MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
(Ruling on Taiwan Forum Non Conveniens Motion)
This multidistrict litigation consists of claims against the defendant pharmaceutical companies by citizens of various foreign countries who suffer from hemophilia. The plaintiffs allege that they contracted the HIV and/or Hepatitis C (HCV) viruses from using contaminated blood products manufactured by one or more of the defendants. The products were derived by the defendants from the plasma of paid blood donors and processed by the defendants into blood-clotting "factor concentrates" which could be infused by hemophiliacs. Plaintiffs allege that the viral contamination of the concentrates resulted from a number of negligent acts and omissions of the defendants in the collection and processing of the blood plasma. A further allegation is that after the defendants discovered the contamination, they withdrew the defective concentrates from distribution in the United States but continued to distribute them in foreign countries for use by unsuspecting foreign citizens, causing them to contract the HIV and/or HCV viruses.
The defendants deny the allegations in the complaints and, in addition, are moving to dismiss each of the cases on the ground of forum non conveniens. We have granted the defendants' motion in regard to the claims of citizens of the United Kingdom, In re Factor VIII or IX Concentrate Blood Products Liability Litigation, 408 F. Supp. 2d 569 (N.D. Ill. 2006), aff'd, In re Factor VIII or IX Concentrate Blood Products Litigation, 484 F.3d 951 (7th Cir. 2007); Argentina, In Re Factor VIII or IX Concentrate Blood Products Litigation, 531 F. Supp. 2d 957 (N.D. Ill. 2008) (presently on appeal); and Israel, In Re Factor VIII or IX Concentrate Blood Products Liability Litigation, 2008 WL 4866431 (N.D. Ill. June 4, 2008) (presently on appeal).
The history of the litigation is recounted in our United Kingdom decision, 408 F. Supp. 2d at 570-73. The present opinion is addressed to the motion of two of the four multidistrict defendants, Bayer Corporation and Baxter Healthcare Corporation, to dismiss the three complaints brought against them by citizens of Taiwan on the ground of forum non conveniens. The three complaints, involving a total of 37 individual plaintiffs, were filed in the United States District Courts for the Northern and Central Districts of California and transferred here by the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation. (The other two pharmaceutical companies named in complaints brought by citizens of other countries are not named in the Taiwan complaints.)*fn1
The three Taiwan complaints are substantially similar. The parties have tended to focus in their briefs on the Chang complaint as illustrative, and, for convenience, we will refer to these Taiwan claims as the Chang case.*fn2
Another difference between Chang and the rest of the cases in the MDL is that Chang alleges not only the tortious conduct that resulted in plaintiffs' infections, but, in addition, a claim that the plaintiffs were fraudulently induced by defendants to enter into a "humanitarian agreement" (the "Humanitarian Agreement") that purported to release any claims they might have against the defendants in return for a payment of $60,000 to each plaintiff. The allegation is that although the defendants knew at the time of the agreement that plaintiffs' infections had been caused by the defendants' negligent manufacture of their products, they concealed that fact from the plaintiffs and from the Taiwan Ministry of Health, which participated in the negotiations leading to the agreement and recommended to the plaintiffs that they accept the settlement. The plaintiffs do not make a claim for rescission of the agreement, but seek, rather, to recover damages, including an additional payment based on a "scale-up" provision - a provision of the agreement that calls for plaintiffs to receive additional moneys that might be necessary to make their total payments equal to any that might be received by other persons who settled their claims with the defendants.*fn3 (The "First Generation" claimants in this MDL settled with defendants for $100,000 per person.)
The defendants deny any fraudulent inducement or concealment and plead the Humanitarian Agreement as a settlement that bars the plaintiffs' tort claims against them.
THE LAW OF FORUM NON CONVENIENS
The defendants argue that the litigation of these claims in either of the California districts would be oppressively inconvenient for them for essentially the same reasons they have successfully moved to dismiss the other foreign claims. Taiwan, in their view, would be substantially more convenient for them and not substantially more inconvenient for the plaintiffs than California.
The steps involved in a forum non conveniens analysis are well-settled. The first step is a two-part inquiry as to whether the proposed alternative forum ... is available and adequate for the litigation of plaintiffs' claims. Kamel v. Hill-Rom Co., 108 F.3d 799, 802-03 (7th Cir. 1997) ("An alternative forum is available if all parties are amenable to process and are within the forum's jurisdiction. An alternative forum is adequate when the parties will not be deprived of all remedies or treated unfairly."). If the alternative forum is both available and adequate, "the district court must then balance the private and public interest factors that emerge in a given case." Id. (citations omitted). 531 F. Supp. 2d at 959-60.
