Appeal from the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana, Indianapolis Division. No. 1:06-cv-1452-Sarah Evans Barker, Judge.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Wood, Circuit Judge.
Before BAUER, WOOD, and SYKES, Circuit Judges.
Maetta Vance was the only African-American working in her department at Ball State University ("Ball State") when racially charged discord erupted. In 2005, Vance began filing complaints with Ball State about her co-workers' offensive conduct, which included the use of racial epithets, references to the Ku Klux Klan, veiled threats of physical harm, and other unpleasantries. In 2006 she filed two complaints with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ("EEOC") for race discrimination and, later, retaliation. After getting her right-to-sue letter, she filed this action in federal court alleging a range of federal and state discrimination claims. The district court granted summary judgment for the defendants and dismissed the case. On appeal, Vance pursues only her hostile work environment and retaliation claims against Ball State based on asserted violations of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ("Title VII"), 42 U.S.C. §§ 2000e et seq. Because she has not established a basis for employer liability on the hostile work environment claim or put forth sufficient facts to support her retaliation claim, we affirm.
Ball State prevailed on summary judgment, and so we recite the facts in the light most favorable to Vance, the non-moving party. Vance began working for Ball State in 1989 as a substitute server in the Banquet and Catering Department of University Dining Services. In 1991, Ball State promoted Vance to a part-time catering assistant position, and in January 2007 Vance applied and was selected for a position as a full-time catering assistant. Between 1991 and 2007, Vance gained expertise as a baker and enjoyed the challenge of baking items from scratch. After she began work as a full-time employee, a position that included a modest raise and a significant increase in benefits, her assignments changed. Her new work consisted of preparing food, including dinners for formal events, boxed lunches for casual engage- ments, and sides and salads, for the catering depart-ment's clients.
For many years things progressed uneventfully. But in 2001, Saundra Davis, a co-worker, hit Vance on the back of the head without provocation. The two were discussing a work-related duty when Davis became aggressive, shouted at Vance, and slapped Vance as she turned away. Vance orally complained to her supervisors, but because Davis soon transferred to another department Vance did not pursue the matter. Also around that time, Bill Kimes became Vance's supervisor. According to Vance, Kimes gave her the cold shoulder, made her feel unwelcome at work, and treated other employees to lunch when she was not around. He refused to shake her hand when they first met in 2001, and he routinely used a gruff tone of voice with her.
Things took a turn for the worse in 2005. Davis returned to Vance's department, and on September 23, 2005, the two had an altercation in the elevator. Davis stood in Vance's way as she tried to get off the elevator and said, "I'll do it again," which Vance took to be a reference to the slap in 2001. A few days later, Vance heard from a fellow employee that another co-worker, Connie McVicker, used the racial epithet "nigger" to refer to Vance and African-American students on campus. McVicker also boasted that her family had ties to the Ku Klux Klan. On September 26, 2005, Vance complained orally to her supervisor about McVicker's statements, and on October 17, 2005, she called University Compliance to request a complaint form. While requesting the document, Vance again complained about McVicker's racially offensive comments and, for the first time, informed Ball State that Davis had slapped her four years earlier. In early November, Vance submitted a written complaint detailing McVicker's comments and the elevator incident with Davis.
Ball State began investigating Vance's complaint regarding McVicker immediately. Once Vance spoke to University Compliance on October 17, 2005, two supervisors, Lisa Courtright and Kimes, met to discuss how to handle the matter. Courtright sent Vance a letter to inform her that they were investigating. In the meantime, several people from Employee Relations became involved. Kimes's investigation corroborated Vance's account of what McVicker said, although the witnesses could not recall whether McVicker used the epithet generally or directed it at Vance. The Assistant Director of Employee Relations sent an email to the Director, stating: "I know we don't have the specifics on exactly what and when these utterances were . . . but we need to make a strong statement that we will NOT tolerate this kind of language or resulting actions in the work-place." Ball State used a four-step process to handle employee discipline, starting with a verbal warning for the first infraction, followed by a written warning for the second, with escalating consequences for further violations. Within this context, the Assistant Director concluded, "I think we can justify going beyond our limited prior past history and issue a written warning . . . we should also strongly advise her verbally when we issue this that it must stop NOW and if the words/behavior are repeated, we will move on to more serious discipline up to an[d] including discharge."
Following this recommendation, Kimes gave McVicker a written warning on November 11, 2005, for "conduct inconsistent with proper behavior." The warning explained that McVicker was being disciplined for using offensive racial epithets, discussing her family's relationship with the KKK, and also "looking intently" and "staring for prolonged periods at co-workers." Kimes advised McVicker that additional violations would lead to further disciplinary action. Days later, Courtright met with McVicker to discuss the warning; Courtright reiterated that racially offensive comments would not be tolerated. She also suggested that McVicker should consider avoiding Vance and transferring to another department.
That same day, Vance complained to Courtright that McVicker referred to her as a "porch monkey." Courtright advised Vance to tell Kimes, which Vance did. Kimes investigated by speaking to another co-worker whom Vance said witnessed the incident, but that co-worker did not corroborate Vance's allegation. In turn, Kimes told Vance that without any witnesses he could not discipline McVicker, who denied making the comment. Kimes said that further action on this issue would devolve into a "she said-she said" exchange. Kimes did not discipline McVicker for the "monkey" comment, nor does the record suggest that Courtright mentioned it when she spoke to McVicker later that week. Kimes did, however, try unsuccessfully to schedule McVicker and Vance to work on alternating days. Over a year later, McVicker voluntarily transferred to another department.
In response to Vance's complaint about the September 23, 2005, elevator incident with Davis, Ball State investigated but found conflicting accounts of what had happened. Before Vance filed her written complaint on November 7, 2005, Davis had filed a complaint alleging that Vance said to Davis: "Move, bitch . . . you are an evil f------ bitch." Kimes discussed the situation with his supervisor, and they decided that counseling both employees about respect in the workplace was the best path to follow. Kimes spoke with Vance about how to communicate respectfully in the workplace, but it is unclear whether he had a similar conversation with Davis. No one was disciplined for the incident. Around this time, though the record is not clear about the date, Davis made references to "Sambo" and "Buckwheat" while having a conversation with another co-worker in Vance's presence. Vance understood these words to be used in a racially derogatory way and thus felt offended by them, but she did not complain to Ball State at that time.
Conditions were not improving for Vance, and on December 22, 2005, she informed Kimes that she felt threatened and intimidated by her co-workers. The following week Vance filed a charge with the EEOC alleging race, gender, and age discrimination. Vance also complained that, throughout this period, Davis and McVicker gave her a hard time at work by glaring at her, slamming pots and pans around her, and intimi-dating her. In 2006, Vance filed a complaint identifying a variety of other instances where she felt harassed, including being "blocked" on the elevator by Davis who "stood there with her cart smiling"; being left alone in the kitchen with Davis, who smiled at her; and being around Davis and McVicker, who gave her "weird" looks. She also filed a complaint alleging that Karen Adkins, a supervisor, "mean-mugged" her. Ball State investigated these incidents but found no basis to take disciplinary action.
On May 10, 2006, Vance filed a complaint with Ball State against her supervisor, (still) Kimes, alleging that he forced her to work through breaks. Ball State investigated but found no factual basis for the allegation. In August 2006, Vance filed a second complaint with the EEOC alleging that Ball State retaliated against her by assigning her diminished work duties, forcing her to work through breaks, denying her ...