The opinion of the court was delivered by: Robert M. Dow, Jr. United States District Judge
District Judge Robert M. Dow, Jr.
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
Third-Party Defendants Hartford Computer Group, Inc. ("Hartford"), Anthony Graffia, Jr., Anthony Graffia, Sr., and Impero Electronics, Inc. (collectively referred to as the "Hartford Defendants") move for judgment on the pleadings  as to Counts II through VII of the operative complaint. For the following reasons, the Court grants in part and denies in part the Hartford Defendants' motion.
On September 22, 2009, the Hartford Defendants filed their motion for judgment on the pleadings . On November 16, 2009, Third-Party Plaintiffs William Pearson and Argus Industries, Inc. filed their response to the Hartford Defendants' motion for judgment on the pleadings, and on December 4, the Hartford Defendants filed their reply. Then, on February 3, 2010, Third-Party Plaintiffs filed a motion for leave to file a fourth amended complaint , which the Court granted. The Court gave the Hartford Defendants additional time to modify their previously filed motion for judgment on the pleadings to fit the allegations in the fourth amended complaint ("complaint"). The Hartford Defendants subsequently filed an additional brief , Third-Party Plaintiffs filed a reply [120-2] to the additional arguments, and the Hartford Defendants filed a surreply .
The newest complaint alleges six causes of action against the Hartford Defendants -- the four counts alleged in the Third Amended Complaint (Tortious Interference with Contract, Fraud, and two counts of Fraudulent Transfer) plus two new counts for Tortious Inducement of Breach of Fiduciary Duty (Count II) and Contribution/Offset (Count VII).*fn1 The Hartford Defendants moved for judgment on the pleadings as to all Counts (II, III, IV, V, VI, and VII) asserted against them.
B. Factual Background*fn2
Third-Party Plaintiff Argus Industries, Inc. ("Argus") manufactured, imported, and distributed digital cameras for sale to retailers, including Wal-Mart and Office Max. Third-Party Plaintiff Bill Pearson ("Pearson") was the president and sole owner of Argus. Argus' business model, like that of many importers, relied on international letters of credit to drive its business. The letters of credit typically were secured by goods purchased from the overseas manufacturer through a purchase order. Upon receipt of a letter of credit, the overseas manufacturer would ship cameras to Argus, or would "drop-ship" Argus-brand cameras directly to the retailers. The retailers then would pay Argus by depositing funds in a drop-box at the lender's bank.
In April 2002, Sequel Capital, LLC ("Sequel") agreed to lend $2,000,000 to Argus. In November 2002, Sequel agreed to lend Argus an additional $1,000,000, bringing Argus's total debt to $3,000,000. Sequel's loan was secured by a security interest in a designated portion of Argus's inventory (cameras). Argus also borrowed approximately $1.3 million from J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. ("Chase") to support its international business operations. However, Chase and Sequel agreed that Sequel had a priority position over Chase with respect to Argus's camera inventory.
In November 2002, Office Max cancelled an order, leaving Argus with approximately $1.5 million worth of goods "in transit," and also withheld payments allegedly due, causing Argus to default on its loans with Chase and Sequel. Following the Office Max cancellation, Chase elected to seek immediate repayment from Argus on the letter of credit and its other advances to Argus. According to the complaint, at the time that Chase elected to seek immediate repayment from Argus, Argus was operating profitably but did not have the liquid funds to pay Chase upon demand. In May 2003, a representative of Chase introduced William Pearson, Argus's President and CEO, to Anthony Graffia, Sr. and Anthony Graffia, Jr. According to the complaint, Graffia Jr. informed Pearson that Graffia Jr.'s company, Defendant Hartford Computer Group, Inc., had more than enough liquid capital on hand to float Argus's need for capital for immediate inventory, satisfy the Chase and Sequel credit facilities, and provide working capital for Argus's continued operations. Fourth Amended Complaint ("Compl.") at ¶ 15.
Through Chase and the Hartford Defendants, Pearson was introduced to Rally Capital and its principals, James Zec*fn3 and Howard Samuels. Rally was presented as an experienced trustee for the reorganization of distressed businesses. Compl. at ¶ 22. Once these introductions were made, the discussions evolved from turning around the Argus operation into creating a prepackaged assignment for the benefit of creditors in which the Hartford Defendants would acquire the assets of Argus and then Rally would use the proceeds to pay Argus's creditors in full. According to the complaint, the Rally Defendants "had a longstanding approach to assignments that benefited them and worked to the detriment of both assignors and outside creditors." Id. at ¶ 24. The complaint alleges that "Samuels and Zec [ ] told Pearson in mid-June 2003 that they had a fail-safe method for conducting assignments virtually guaranteed to result in full payment of creditors and a surplus to the assignor." Id. The complaint further alleges that Samuels and Zec described the method to Pearson, which involved selling the assigned company to a buyer for a set sum and allowing the buyer to begin operating the assigned entity, then offering the assets at auction to determine whether the assets at issue would sell for more than the agreed-upon price. Id. According to the complaint, Samuels and Zec told Pearson that if no bids higher than the agreed price were received, the assets would remain with the original buyer. Id. Third-Party Plaintiffs allege that "Samuels and Zec had a duty to disclose that this method, first selling the company to a buyer for a firm price, letting the buyer operate the company, and then setting up an 'auction'[,] was guaranteed to fail." Id. at ¶ 25.
