The opinion of the court was delivered by: Matthew F. Kennelly, District Judge:
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
Gus Paloian, as the Chapter 7 Trustee for Canopy Financial, Inc., sued Geneva Seal, Inc., and Lester Lampert, Inc. in separate adversary proceedings in bankruptcy court to recover fraudulent transfers received by the defendants from Canopy. In February 2012, the Court granted defendants' motions to withdraw the reference to the bankruptcy court. Both Paloian and the defendants have moved for summary judgment on all of Paloian's claims. For the reasons stated below, the Court grants Paloian's motions and denies defendants' motions.
Canopy, a Delaware corporation headquartered in Chicago, developed software used by financial institutions and in the healthcare industry. Canopy developed software that allowed employers and employees to deposit money into health savings accounts and pay medical expenses out of them. Vikram Kashyap, Jeremy Blackburn, and Anthony Banas founded Canopy in 2004. Until 2009, Kashyap acted as CEO and chairman of the board of directors, Blackburn acted as chief operating officer and president, and Banas acted as chief technology officer. All three were also members of Canopy's board of directors, which also had two outside directors.
Beginning in 2007, Blackburn and Banas began taking money out of Canopy and purchasing personal items. Among other things, they bought more than thirty sports cars and luxury vehicles and leased two jets, four houses in Malibu, California, and five condominiums in Chicago. All of these purchases were concealed from Kashyap and the other members of the board and were not for business purposes. To finance these purchases, Blackburn and Banas took money not just from Canopy's accounts but also from custodial accounts that Canopy maintained on behalf of its clients who had established health savings accounts. In total, they took more than $18 million from the savings accounts.
Canopy was insolvent as early as July 31, 2007, but the actions of Blackburn and Banas made its financial condition worse. The two created false financial statements and operating reports to conceal the purchases they were making and hide the fact that they were taking money from Canopy as well as the health savings accounts. They also hoped to attract additional investment. Through these misrepresentations, Blackburn and Banas were able to convince investors to give Canopy almost $75 million in 2009.
Two of the purchases made by Blackburn and Banas are the subject of these cases. In June 2009, Banas purchased an $80,000 engagement ring and a $20,000 watch from Lampert. The ring was for Banas's girlfriend, and it is unclear if the watch was for Banas's own use or a gift for someone else. The invoice for the purchases lists only Banas's name, and Lampert was to deliver the jewelry to an address in Los Vegas that Banas provided. The jewelry was paid for with two wire transfers, in the amounts of $55,000 and $45,000, from a Canopy account. The statement documenting the transfers noted that Canopy was the sender. Canopy never authorized or ratified the wire transfers. Individuals at Lampert knew that Banas worked at Canopy, but they did not inquire regarding why Canopy paid for the jewelry. In his deposition, however, David Lampert, a part-owner of Lampert, stated that in his experience people sometimes use expensive jewelry to create an successful image and help them in business. Pl. Lampert Reply at 78.
In August 2009, Blackburn purchased six watches, the most expensive of which was $52,000, and thirty-one watchbands, the most expensive of which was $20,000, from Geneva Seal. His total bill, as represented on two invoices, was $232,175. The invoices showed Blackburn as the only purchaser and requested that Geneva Seal ship the watches and bands to Blackburn's residence in Malibu. Blackburn did not personally pay for his purchases; instead, he arranged a wire transfer from a Canopy account. Geneva Seal received the wire transfer, and the statement documenting the transfer stated that the sender was Canopy Financial, not Blackburn. Canopy had not authorized the transfer, nor did it subsequently ratify the transfer. When Alexander Kats, the vice president and half owner of Geneva Seal was asked if he had contacted Canopy to confirm that Blackburn had authority to make the wire transfer, he responded "I don't recall." Geneva Seal Ex. 1 at 87. Kats also testified that Blackburn said he was the founder of a shoe company, and he could not recall Blackburn ever mentioning Canopy to him. Id. at 40.
