The opinion of the court was delivered by: Stiehl, District Judge:
This case is before the Court on the issue of whether the State of Illinois' Unlawful Use of a Handgun and Aggravated Unlawful Use of a Handgun statutes violate the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. Under current Illinois law citizens are prohibited from carrying loaded, operable firearms in public. See, 720 ILCS §§ 5/24-1(a)(4); 5/24-1(a)(10); 5/24-1.6(a)(1)-(3)(B).
Before the Court are several pending motions, including: plaintiffs' motion for preliminary injunction (Doc. 20) to which defendants have filed replies (Docs. 28, 29, 30); defendants' motions to dismiss the complaint (Docs. 24 and 26) to which plaintiffs have responded (Doc. 41); plaintiffs' motion for summary judgment (Doc. 38) to which defendants have responded (seeking to defer ruling--Docs. 47 and 49) and plaintiffs have filed a reply (Doc.
51); and, defendants' motion to cite supplemental authority (Doc. 55) which the Court GRANTS.
In addition, the Court has received, and reviewed, amicus briefs from The Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence (Doc. 33) and the National Rifle Association of America, Inc. ("NRA") (Doc. 54), as well as other supplemental authority submitted by the parties.
Plaintiffs, Mary E. Shepard, an Illinois resident, and the Illinois State Rifle Association, bring this action against various officials of the State of Illinois and Union County, Illinois, seeking to have the Court declare that three provisions of the Illinois criminal code which restrict individuals from carrying firearms for self-defense are unconstitutional in violation of the Second Amendment. Plaintiff Shepard is a member of the Illinois State Rifle Association (her co-plaintiff), and she alleges that her Second Amendment rights and those of other Illinois citizens are being violated by Illinois law because, although she possesses a valid Illinois Firearms Owner Identification card (FOID), has completed training in the safe, lawful handling of handguns, and has received permits to carry handguns in Florida and Pennsylvania, she is not allowed to carry a concealed weapon for her protection in her home state of Illinois. Plaintiffs assert that the Illinois criminal statutes are facially invalid.*fn1
Defendants are the Attorney General of Illinois, Lisa Madigan; the Governor of the State, Patrick J. Quinn; the State's Attorney for Union County, Illinois, Tyler Edmonds; and the Sheriff of Union County, David Livesay.*fn2 Notably Illinois is the only state remaining in the United States which does not have concealed carry laws.*fn3 The plaintiffs seek injunctive relief on their claims, and the defendants seek dismissal of the claims pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6) for failure to state a claim.
Plaintiff Shepard asserts that in September of 2009 she was at her church doing her duties as treasurer when she was attacked and brutalized, beaten and left for dead. She suffered skull fractures, fractures to both cheeks, brain swelling, shattered teeth, a concussion, loss of hearing, damage to her vertebrae, torn rotator cuffs, and an injured clavicle. The complaint alleges that she has been required to undergo numerous surgeries, including extensive reconstruction to her shoulders, has had to have physical therapy, was unable to drive for many months and has severe and lasting injuries to her face, head and body. Shepard was unarmed at the time of the attack, and asserts that if she had had the right to have been armed, she could have protected herself and her 83 year old co-worker who also was injured. Because she was restricted by Illinois law from the ability to carry a firearm in public, she asserts that she was defenseless then, and remains defenseless when in public. Further, she states that if she were allowed, under Illinois law, she would now carry a loaded and accessible weapon in her car and/or on her person for self-defense purposes.
A. Summary of the Issues Before the Court
The plaintiffs have previously informed the Court that the factual issues are limited and they seek to proceed on the pleadings, and do not require a hearing on their motion for preliminary injunction. The Court will therefore, consider the issues raised in the plaintiffs' request for injunctive relief and defendants' motions to dismiss collectively as the issues are basically identical and can be resolved together.
The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution provides: "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed." U.S. Const. amend II. The two sides in this action set forth differing views of the application of the Second Amendment to the validity of the current Illinois statutes. Plaintiffs assert that their Second Amendment rights are being violated by the Illinois statute because licensed handgun owners are prohibited from carrying a firearm in public. The defendants assert that the plaintiffs currently have the right to use firearms for their self-protection when in their home, or on their land or fixed place of business, or when on the land or legal dwelling of another as an invitee for their self protection.
But, the State of Illinois does not permit plaintiffs or any state citizens to carry those firearms in public. The State asserts that the overriding need to protect the public by limiting an individual's ability to have ready a gun of which the public may be unaware is part of the state of Illinois' rights, and that the statutes are in compliance with the Second Amendments' protections. Plaintiffs counter that they are not challenging the right of the State to issue permits for possessing firearms, and that the relief they seek, to have this Court strike down Illinois' public carriage ban, will have no effect on those who may legally possess a firearm in the State. They assert it poses a relatively low risk of the misuse of guns if the law were to be declared unconstitutional, and would guarantee plaintiffs' Second Amendment right to self-protection.
In an amicus brief filed with the Court, The Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence asserts that this Court should find that the Illinois statutes in issue do not implicate protected Second Amendment freedoms because they do not have any impact on the right of Illinois citizens to bear arms in their homes. Further, that the Court should determine that the recent Supreme Court decisions of District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008) and McDonald v. City of Chicago, 130 S. Ct. 3020 (2010), do not extend the protected Second Amendment rights to include an absolute right to carry firearms when in public. In addition, the Brady Center encourages this Court to adhere to the long-recognized principle of judicial restraint, and not read into the Heller and McDonald decisions the constitutional right to carry guns in public.
The NRA, in its amicus brief, asserts that armed self-defense is a constitutional right protected by the Second Amendment as evidenced by the fact that it is now available in 49 of the 50 states. Only the State of Illinois outlaws the right to carry a firearm, with a permit, in public. Further, the NRA asserts that the promoted activity, carrying and use of firearms by law-abiding citizens, is an effective means of self-defense, is not a threat to public safety and may result in a decrease, not an increase in crime rates.
B. Jurisdiction, Venue, and Standing in this Cause of Action
Plaintiffs' complaint involves claimed violations of Second Amendment rights, thereby giving this Court subject matter jurisdiction over this action pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §1331. The plaintiff, Shepard, is a resident of Union County, which is within the Southern District of Illinois. The plaintiff Illinois State Rifle Association (ISRA) is a not-for-profit association incorporated in Illinois, with members residing throughout the State of Illinois. Plaintiff Shepard is a member of the ISRA. With respect to standing, plaintiffs claim that they will suffer "an actual or impending injury" and that a decision by this Court in their favor would "redress the injury." Ezell v. City of Chicago, 651 F.3d 684, 695 (7th Cir. 2011). The Court, therefore, FINDS that plaintiffs have standing to bring this action, and this Court has subject matter jurisdiction to hear and resolve these claims.*fn4
C. Challenged Illinois Statutes
The Illinois state statutes which are at issue in this action provide, in pertinent part, as follows: 720 ILCS 5/24-1 (Unlawful Use of a Weapon -- UUW):
(a) A person commits the offense of unlawful use of weapons when he knowingly:
(4) Carries or possesses in any vehicle or concealed on or about his person except when on his land or in his own abode, legal dwelling, or fixed place of business, or on the land or in the legal dwelling of another person as an invitee with that person's permission, any pistol, revolver, stun gun or taser or other firearm, except that this subsection (a) (4) ...