On June 17, 2003, Pearson (on behalf of Argus) executed a Trust Agreement and Assignment for the Benefit of Creditors with James Zec, of Rally Capital Services LLC, who was to serve as assignee/trustee. The agreement indicated that Argus was indebted to various entities, unable to pay its debts, had decided to discontinue its business, and desired "to transfer its property to an assignee for the benefit of its creditors so that the property so transferred [would be] expeditiously liquidated and the proceeds therefrom fairly distributed to its creditors without any preference or priority, except such priority as established and permitted by applicable law." Rally Def. Ex. A-1. Then on June 27, 2003, Zec, in his capacity as trustee/assignee, entered into an Agreement and Bill of Sale with Hartford for the sale of Argus's assets to Hartford for $2.5 million as well as a collection agreement in which Hartford would collect Argus's existing receivables and earn a thirty percent fee in return. Both Sequel and Chase had options not to release their security interests. Zec advertised the sale to the general public and sent the notices of the assignment and sale to all known Argus creditors on June 26, 2003.
According to the complaint, two companies, Sequel (an Argus creditor) and Ruian (an Argus supplier), submitted term sheets and told the Rally Defendants that they were willing to pay significant sums upfront and provide substantial debt financing, none of which Hartford was willing to provide. This allegedly was confirmed in a letter to Pearson from John Iwanski, Sequel's Chief Financial Officer, on June 4, 2003. Pearson provided the letter to Rally in connection with the assignment, and Rally, through Zec and Samuels, promised to seriously consider Sequel's competing offer for the assets. Ruian submitted a term sheet and said that it would appear and participate in the auction. According to the complaint, either bid would have fully satisfied Argus's debts, both to Sequel and to Chase, and released the guarantee which is the subject of this lawsuit. However, neither Sequel nor Ruian actually submitted bids.
The complaint alleges that during May and June of 2003, "Rally, Hartford, and Graffia all stated the following to Pearson, Ruian, and Sequel: (a) [t]hat Hartford had purchased the company for more than $2.5 million, along with operating capital to continue Argus' operations; (b) [t]hat the purchase price would be sufficient to pay all outstanding secured debt [and] [t]hat this would have the effect of satisfying the guarantee; (c) [t]hat Hartford would continue to bid increasing amounts against all bidders in order to secure ownership of Argus, such that other bidders appearing at the auction would be futile; [and] (d) [t]hat Hartford would continue to operate Argus." Id. at ¶ 29. According to Third-Party Plaintiffs, these representations were repeated by Zec and the Graffias "often," both in person and by telephone, from June 17, 2003 through July 2, 2003. Id. at ¶ 30. According to the complaint, on at least two occasions, on or about June 17 and June 20, 2003, one of the Graffias told Pearson that there were no obstacles to completing the deal. This was echoed by Zec, "who told Pearson that a buyer with possession of the assets was in a far better position than one that would be moving in after Hartford had owned and operated the company for a month, emphasizing how disruptive a second transition would be." Id. at ¶ 31. The complaint alleges that the purpose behind these statements was to foreclose bidding and assure that Hartford would be able to keep Argus's assets.
According to the allegations, Pearson relied on these statements and did not oppose the Hartford sale or undertake extraordinary efforts to assure that bidders would appear for the auction. In further reliance on these statements, Pearson also told Ruian and Sequel that he would be inclined to accept employment with Hartford and not the competing bidders. On July 11, 2003, the date of the "auction," at the posted time for the auction, no bidders appeared and no competing offers were made. Id. at ¶ 33. The complaint alleges that Sequel and Ruian later told Pearson that they had not submitted bids because the Graffias and Zec had told them Hartford was prepared to outbid them at any price. Id.
The complaint alleges that Hartford was not prepared to outbid the other potential investors, but conspired with the Graffias and Zec to assure that Hartford would be the only buyer at dramatically reduced prices. Days before the scheduled date of sale, Anthony Graffia, Sr. announced that Hartford's due diligence had turned up irregularities in inventory and receivables and thus Hartford was withdrawing from the asset purchase agreement. The complaint alleges that this fact was not made known to anyone other than Rally until the date of the auction. Following the auction (at which no bidders appeared), the complaint alleges that Zec and the Graffias entered into "closed-door" negotiations. Compl. at ¶ 35. Then, on July 15, 2003, Hartford purchased Argus's assets from the trustee for $1.3 million. All parties present at the auction, including Third-Party Plaintiffs, the trustee, and the secured creditors, assented to the sale. The trustee then tendered $1.3 million to Chase, fully satisfying Argus's outstanding loan from Chase. In order to close the sale, Anthony Graffia, Sr. told Sequel that there were sufficient assets, inventory, and receivables remaining in the Argus estate such that continued operations would provide a revenue stream from which Sequel's secured note would be ...