The opinion of the court was delivered by: Magistrate Judge Nan R. Nolan
Judge Virginia M. Kendall
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
Plaintiff Miyano Machinery USA, Inc. ("MMU") is suing MiyanoHitec Machinery, Inc., Thomas ("Tom") Miyano and Steven Miyano for trademark infringement, cybersquatting, unfair competition, unfair trade practices, and declaratory judgment with respect to certain marks which are used with machine tools and as service marks. Defendants have counterclaimed against MMU and its parent corporation, Miyano Machinery, Inc. ("MMJ") for declarations that the marks have been canceled and are invalid, and charging Counterdefendants with unfair competition, deceptive trade practices, and false designation.*fn1
Currently before the court are (1) a motion to quash a subpoena served on one of MMU's attorneys, George H. Kobayashi; (2) Defendants' motion to compel, to pierce the attorney-client and work product privileges and to enforce the subpoena; and (3) MMU's cross-motion for an order compelling the return of privileged documents and for a protective order. For the reasons set forth below, the motion to quash and the cross-motion are both granted and the motion to compel is denied.
Defendant Tom Miyano served as the president and chairman of MMU until approximately December 31, 2003. During that time, MMU -- and, possibly, Tom Miyano personally -- was represented by the law firm of Masuda Funai Eifert & Mitchell, Ltd. ("MFEM"). George Kobayashi, an attorney with MFEM, signed two declarations that were included with MMU's applications to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("PTO") for the four trademarks and one service mark at issue in this case (collectively, "trademarks" or "marks"): (1) R. 3,328,718 - MIYANO; (2) R. 1,527,809 -MIYANO (stylized); (3) R. 1,217,317 U.S. Reg No. 1,217,318 - Triangle Winged M; (4) S. 77/176918 - Triangle Winged M; and (5) R. 1,473,925 - MIYANO THE WORLD LEADER IN PRECISION. Mr. Kobayashi's November 5, 2002 declaration was made in connection with MMU's application for renewal of the Triangle Winged M and MIYANO marks for use on machines. His September 13, 2007 declaration was made in connection with MMU's application to register the Triangle Winged M and MIYANO marks as service marks. In both declarations, Mr. Kobayashi represented that the factual information provided was based on "information and belief." (See Exs. A and B to Def. Mot.) MFEM and Mr. Kobayashi continued to represent MMU after Tom Miyano left the company and they are currently serving as counsel for both MMU and MMJ in this lawsuit.
In response to MMU's complaint, Defendants filed an Answer, Affirmative Defenses and Counterclaims alleging, among other things, that MMU fraudulently obtained the MIYANO and Triangle Winged M marks by (1) failing to disclose that Defendants were using the Miyano name "in connection with goods falling within Plaintiff's description of goods/services"; and (2) falsely certifying that MMU was using the Triangle Winged M mark at the time of the applications. (Second, Fourth, Fifth Defenses; Counterclaim Counts II - IV.) On February 1, 2008, MMU filed a motion for preliminary injunction and the parties commenced expedited discovery.
On March 19, 2008, Defendants served a subpoena on Mr. Kobayashi requiring that he appear for a deposition and produce the following:
All documents and communications, electronic or otherwise, relating to applications and registrations of trademarks by, for or on behalf of Miyano Machinery USA, Inc., or its predecessors, from and after January 1, 1990. (Ex. A to Motion to Quash.) Shortly thereafter, Defendants moved to disqualify MFEM as counsel for MMJ; Mr. Kobayashi and MFEM responded with a motion to quash the subpoena. At a hearing on April 8, 2008, the court instructed the parties to meet and confer regarding both matters. Defendants subsequently withdrew the motion to disqualify and the parties further agreed amongst themselves that MFEM would produce non-privileged documents responsive to the subpoena that are contained in their files and that relate to the five trademarks at issue in this case.
On April 10, 2008, Defendants served Interrogatories on MMU seeking specific information relating to the five trademarks. MFEM and MMU agreed to respond to the interrogatories, to produce non-privileged documents, and to provide a privilege log of documents that were withheld. MMU provided this response on May 1, 2008, along with the names of six individuals knowledgeable about the circumstances surrounding the Kobayashi declarations. Defendants, however, deemed the response inadequate. During a telephone conference on May 6, 2008, Defendants apparently explained that they were seeking "all MMU's information and beliefs relating to or bearing on the declarations made by Mr. Kobayashi in the applications at issue." (Def. Mot. ¶ 14.) Defendants claim that, to date, MMU and MFEM have produced only (1) public documents; (2) non-responsive and irrelevant documents; (3) 174 pages of additional documents not relating to the factual information Mr. Kobayashi relied upon in the trademark applications; and (4) a privilege log. Defendants claim that the privilege log, which MMU revised on May 9, 2008, is inadequate in its entirety, but they offer no specific argument in that regard.
Rather, Defendants focus on "Exhibit L," bates-stamped MMU0017647-17649, which MMU mistakenly produced to Defendants but now seek to recover as privileged. Exhibit L is a January 8, 2008 email from Mr. Kobayashi to Gentaro Kakumae, the head of MMU's accounting department, and Mr. Kakumae's undated response. Defendants argue that Exhibit L demonstrates that Mr. Kobayashi "did not have sufficient factual information on which to base his declarations." (Def. Mot. ¶ 29.) Defendants insist that Exhibit L is not protected by the attorney-client or work product privileges, and that even if it is, the privilege should be pierced because the document evidences a fraud on the PTO. Defendants also claim to need the deposition of Mr. Kobayashi to discover his factual knowledge regarding the five trademarks at issue here. In essence, Defendants' several theories are all designed to secure information setting forth the factual bases for MMU's claimed use of the trademarks. MMU and MFEM disagree with all of Defendants' arguments and ask that the court order the return of Exhibit L, deem their production complete, and bar the deposition of Mr. Kobayashi.
Defendants dispute the privileged nature of Exhibit L and argue that the crime-fraud exception to the privilege applies in any event. Before addressing these arguments, the court first notes that Defendants also suggest that the court should conduct an in camera review of all of the documents identified on MMU's privilege log to determine whether they are in fact privileged. (Def. Mot. ¶ 36.) The only basis for this suggestion is Defendants' claim that "[i]t is impossible to determine from the privilege log . . . if any of the myriad documents relate to the factual bases for the declarations proffered in support of the marks in issue." (Id. ¶ 35.) Defendants presumably believe that the court ...