Canopy filed for bankruptcy under chapter 11 on November 25, 2009. The case was converted to a chapter 7 liquidation, and the bankruptcy court appointed Paloian as trustee. Paloian began adversary proceedings against Blackburn and Banas and obtained judgments against both for more than $93 million. Federal prosecutors charged Blackburn and Banas with wire fraud, and each pleaded guilty. Blackburn received a sentence of 180 months and was ordered to pay restitution of more than $93 million. He committed suicide before being incarcerated. Banas received a sentence of 160 months and was ordered to pay restitution of more than $19 million.
On a motion for summary judgment, the Court "view[s] the record in the light most favorable to the non-moving party and draw[s] all reasonable inferences in that party's favor." Trinity Homes LLC v. Ohio Cas. Ins. Co., 629 F.3d 653, 656 (7th Cir. 2010). Summary judgment is appropriate "if the movant shows that there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(a). In other words, a court may grant summary judgment "[w]here the record taken as a whole could not lead a rational trier of fact to find for the nonmoving party." Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co. v. Zenith Radio Corp., 475 U.S. 574, 587 (1986).
Paloian asserts three claims against each defendant, contending that the payments made by Canopy to Geneva Seal and Lampert are constructively fraudulent transfers under federal bankruptcy law and two sections of the Illinois Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (UFTA). See 11 U.S.C. § 548(a)(1)(B); 740 ILCS 160/5(a)(2) & 160/6(a). In all three claims, Paloian asserts that by action of Blackburn and Banas, Canopy transferred funds to defendants at a time when it was insolvent and did not receive reasonably equivalent value in return. Paloian also argues that Geneva Seal and Lampert are the initial transferees of the Canopy funds, so that the trustee may recover the funds from them. See 11 U.S.C. § 550(a)(1); 740 ILCS 160/9(b)(1).
Geneva Seal disputes whether it gave reasonably equivalent value in return for the funds it received from Canopy. It contends that Blackburn and Canopy were alter egos, and therefore it provided reasonably equivalent value to Canopy when it gave Blackburn the watches and watchbands in exchange for the funds from Canopy. Geneva Seal also claims that it is entitled to a defense provided by the bankruptcy code and the UFTA because it gave reasonably equivalent value and acted in good faith, although it fails to recognize that the good faith defense in the UFTA applies only to actually fraudulent transfers and not to constructively fraudulent transfers. See 11 U.S.C. § 548(c); 740 ILCS 160/9(a); Helms v. Roti (In re Roti), 271 B.R. 281, 295 (Bankr. N.D. Ill. 2002) (§ 548(c) is an affirmative defense whose elements must be proved by transferee).
Lampert contends that there is a genuine issue of fact on all of Paloian's claims because it gave reasonably equivalent value. Lampert also contends that it is entitled to summary judgment in its favor on Paloian's claim under the bankruptcy code because it gave reasonably equivalent value and acted in good faith. Lampert also argues that it is entitled to summary judgment on Paloian's claim under 740 ILCS 160/5(a)(2) because Canopy's transfer of the funds was not voluntary. Lampert finally contends that it is entitled to summary judgment on the claim under 740 ILCS 160/6(a) because Paloian has not demonstrated that there is a creditor who could bring a claim under that section. See 11 U.S.C. § 544(b)(1).
A. Reasonably equivalent value
Geneva Seal contends that Paloian's claims fail because it provided reasonably equivalent value in exchange for Canopy's funds. It also contends that it is entitled to the defenses provided in the bankruptcy code and the UFTA because it provided reasonably equivalent value and acted in good faith. Lampert contends that Paloian's motion for summary judgment must be denied because there is a genuine issue of fact regarding whether it provided reasonably equivalent value to Canopy. It also argues that it is entitled to summary judgment on Paloian's claims under the bankruptcy code because it satisfied the defense provided in the code by providing reasonably equivalent value and acting in good faith.
To support its contention that it provided reasonably equivalent value, Geneva Seal argues that Blackburn and Canopy were alter egos. Lampert contends that it provided reasonably equivalent value for three reasons: (1) Banas and Canopy were alter egos, (2) Banas had apparent authority to transfer Canopy's ...