§ The plaintiff, Lisa Babikian, brought this action against the defendant, Richard Mruz, M.D., seeking recovery for damages sustained as a result of negligent medical treatment. The jury found in favor of the plaintiff and returned a verdict in the amount of $500,500. The circuit court entered judgment on the verdict, and the defendant has appealed. For the reasons that follow, we affirm in part, reverse in part, and order a set-off in favor of the defendant. § The record reflects the following relevant facts. The plaintiff came under the care of the defendant in February 2000. After examining the plaintiff, the defendant performed a diagnostic laparoscopy to determine whether she suffered from endometriosis. The procedure was performed on an outpatient basis at Alexian Brothers Medical Center (Alexian Brothers). During the laparoscopy, the defendant pierced the plaintiff's transverse colon, requiring immediate corrective surgery by another surgeon. Immediately after that surgical repair had been accomplished, the defendant completed the laparoscopy. He found no evidence of endometriosis, but discovered a seven-centimeter ovarian cyst, which was sent to the lab for testing. § The perforation of the plaintiff's transverse colon required further hospitalization, a colostomy, and an additional surgery to reverse the colostomy. The plaintiff also developed ileus, a condition that necessitated a three-week hospital stay. The multiple incisions caused the plaintiff to develop hernias, also requiring further hospitalization. As a result of these treatments and complications, the plaintiff suffers from permanent pain in her abdomen. In addition, her mental health declined, impelling her to seek treatment from psychologists and psychiatrists. The plaintiff was prescribed anti-depressant medications and eventually required emergency hospitalization because she had become suicidal. § Prior to filing suit against the defendant, the plaintiff and her husband, Aleco, entered into an agreement with Alexian Brothers. Pursuant to that agreement, the plaintiff and Aleco executed a covenant not to sue in exchange for a payment of $70,000, which was not apportioned in any way. § The plaintiff and Aleco subsequently brought this medical malpractice action against the defendant. The plaintiff claimed that, as a result of the defendant's negligence, she suffered damages for permanent injury and disfigurement, medical expenses, pain and suffering, and emotional distress. Aleco sought recovery for loss of consortium. § During discovery, the defendant identified himself as a controlled expert witness under Supreme Court Rule 213 (f)(2) (Ill. S. Ct. R. 213(f)(2) (eff. Jan. 1, 2007)), stating that he "would testify regarding his training, education, and experience," as well as "his care and treatment of [the plaintiff]," and "his compliance with the standard of care." The defendant further disclosed that he would testify that his care and treatment of the plaintiff "were reasonable, appropriate, and within the standard of care, and [that] his care and treatment did not cause the injuries as claimed by the plaintiff." § Also during discovery, the plaintiff and Aleco disclosed the existence of the covenant not to sue and that they had received a payment of $70,000 from Alexian Brothers. Approximately two years before trial, the plaintiff and Aleco divorced, and Aleco thereafter voluntarily dismissed his loss-of-consortium claim.