The defendants agree as a condition of dismissal that they will accept service of process in Taiwan and that they will not challenge the Taiwanese court's jurisdiction. According to the defendants' expert witness, Peter Tuen-Ho Yang, a Taiwanese law professor, Taiwanese courts accept jurisdiction by consent (Yang Decl. ¶ 40), and plaintiffs offer no contrary opinion. Defendants also include in their motion to dismiss the additional stipulations we have found sufficient to protect the plaintiffs in Gullone, Abad and Ashkenazi. (Defs.' Mot. to Dismiss ¶ 2.)
Despite the statement of the Seventh Circuit in Kamel, 108 F.3d at 802, that "[a]n alternative forum is available if all parties are amenable to process and are within the forum's jurisdiction," the Chang plaintiffs begin their discussion with the statement that "[i]n determining whether Taiwan is an available forum, the issue is primarily whether the alternate forum affords plaintiff an adequate remedy." (Pls.' Mem. in Opp'n to Defs.' Mot. to Dismiss at 11.) Adequacy is a separate question, and we will consider it separately. As for the initial question of availability, we find that Taiwan is an available forum for the litigation of plaintiffs' claims because all parties are amenable to process and are within the Taiwanese court's jurisdiction.
A forum is "adequate" "when the parties will not be deprived of all remedies or treated unfairly," Kamel, 108 F.3d at 803. According to defendants' expert Professor Yang, all of the remedies sought by plaintiffs are available in the Taiwan courts. (Yang Decl. ¶¶ 41, 43-46.)
Plaintiffs' argument that the Taiwan forum is inadequate is based entirely upon their contention that their negligence and fraudulent inducement claims are probably barred by limitations in Taiwan. (Pls.' Mem. in Opp'n at 11-13.) As proof, they cite a case involving negligence and fraudulent inducement claims similar to theirs, the Peng case, which was dismissed by the Taiwan court on limitations grounds. (Pls.' Surreply at 9-11.)*fn4 (We have recently been informed by the defendants that the Taiwan Supreme Court has rejected the Peng appeal, so the result is final.)
Plaintiffs' point is that such a limitations bar would make Taiwan a forum where they would be "deprived of all remedies" within the meaning of the test for adequacy. They seem to admit, however, that the Peng decision would not affect their contract claim for enforcement of the scale-up provision.
The defendants argue in their reply brief that the ability of plaintiffs to assert their contract claim is some remedy, and that is enough. In their view, a time bar for some claims "does not mean that Taiwanese law provides no remedies, only that plaintiffs acted too late to take advantage of the remedies that it offers." (Defs.' Reply at 2.) They provide no case authority for the argument.
In further reply, the defendants argue that the limitations rules in Taiwan and in California are the same. The defendants conclude, therefore, that plaintiffs would suffer no disadvantage by having to litigate their claims in Taiwan as opposed to the federal district courts in California. Putting it another way, whatever inadequacy there is in Taiwan is matched in California, so that the factor of "inadequacy" becomes neutral and is no basis for denying defendants' motion to dismiss. Defendants rely on Younis v. American University in Cairo, 30 F. Supp. 2d 390 (S.D.N.Y. 1998) and our own decision in Abad, 531 F. Supp. 2d at 971-72. (Reply at 2-3.)
Defendants' assertion that the California courts would apply Taiwanese limitations law is based on a twofold argument. First, California choice-of-law rules use a "governmental interest" test to select the applicable statute of limitations, as explained in Orr v. Bank of America, 285 F.3d 764, 772 n.4 (9th Cir. 2002). (Defs' Reply at 3.) Defendants argue that Taiwan's interest in this litigation is, for various reasons, far greater than any interest the State of California may have; therefore, Taiwan limitations law applies. (Defs.' Reply at 3.)
The defendants' other rationale for applying Taiwan limitations law is California's "borrowing statute," which provides that when a cause of action has arisen in a foreign country, and the action is barred by limitations in that country, it is also barred in California. (Id.)
Alternatively, defendants argue that even if they were subject to the ordinary two-year California statute of limitations, plaintiffs' negligence claims would have been barred two years after they discovered they had been injured by defendants' concentrates. Defendants contend that the two-year period had expired years before plaintiffs filed these Chang suits in 2004. Thus, plaintiffs' claims are "time-barred under California's two-year statute of limitations just as clearly as under any Taiwanese statute." (Id. at 4.)
In their surreply brief, the plaintiffs provide authority for their contention that a limitations bar makes a forum inadequate. They cite Bank of Credit & Commerce International (Overseas) v. State Bank of Pakistan, 273 F.3d 241 (2d Cir. 2001). That case does hold that "an adequate forum does not exist if a statute of limitations bars the bringing of the case in that forum." 273 F.3d at 246. Plaintiff sued in New York state court to collect on a loan it had made to the central bank of Pakistan. The defendant removed the case to the federal district court for the Southern District of New York, which granted the defendant's motion for dismissal on the ground of forum non conveniens. There is no indication in the opinion that there was any New York statute of limitations that caused any problem, and there is no mention of any borrowing statute. There was, however, a substantial question as to whether the action was barred by limitations in Pakistan. The Court of Appeals held that the district court had not made an adequate investigation as to whether the action would be time-barred in Pakistan. The case was reversed and remanded for reconsideration of the trial court's decision that Pakistan was an adequate alternative forum.
