The opinion of the court was delivered by: Matthew F. Kennelly, District Judge
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
The plaintiffs in this case are chiropractic physicians who have provided services to members of health care plans insured or administered by the defendants, and professional associations whose members are chiropractic physicians. The defendants are Blue Cross and Blue Shield of America (BCBSA) and individual Blue Cross and Blue Shield entities (BCBS entities). BCBSA is a national umbrella organization that facilitates the activities of individual BCBS entities. Individual BCBS entities insure and administer health care plans to Blue Cross and Blue Shield customers (BCBS insureds) in various regions.
Plaintiffs' claims all concern actions they allege the defendants took to improperly take money belonging to plaintiffs. They allege that defendants would initially reimburse plaintiffs for services they provided to BCBS insureds and then sometime afterward would make a false or fraudulent determination that the payments had been in error and would demand repayment from plaintiffs. If the plaintiffs refused to return the payment as demanded, defendants would force recoupment by withholding payment on other, unrelated claims for services plaintiffs provided to other BCBS insureds. Plaintiffs contend defendants' actions violated the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), and Florida state law (with respect to plaintiffs and defendants located in Florida). On behalf of themselves, their members, and a putative class of similarly-situated health care providers, plaintiffs seek to recover the money that they allege defendants improperly recouped from them and to enjoin defendants from engaging in similar behavior in the future.
Defendants argue that several plaintiffs have contracts with individual defendants that include agreements to submit disputes to arbitration. They have moved to compel arbitration of those plaintiffs' claims with regard to all defendants and to stay any claims by those plaintiffs until arbitration is completed. They have also moved to stay proceedings regarding all other plaintiffs pending the results of arbitration proceedings.*fn1
For the reasons stated below, the Court grants the motion in part and denies it in part.
BCBSA is a federation of BCBS entities that licenses the use of the BCBS name. The remaining defendants are regional BCBS entities, health care companies that have licenses from BCBSA to use the BCBS name. BCBS entities work together, with the oversight and assistance of BCBSA, to administer health care plans to people insured by BCBS entities.
A number of the plaintiffs, Drs. Kuhlman, Korsen, Gearhart, Leri, Askar, Barnard, Wahner, Fava, Barber, Ford, Miggins, Paulsen, Renneke, Reno, Dwyer, Young, and Thompson, are licensed chiropractors. Plaintiff Barlow is a licensed occupational therapist. For purposes of this decision, the Court refers to these plaintiffs collectively as the "individual plaintiffs".
During the period when the acts giving rise to plaintiffs' claims took place, each of the individual plaintiffs had a signed contract (a "provider agreement") with at least one BCBS entity in the region where the plaintiff practiced. For purposes of this decision, the Court refers to the BCBS entity with which a plaintiff entered into a provider agreement as that plaintiff's "local BCBS entity." Pursuant to these contracts, plaintiffs agreed to provide covered services to BCBS insureds at agreed-upon discounted rates, in exchange for obtaining access to BCBS insureds of all BCBS entities. Under the terms of the provider agreements, a plaintiff could provide medical services to any BCBS insured and then submit a reimbursement form to the insured's local BCBS entity, which would administer payment to that plaintiff for the services rendered to the BCBS insured.
The provider agreements limit reimbursement to "covered services," as defined in the agreements. If an individual plaintiff provided services to a BCBS insured that did not fall under the "covered services" definition, the plaintiff would not be reimbursed for those services. Typically, plaintiffs have patients sign agreements in advance of treatment stating that it is the responsibility of the patient to pay for any services that are not reimbursed by the insurer.
Plaintiffs' claims stem from what they allege was a practice of defendants to improperly recoup money that had previously been paid to plaintiffs for medical services they had provided to BCBS insureds. Plaintiffs allege that defendants would pay for services and then later would make a false or fraudulent determination that individual plaintiffs had been overpaid for those services. Defendants would demand that individual plaintiffs immediately repay the supposedly overpaid amounts but would not provide information about which claims, services, or patients were allegedly the subject of overpayment.
Plaintiffs allege that when defendants made these repayment demands, they often offered no appeal process at all. When an appeal process was available, plaintiffs allege defendants refused to provide specific details about which patients, claims, and plans were affected. This, plaintiffs allege, made it difficult or impossible for them to challenge the reimbursement demands effectively. Plaintiffs further allege that defendants threatened to, and in some cases actually did, force individual plaintiffs to repay the amounts they allegedly owed. Defendants did this by withholding payments to which plaintiffs were otherwise entitled for unrelated claims they had submitted on behalf of other BCBS insureds.
Defendants contend that several individual plaintiffs -- Drs. Paulsen, Renneke, Miggins, Gearhart, Ford, Barber, Thompson and Young -- signed provider agreements that contained mandatory arbitration or mediation provisions that require the parties to arbitrate or mediate disputes arising out of those agreements. Defendants have moved to compel arbitration and stay the proceedings in this case pending the outcome of the arbitration. For the reasons stated below, the Court grants the motion to compel as to all but one of the plaintiffs in question and grants the motion to stay as to those same plaintiffs but denies the motion to stay as to the claims of plaintiffs who have not signed binding arbitration agreements.
A. The Arbitration Agreements
The Federal Arbitration Act declares that as a matter of federal law, arbitration agreements "shall be valid, irrevocable, and enforceable, save upon such grounds as exist at law or in equity for the revocation of any contract." 9 U.S.C. § 2. There is a presumption in favor of arbitrability: "as with any other contract, the parties' intentions control, but those intentions are generously construed as to issues of arbitrability." Mitsubishi Motors Corp. v. Soler Chrysler-Plymouth, Inc., 473 U.S. 614, 626 (1985).
When one party moves to compel arbitration, a court's first task "is to determine whether the parties agreed to arbitrate that dispute." Id. A district court may compel arbitration if there is "a written agreement to arbitrate, a dispute within the scope of the arbitration agreement, [and] a refusal to arbitrate." Zurich Am. Ins. Co. v. Watts. Inds., Inc., 417 F.3d 682, 687 (7th Cir. 2005). The question of whether a particular issue is subject to arbitration is a matter of contract interpretation. Kiefer Specialty Flooring, Inc. v. Tarkett, Inc., 174 F.3d 907, 909 (7th Cir. 1999). To evaluate the motion to compel, therefore, the Court ...