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Gates v. Syrian Arab Republic

United States District Court, Seventh Circuit

November 13, 2013

FRANCIS GATES, Individually and as Administrator for the Estate of Olin Eugene


VIRGINIA M. KENDALL, District Judge.

Plaintiffs Frances Gates, individually and as administrator for the estate of Olin Eugene Armstrong, Pati Hensley, Sara Hensley and Jan Smith (together "Plaintiffs" or "Gates Plaintiffs") move for turnover of assets in the form of electronic funds transfers ("EFTs") believed to belong to the Banque Centrale de Syrie ("BCS") and presently held in two intermediary bank accounts located at JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. ("JPMCB"). In response to the original motion for turnover, JPMCB filed a complaint for interpleader, Case No. 12-2983 (the "JPMCB Interpleader"). This Court denied the Gates Parties' motion to dismiss the JPMCB Interpleader and ordered the parties to serve each third party involved in the EFTs with notice of the JPMCB Interpleader and the Gates Parties' proposal for turnover.

Having now completed that notice process as directed, the Gates Parties have filed a Third Motion for Turnover. The Gates Parties' Third Motion is granted subject to the directions set forth herein. Upon satisfaction of these directions, the related interpleader action filed by JPMCB will be dismissed.


A. Case History

The Gates Plaintiffs initiated this case on December 8, 2011 when they registered their $412, 909, 587 judgment against the Syrian Arab Republic ("Syria") in this district. The United States District Court for the District of Columbia entered the $412, 909, 587 judgment on September 26, 2008 as compensation to the Gates Plaintiffs for Syria's acts of state-sponsored terrorism that facilitated the kidnapping, torture, and murder-by-beheading of Americans Olin Eugene "Jack" Armstrong and Jack L. Hensley in 2004. The Gates plaintiffs acquired this judgment under the Foreign Sovereign Immunity Act's ("FSIA") "terrorism exception, " 28 U.S.C. § 1605A, and the District of Columbia Circuit Court affirmed that judgment on May 20, 2011. See Gates v. Syrian Arab Republic, 646 F.3d 1 (D.C. Cir. 2011). Syria filed an appearance and contested the $412, 909, 587 judgment before the D.C. Circuit Court.

On August 23, 2011, the D.C. District Court issued an order pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1610(c), finding that a reasonable period of time had elapsed from the entry of final judgment and notice to Syria and therefore Plaintiffs were authorized to enforce the court's judgment. After the Gates Plaintiffs registered their judgment in this district, this Court[1] issued a third-party citation to discover assets to JPMCB (the "Citation"). The Gates Plaintiffs served the Citation on a JPMCB bank branch in Elgin, Illinois. Pursuant to a protective order, JPMCB answered the Citation and indicated that JPMCB held accounts that might be responsive to the Citation. Based on JPMCB's answer to the Citation, the Gates Plaintiffs filed two motions for turnover against JPMCB, one related to certain third-party funds held at JPMCB and owned by AT&T, Inc. that were destined for a Syrian telecommunications company (the "First AT&T Turnover Motion") and the second - the EFT Turnover Motion that is the subject of this Opinion - related to certain EFTs that involved the Banque Central de Syrie but are presently held by JPMCB in its capacity as intermediary bank.

On February 13, 2012, six days after the Gates plaintiffs filed the First AT&T Turnover Motion, attorneys for another group of plaintiffs (the "Baker Plaintiffs"), who also held a judgment against Syria and had registered that judgment in this district, Baker v. Syrian Arab Republic, 11 C 8913, filed a motion to intervene in this matter. The Baker Plaintiffs argued that they should be allowed to intervene in the Gates case as a matter of right pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 24(a)(2) because their interest in any Syrian funds held by Chase was superior to the Gates plaintiffs' interest in those funds. In a February 15, 2012 order, this Court granted the Baker Plaintiffs' permissive intervention into this case pursuant to Rule 24(b)(1)(B). Shortly after allowing the Baker Plaintiffs to intervene in this case, for purposes of judicial economy and with the agreement of the district court in this case, case 11 C 8913 was transferred to this Court's docket. Accordingly, the Gates and Baker cases, 11 C 8715 and 11 C 8913 respectively, are now assigned to this Court.

On March 7, 2012, this Court issued an opinion determining that the Gates Plaintiffs had first-priority rights to any Syrian funds at issue in the first motion for turnover, and determined that AT&T, Inc., the owner of the account at issue in the First AT&T Turnover Motion, was the proper party to whom a motion should be directed, and therefore denied the First AT&T Turnover Motion with leave to refile. The Gates Plaintiffs refiled the motion, this time directed at AT&T (the "Second AT&T Turnover Motion" Docket No. 77) on March 9, 2012.

On March 13, 2012, AT&T filed a related complaint for interpleader (Case No. 12-1836, the "AT&T Interpleader Complaint") to determine the relative priority of the rights of all parties with respect to the funds contained in the accounts at issue in the Second AT&T Turnover Motion. On April 23, 2012, JPMCB filed the JPMCB Interpleader Complaint to determine the relative priority of the rights of all parties with respect to the funds at issue in the EFT Turnover Motion. Both cases being related to the Gates and Baker cases, the AT&T Interpleader Complaint and the JPMCB Interpleader Complaint were consolidated with the Gates and Baker cases. The Gates Plaintiffs moved to dismiss both interpleader actions.

On August 30, 2012, these related cases transferred to this Court. On September 29, 2012, this Court granted the Second AT&T Turnover Motion and, subject to agreement by the parties on the terms of a turnover order, granted the motion to dismiss the AT&T Interpleader Complaint. The Baker Parties filed a motion to reconsider the March 7, 2012 order on grounds of personal jurisdiction over the accounts at issue in the First and Second AT&T Turnover Motions. Today, this Court denied the motion to reconsider. The Court now turns to the pending EFT Turnover Motion and related motion to dismiss the JPMCB Interpleader Complaint.

B. The EFT Turnover Motion

Plaintiffs served the Citation on JPMCB on December 8, 2011. JPMCB returned the Citation and indicated that it had two accounts, each held in the role of "Intermediary Bank" and each containing the proceeds of electronic funds transfers (the "EFTs') in which BCS was in some way involved. The two accounts holdings the proceeds of the EFTs (the "Blocked Accounts") total roughly $76 million. JPMCB also revealed a simple deposit account in the name of BCS (the "Deposit Account") containing $419 as of the time of the citation. The Gates Plaintiffs moved for turnover of the EFTs and the Deposit Account (the "EFT Turnover Motion", 11-8715 #39) pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1610(g) and § 201(a) of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act ("TRIA") because BCS is an "agency or instrumentality" of Syria.

By Memorandum Opinion and Order dated March 29, 2013 (11-8715 #147), this Court denied the Gates Parties' Motion to Dismiss the JPMCB Interpleader Complaint and denied without prejudice the vast majority of the Gates Parties' EFT Turnover Motion.[2] As part of that Memorandum Opinion, this Court determined that BCS is an "agency or instrumentality of Syria" under the TRIA and that the EFTs, now residing in the Blocked Accounts, are "blocked assets" under the TRIA (11-8175 #147 at 12). But because the Court could not determine based on the record provided whether the EFTs were blocked assets as "of" BCS in order to permit attachment by the Gates Plaintiffs, the Court ordered JPMCB, as the party who filed an Interpleader Complaint about the ownership of the funds in the Blocked Accounts, to provide notice to each of the Intermediary Banks involved in the EFTs to provide them the opportunity to ...

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