In holding that a limitations bar makes a forum inadequate, the Second Circuit cited Mercier v. Sheraton Int'l, Inc., 935 F.2d 419, 426 (1st Cir. 1991) and Kontoulas v. A.H. Robins Co., 745 F.2d 312, 316 (4th Cir. 1984). Those decisions do support the conclusion reached by the Second Circuit. In Mercier, the plaintiffs brought suit in the District of Massachusetts for an alleged breach of contract to operate a casino in one of the defendant's hotels in Turkey. The district court granted the defendant's motion to dismiss for forum non conveniens, relying on the affidavit of defendants' expert, a Turkish law professor. The Court of Appeals found the affidavit insufficient to establish that Turkey was an adequate alternative forum because, inter alia, the affidavit did not discuss the question of whether plaintiffs' action would be barred by limitations in Turkey. 935 F.2d at 425. The plaintiffs had called to the attention of the Court of Appeals "authority apparently not provided to the district court suggesting that Turkey has a one-year statute of limitations that would bar the claims sought to be pursued in the present action." Id. The case was reversed and remanded for further consideration of the adequacy of the Turkish forum. Id. at 430.
There is no indication in the Mercier opinion that there was any limitations problem in Massachusetts. It was Turkey that presented the problem, with its unusual one-year limitations period.
Kontoulas was a series of product liability actions involving the intrauterine contraceptive device known as the Dalkon Shield. All of the cases were filed in the district of Maryland by non-residents of Maryland. The multiple defendants moved to dismiss the cases on the basis of forum non conveniens, arguing that the plaintiffs' home states or home countries were more convenient fora than the district of Maryland. The district court denied the motion, and the Court of Appeals affirmed. Discussing the motion of the defendant Robins, the Court noted that "Robins has not met its heavy burden of showing for each individual action that no statute of limitations in the plaintiff's home state renders that state ineligible to serve as an alternative forum." 745 F.2d at 316. The opinion contains no indication that there was any limitations problem in the district of Maryland.
In their response to the plaintiffs' surreply, the defendants do not discuss these cases. Neither side has cited a Seventh Circuit case on this question of whether a limitations bar makes a forum inadequate, nor have we found any Seventh Circuit authority. However, we think these decisions from the First, Second and Fourth Circuits could well be followed by the Seventh Circuit when it does consider the matter, and we see no reason to think otherwise. One possible distinction, of course, is that the possible limitations bars in the alternative fora involved in those cases were, as far as we can tell, complete bars of all of the plaintiffs' claims, not just some of them. However, it is certainly relevant that the major claims of the Chang plaintiffs are their negligence claims, seeking compensation for the debilitating infections allegedly caused by the defendants' concentrates, and their fraudulent inducement claims, seeking to set aside the settlement of their negligence claims. Their contract claims under the scale-up provision are puny in comparison to the negligence claims. We conclude, therefore, that the defendants have not carried their burden of showing that Taiwan is an adequate forum.
But this does not mean that the defendants' motion to dismiss must be denied. We return to the defendants' point that the result would be the same in Taiwan and in California as far as limitations is concerned. If that is true, we do not see why plaintiffs' limitations problem in Taiwan entitles them to litigate the identical question in California. If the rules are identical, it does not appear that the plaintiffs would suffer any greater detriment -- at least as far as limitations is concerned -- by proceeding in Taiwan instead of California.
Plaintiffs' position, however, is that the California courts will apply different limitations rules than obtain in Taiwan, so in their view, this entire discussion is beside the point. According to plaintiffs, Taiwan is inadequate, and California is adequate. We will proceed, therefore, to an analysis of what limitations law would be applied by the transferor district courts in California.
The federal courts in California sitting in these diversity cases would apply California's "governmental interest test" to determine what limitations law applies to the actions. Orr, 285 F.3d at 772 n.4. In American Bank of Commerce v. Corondoni, 169 Cal. App. 3d 368 (Cal. Ct. App. 1985), cited in Orr, the court explained this test:
The court first determines whether the "interest" or policy underlying the law will be significantly furthered by its application to the case at hand. If both California and the foreign state have a strong interest in applying their own law, a true conflict exists. The court then engages in a "comparative impairment" analysis, and applies the law of the state whose interest would be the more impaired if its law were not applied.
Nevertheless, California's general preference is to apply its own law. If the interests of the foreign state will not be significantly furthered by applying its law, the California court must conclude ...