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Armando Medina, Fernando Escobar, and Christian Salinas v. Happy's Pizza Franchise

February 3, 2012


The opinion of the court was delivered by: Matthew F. Kennelly, District Judge


Armando Medina, Fernando Escobar, and Christian Salinas, employees of various Happy's Pizza restaurants, have sued Happy's Pizza Franchise, LLC, Happy's Pizza Chicago #1, Inc., Happy's Pizza Chicago #2, Inc., and Happy Asker (collectively Happy's). They assert claims under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 29 U.S.C. § 207, for failure to pay overtime wages as well as supplemental Illinois law claims. On January 10, 2011, the Court conditionally certified the case as a collective action pursuant to 29 U.S.C. § 216(b) and authorized notice to similarly situated Happy's employees. Plaintiffs move for partial decertification of the opt-in plaintiffs. For the reasons stated below, the Court grants plaintiffs' motion.


Happy's Pizza is a chain of franchise restaurants that sells pizza, chicken, seafood, and ribs in several states. Happy's Pizza Franchise, LLC, sells the right to operate restaurants and use the Happy's name and recipes to what it contends are independent franchisee corporations. Happy Asker is the sole member of Happy's Pizza Franchise, LLC. Happy's Pizza Chicago #1, Inc. and Happy's Pizza Chicago #2, Inc. are two of the franchisee corporations. They operate restaurants in Chicago.

Plaintiffs filed suit in May 2010, alleging that Happy's regularly directed them to work more than forty hours a week but did not pay them overtime wages in violation of the FLSA. All three plaintiffs alleged that they had worked at the Chicago Happy's restaurants operated by the defendant corporations. Medina and Escobar also alleged that they had worked in Happy's restaurants in Lansing and Ann Arbor, Michigan and that they had been subjected to the same practices there. Plaintiffs sought to include in the case similarly situated Happy's employees who likewise had not been paid appropriate overtime wages.

The Court granted conditional certification and authorized the plaintiffs to send notice to Happy's employees. At least 254 plaintiffs have opted into the lawsuit, although the parties dispute the exact number. Among the opt-in plaintiffs, a majority worked for Happy's restaurants in either the Eastern or Western Districts of Michigan. Approximately fifty plaintiffs worked for Happy's restaurants in Ohio, all in the Northern District of Ohio, and twenty-three of the opt-in plaintiffs worked for Happy's restaurants in Illinois, all in the Northern District of Illinois. Only about twenty of the opt-in plaintiffs worked for Happy's restaurants that are operated by the two Happy's franchises named as defendants, Happy's Pizza Chicago #1 and Happy's Pizza Chicago #2. The remaining opt-in plaintiffs worked for forty-six other Happy's restaurants. Defendants contend these restaurants are all operated by distinct franchisee corporations that are not defendants in this suit.

On October 21, 2011, defendants moved to dismiss the case under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 19. They argued that the forty-six franchisees were necessary parties for several reasons, including that the franchisees were the actual employers of the majority of the opt-in plaintiffs and thus would be liable if plaintiffs prevailed on their FLSA claims. Defendants argued that the franchisees had to be joined to protect their interests. Defendants contended, however, that most of the franchisees would not be subject to personal jurisdiction in Illinois because they operated restaurants in Michigan or Ohio and employed residents of those states. Therefore, defendants argued, the franchisee corporations could not be joined in this suit. Defendants contended that the franchisees were indispensable and that the lawsuit must be dismissed without prejudice.

Plaintiffs then moved for what they called partial decertification, asking the Court to transfer all of the opt-in plaintiffs who had not worked for Happy's restaurants in this district to the appropriate districts in Michigan or Ohio.


The FLSA provides that employers must pay an employee who works more than forty hours in one work week at one and one-half times the employee's regular rate of pay for the time over forty hours. 29 U.S.C. § 207(a)(1). Pursuant to the FLSA, "any one or more employees for and in behalf of himself or themselves and other employees similarly situated" may sue an employer through a collective action to recover unpaid overtime wages. Id. § 216(b). Once an FLSA action is filed, district courts have "managerial responsibility to oversee the joinder of additional parties to assure that the task is accomplished in an efficient and proper way." Hoffman-La Roche, Inc. v. Sperling, 493 U.S. 165, 171 (1989); accord Alvarez v. City of Chicago, 605 F.3d 445, 449 (7th Cir. 2010) ("A district court has wide discretion to manage collective actions.").

"Courts commonly apply a two-part test to determine whether an FLSA claim may proceed as a collective action." Russell v. Ill. Bell. Tel. Co., 721 F. Supp. 2d 804, 811 (N.D. Ill. 2010); see Smallwood v. Ill. Bell. Tel. Co., 710 F. Supp. 2d 746, 750 (N.D. Ill. 2010) (noting that Seventh Circuit has not adopted a standard but that a majority of courts use the two-part test). "In the first step, Plaintiffs only need to make a minimal showing that others in the potential class were similarly situated." Jirak v. Abbott Labs., Inc., 566 F. Supp. 2d 845, 847 (N.D. Ill. 2008) (internal quotation marks omitted). After discovery is completed and the opt-in plaintiffs are identified, the more stringent second step occurs. Rottman v. Old Second Bancorp, Inc., 735 F. Supp. 2d 988, 990 (N.D. Ill. 2010). "The burden is on the plaintiffs to show that they are 'similarly situated,' as required by the statute." Russell, 721 F. Supp. 2d at 811. If the plaintiffs are not similarly situated, the action is decertified.

In this case, the Court previously determined that the plaintiffs satisfied the first step and granted conditional certification. Discovery in this case has not been completed-indeed, it is at a relatively early stage-and thus the second step determination would be premature.

Plaintiffs request that the opt-in plaintiffs be partially decertified, divided into groups, and transferred to the federal districts in which they worked for Happy's. Defendants argue that any decertification would lead to the dismissal of the opt-in plaintiffs; the Court has no authority to transfer any part of the case; the Court must decide their Rule 19 motion before transferring any part of the case; the Court should not allow any tolling of the limitations ...

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