Appeal from the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Wisconsin. No. 06-10155-11--Thomas S. Utschig, Judge.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Flaum, Circuit Judge.
Before FLAUM, EVANS, and WILLIAMS, Circuit Judges.
Creditors Wynn Las Vegas LLC ("Wynn") and Desert Palace Inc. d/b/a Caesar's Palace ("Caesar's") filed timely proofs of claim against individual Chapter 11 debtors Robert and Amanda Jafari for gaming debts owing. Debtors objected to the proofs of claim. The bankruptcy court entered an order sustaining debtors' objections and disallowing the claims, based on its finding that Wisconsin substantive law applied to the claims and the gaming debts were unenforceable under Wisconsin law. Creditors appealed to the district court, and the district court determined that Nevada substantive law applied to the claims. The district court remanded the case to the bankruptcy court for further determination as to whether the claims were allowed under Nevada law. Upon remand, the bankruptcy court, applying Nevada law, allowed creditors' claims. This appeal followed, and we now affirm the bankruptcy court's order allowing the claims.
Debtor Robert Jafari, a former CEO of the Meadowbrook Manor chain of nursing homes, has a history of gambling problems. In 2003 or 2004, he borrowed roughly $3,000,000 from family friends to cover gambling losses. His father then bailed him out from those gambling debts.
Jafari continued to gamble, though. In 2005, Jafari met casino developer Steve Wynn, who personally approved a credit line at his Las Vegas, Nevada casino for Jafari. Jafari traveled from his Wisconsin residence to Las Vegas to gamble at Wynn and elsewhere on numerous occasions during 2005. As of September 2, 2005, Jafari did not owe anything to Wynn for credit extended to gamble.
On or about September 17, 2005, Jafari executed a new credit agreement with Wynn. The agreement established an initial credit line of $150,000. On September 17, September 19, and September 26, Jafari executed credit line increase requests in which he obtained increases totaling, at one point, up to $1,000,000. The initial credit agreement and the increase requests contained Nevada choice-of-law provisions.
Caesar's, based in Las Vegas, similarly extended credit, totaling $250,000, to Jafari between September 25 and September 30, 2005. Each of Caesar's markers contained Nevada choice-of-law provisions as well.
Both Wynn and Caesar's had performed credit checks on Jafari and, in exchange for the credit, prepared markers that were executed by Jafari and post-dated. Jafari did not repay the credit advance by the post-date, and the casinos submitted the markers for payment against Jafari's bank account. Both the Wynn and Caesar's markers were returned with payment denied, stamped "Refer to Maker."
When Jafari's markers were returned unpaid, Wynn and Caesar's sued Jafari in federal district court in Nevada. On February 6, 2006, two days before his deadline for filing an answer in Nevada, Jafari and his wife Amanda filed an individual Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceeding in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Wisconsin. The bankruptcy filing stayed the Nevada lawsuit.
On August 8 and 11, 2006, Caesar's and Wynn filed timely proofs of claim in bankruptcy court for the amounts owing. Wynn submitted a proof of claim for $1,205,178.60. Caesar's submitted a proof of claim for $250,000. The Jafaris and the bankruptcy trustee, Mark Wittman, objected to the casinos' claims, arguing that they were gambling debts unenforceable under the Wisconsin Anti-Gaming Statute.
The question whether to allow or disallow the claims was presented to the bankruptcy court. The bankruptcy court concluded that it was required to follow the choice-of-law rules of the forum state, Wisconsin, rather than federal choice-of-law rules; that a Wisconsin court would apply Wisconsin substantive law to the casinos' claims; and that the claims were not allowed because they were "unenforceable" under the Wisconsin Anti-Gaming Statute, which states:
Gaming contracts void. (1) All promises, agreements, notes, bills, bonds, or other contracts, mortgages, conveyances or other securities, where the whole or any part of the consideration of the promise, agreement, note, bill, bond, mortgage, conveyance or other security shall be for money or other valuable thing whatsoever won or lost, laid or staked, or betted at or upon any game of any kind or under any name whatsoever, or by any means, or upon any race, fight, sport or pastime, or any wager, or for the repayment of money or other thing of value, lent or ...