial bleeding. He agreed that it was possible that if Dylan's projectile vomiting on December 13 was caused by intracranial bleeding, the projectile vomiting could have been caused by the acute bleeding Dr. Ramilo observed on the imaging from December 19. The older bleeding could be as old as from when Dylan was born.

         ¶ 30 Dr. Ramilo agreed that when there is blood beneath the dura and there is fluid between the dura (the first layer after the skull) and the arachnoid (the next layer after the dura), the blood vessels between the arachnoid and the dura come under tension and it is possible those blood vessels could rupture and cause new bleeds. Dr. Ramilo testified there were also hemorrhages in the surface of the brain (intraparenchymal hemorrhage) and hemorrhages at the cortex, or surface, of the brain. There was also fluid outside the brain tissue. He agreed a parenchymal hemorrhage can be caused by a stroke. It could also be caused by venous thrombosis, or dural or cerebral venous involvement, which requires an MRI to diagnose. Dr. Ramilo testified intracranial bleed would not necessarily be immediately symptomatic. The time frame depends on the size of the bleed.

         ¶ 31 4. Dr. Alexander Khammar

         ¶ 32 Dr. Alexander Khammar testified as an expert in ophthalmology and pediatric ophthalmology. Dr. Khammar performed an internal examination of Dylan's eyes and discovered preretinal (in front of the retina and behind the vitreous), subretinal (below the retinal layers), and intraretinal (within the substance of the retina) hemorrhages in both the right and left eyes. Dr. Khammar has performed "thousands upon thousands" of internal examinations of the eye. Dr. Khammar reviewed photographs he took of Dylan's eyes during his testimony. He testified that the photos show multiple areas of hemorrhage covering the entire back portion of both Dylan's left and right eyes. He stated "this is one of the most severe cases of bilateral retinal hemorrhages that I have seen in my professional career." Dr. Khammar testified that he performed a CT scan of Dylan, and the fact the retinal hemorrhages showed up on the CT scan, which is uncommon, "speaks to the extent of the bilateral retinal hemorrhages in this particular case."

         ¶ 33 The State asked Dr. Khammar if he reached an opinion as to the mechanism of injury in this case. Dr. Khammar responded as follows:

"The patient has a history of intracranial hemorrhage combined with healed rib fractures and the presence of bilateral retinal hemorrhages involving multiple layers of the retina.
In the absence of any identifiable cause, my diagnosis is non-accidental trauma or child abuse. Shaken Baby Syndrome."

         ¶ 34 The State asked Dr. Khammar if he could say to a reasonable degree of medical certainty whether this injury involves some type of acceleration/deceleration force. Dr. Khammar testified he believed the mechanism of Dylan's injury was an accelerations/deceleration force "which caused the bridging blood vessels of his brain to cause a subarachnoid hemorrhage and have shearing injuries to the blood vessels in the retina to cause the findings that we reviewed." Dr. Khammar testified it was his assertion that Dylan's retinal hemorrhages were "caused by an acceleration/deceleration injury of the head." He stated that based on the information presented he believed that "the diagnosis of Shaken Baby Syndrome with the acceleration/deceleration injury that I had described was the mechanism for these injuries." When asked "mechanically what is it about the acceleration/deceleration that causes the retinal hemorrhaging?" Dr. Khammar responded "That is really up for debate." He stated that aside from knowing that the retinal hemorrhages are an acceleration/deceleration injury, the actual mechanism is up for debate because "you cannot do prospective studies on these patients cannot [sic] be definitely proven." Dr. Khammar stated that his opinion, that the mechanism of Dylan's retinal hemorrhaging was acceleration deceleration injury, was based on "the additional findings on examination of intracranial hemorrhage and rib fractures." He agreed this was what laymen would call Shaken Baby Syndrome. When asked on cross-examination if he was familiar with "the basis upon which the Shaken Baby Syndrome is based" Dr. Khammar testified he is "familiar with the mechanism in [sic] which I described to you." He was "generally familiar" with efforts to "validate the notion" that shaking an infant can cause the physical characteristics he described.

         ¶ 35 Defense counsel asked Dr. Khammar if he could cite or refer to any scientific experiments supporting the Shaken Baby Syndrome. Dr. Khammar, referring to what he described as "a comprehensive review of multiple articles written about the subject, " testified as follows:

"[T]here is a policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics written by Alex Levin, which was considered state of the art research for Shaken Baby Syndrome.
And in that article, which is considered the standard for the American Academy of Pediatrics, he indicates that acceleration/deceleration injury ***is the mechanism of Shaken Baby Syndrome."

         Dr. Khammar noted that the Levin article cites other articles supporting Levin's hypothesis and testified that the article supports his testimony. He agreed there is a dispute in the medical community regarding the existence of shaken baby syndrome.

         ¶ 36 On cross-examination Dr. Khammar testified that he did not believe that an emergency room physician using a direct ophthalmoscope would be able to make an accurate diagnosis of the presence or absence of retinal hemorrhages without dilating the eye. (Dr. Khammar testified he dilated Dylan's eyes and used an indirect ophthalmoscope to view Dylan's retinal hemorrhages.) He would not find valid a conclusion that an emergency room physician observed no retinal hemorrhaging if there was no dilation performed at the time the emergency room physician made that conclusion. Dr. Khammar testified that retinal hemorrhages can have myriad causes. In certain instances they can be caused by increased intracranial pressure, resuscitation efforts, and are known to exist at birth, although Dr. Khammar questioned the assertion they are common at birth. He testified that "[i]t is known that *** ...


Buy This Entire Record For $7.95

Download the entire decision to receive the complete text, official citation,
docket number, dissents and concurrences, and footnotes for this case.

Learn more about what you receive with purchase of this case.