The opinion of the court was delivered by: Judge John J. Tharp, Jr.
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
Plaintiffs Joshua Bardney and Kimberly Reid filed complaints against the Chicago Housing Authority ("CHA") and the CHA's private construction contractors alleging that the defendants unlawfully discriminated against them in violation of Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968, 42 U.S.C. § 1981, and (in Reid's case only) Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In complaints that are substantially similar, the plaintiffs allege that the defendants denied them priority employment opportunities at the CHA's Altgeld Gardens development in violation of the Housing and Urban Development Act, and took adverse employment actions against them in violation of § 1981 (both plaintiffs) and Title VII (Reid only). For the reasons stated below, the defendants' motions to dismiss are granted because there is no individual right to bring any claim for relief under the Housing and Urban Development Act, and because Bardney and Reid fail to adequately state claims under § 1981 or Title VII.
Bardney and Reid are both African American residents of the Altgeld Gardens, a public housing development located in Chicago and owned by the CHA. Both plaintiffs are classified as "low income residents" as defined by Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act. The plaintiffs filed separate complaints alleging that each was discriminated against by the CHA, Walsh Construction Company ("Walsh"), and Walsh's subcontractors, Morfin Construction General Carpentry, Inc. ("Morfin") and Demos Painting and Decorating, Inc. ("Demos"). On July 12, 2012, the Court granted Walsh's motion for reassignment of Reid's case to this Court's docket. Because each case contains similar legal and factual issues, and because each complaint ultimately suffers from similar defects, the Court resolves the pending motions to dismiss in both lawsuits with this unified opinion.
Walsh, a private construction company, had a contract with the CHA to perform construction work at Altgeld Gardens between 2009 and 2010. Morfin and Demos served as subcontractors to Walsh for work at the Altgeld Gardens site, and Walsh, Morfin, and Demos were paid by the CHA with federal funds provided by HUD.
Morfin employed Bardney as a laborer on the Altgeld Gardens construction project in November and December of 2009. Bardney alleges that he was denied priority employment opportunities under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act. He further alleges that he suffered employment discrimination on the basis of race because he was denied the same employment contract rights that were provided to white employees during his term of employment, and that Morfin and Walsh reduced his salary in December 2009 even though they did not reduce white employees' salaries. Bardney further alleges that CHA knew about the disparate treatment he suffered, but did not stop or rectify the discrimination.
Reid alleges that she sought to obtain work as a painter with both Walsh and Demos, but she was consistently denied employment opportunities. She alleges that she was denied employment because of her race and sex, and in retaliation for her previous complaints about Walsh and Demos' discrimination. She further alleges that she was denied priority employment opportunities under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act. Reid also alleges that CHA knew about the discrimination and did not stop or rectify it.
The defendants argue that Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act does not give rise to a private right of action to bring suit, that neither plaintiff established an entitlement to sue under Title VII, and that neither plaintiff states a plausible claim for relief under § 1981.*fn2
I.There is No Individual Right to Bring a Claim For Violation of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968.
The defendants move to dismiss the plaintiffs' Housing and Urban Development Act claims pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P 12(b)(1) for lack of subject-matter jurisdiction, arguing that the plaintiffs lack standing because there is no private right of action to enforce the Act. The Act, 12 U.S.C. § 1701u(c)(1)(A), states, in relevant part:
The Secretary shall require that public . . . housing agencies, and their contractors and subcontractors, make their best efforts, consistent with existing Federal, State, and local laws and regulations, to give to low- and very low-income persons the training and employment opportunities generated by development assistance provided pursuant to section 1437c of Title 42 . . . .
The plaintiffs allege that the defendants did not provide priority employment opportunities for themselves and other low income residents of Altgeld Gardens.*fn3
For the plaintiffs to enforce 12 U.S.C. § 1701u, they must first show that Congress intended to create a federal right. Gonzaga Univ. v. Doe, 536 U.S. 273, 283 (2002). The Act includes no express right of private action, so to determine whether the statute creates a federal right enforceable through 42 U.S.C. § 1983 (i.e., an implied private right of action),*fn4 the Court must consider whether: (1) Congress intended the provision in question to benefit the plaintiff; (2) the plaintiff has demonstrated that the right assertedly protected by the statute is not so "vague and amorphous" that its enforcement would strain judicial competence; and (3) the statute unambiguously imposes a binding, mandatory obligation. Indianapolis Minority Contractors Ass'n v. Wiley, 187 F.3d 743, 750 (7th Cir. 1999). Each prong of this test shows that the Act does not create a federal right. First, the language of the statute does not contain any rights-creating language that would indicate that Congress intended it to benefit the plaintiffs. Gonzaga, 536 U.S. at 284 ("For a statute to create such private rights, its text must be 'phrased in terms of the persons ...