UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS EASTERN DIVISION
January 16, 2008
MIDWEST CANVAS CORP., AN ILLINOIS CORPORATION, PLAINTIFF,
COMMONWEALTH CANVAS, INC., A MASSACHUSETTS CORP., ET AL., DEFENDANTS.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Judge Joan B. Gottschall
Magistrate Judge Sidney Schenkier
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
Plaintiff Midwest Canvas Corp. ("Midwest") has filed suit against defendants Commonwealth Canvas, Inc. ("Commonwealth"), Raw Equipment Corporation ("Raw"), and Constructioncomplete.com ("CC.com") alleging, inter alia, violations by Commonwealth and Raw of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a) (Count V); the Uniform Trade Deceptive Practices Act, 815 ILCS 510/1 (Count VI); and state common law unfair competition (Count VII); and violation by Commonwealth and CC.com of the Lanham Act (Count VIII); the Uniform Trade Deceptive Practices Act (Count IX); and state common law unfair competition (Count X). Before the court is Commonwealth's motion to dismiss Counts V-X and Raw's motion to dismiss Counts V-VII. For the reasons set forth below, Commonwealth's and Raw's motions to dismiss are granted.
Midwest and Commonwealth are competing corporations engaged in the manufacture of, among other items, concrete curing blankets. Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶¶ 1-2. Concrete curing blankets are employed to cover freshly poured concrete. The blanket protects the surface of the concrete and its insulating qualities trap the heat released as the concrete cures and thus accelerates the hardening process; this is particularly important during construction in cold weather. Raw is a corporation engaged in the marketing and distribution of Commonwealth's products, including its curing blankets. Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶¶ 3-4.
One of Commonwealth's curing blankets, with the trade name "Cure-All," is listed on the website of the New York Department of Transportation ("NYDOT") on the page presenting the "Technical Services -- Materials -- Approved List" of form insulation materials for winter concreting (Form 711-07). Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶¶ 40-41; see also https://www.nysdot.gov/portal/page/portal/divisions/engineering/ technical-services/technical-services-repository/alme/pages/310-1.html (last visited Jan. 8, 2008). Commonwealth's blanket is one of seventeen curing blankets manufactured by eleven different corporations (including two of Midwest's "Insul-Tarp" products) that are listed as approved for use in NYDOT construction projects. Id.; Pl.'s First Amended Comp. Exh. C. The NYDOT website lists the Commonwealth "Cure-All" blanket as having a thickness of 25 mm (1"). Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶ 42. No pricing or direct ordering information are listed on the website. Pl.'s First Amended Comp. Exh. C.
In April 2007, after the initial complaint in this suit was filed*fn1 , Tim Dunphy ("Dunphy"), who was employed as a sales manager by Midwest, placed an order with Raw for a 25 mm "Cure-All" curing blanket, the same as listed on the NYDOT website. Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶ ¶ 43-44. Raw duly delivered a curing blanket, together with an invoice describing it as a "CLOSED CELL 1" NYSDOT CURING BLANKETS (sic) 6'x 25'." Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶¶ 45-46, Exh. D. Midwest claims that Dunphy, upon inspecting the curing blanket received from Raw, discovered that it was not 25 mm in thickness. Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶¶ 47-48.
Previously, in February 2007, Dunphy had likewise ordered a 1/2 " (CC2) and 1" ("CC4") curing blankets from CC.com, which advertises and sells Commonwealth curing blankets. Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶¶ 62-65, Exh. E. The order was confirmed via email and, later, two curing blankets, together with a work order describing the blankets as being "CC2 6x25 2 LAYER FOAM CONCRETE CURING BLANKET" and "MISC CC-2 4 LAYER FOAM CONCRETE CURING BLANKET," were received by Midwest. Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶¶ 66-68, Exhs. F-G. Midwest claims that the received blankets were not 1/2 " and 1" respectively in thickness. Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶ 69.
Count V of Midwest's first amended complaint claims that the invoice accompanying the curing blanket received from Raw constitutes commercial advertising as defined by the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a), and that Raw's provision of a curing blanket that was not 25 mm in thickness thereby constituted materially false and misleading representations about the nature and quality of the curing blanket. Counts VI and VII are pendant state and common law claims that Raw's actions respectively constituted a violation of the Illinois Uniform Trade Practices Act, 815 ILCS 510/1 et seq. and "New York and other state common law unfair competition."
Similarly, Count VIII of Midwest's amended complaint claims that the work order received with the blankets from CC.com constitutes false advertising in violation of the Lanham Act and that Commonwealth and CC.com's actions in selling the blankets are misleading and false. Counts IX and X claim respectively violations of the Illinois Uniform Trade Practices Act, 815 ILCS 510/1 et seq., and unfair competition under Illinois common law. Commonwealth has filed a motion to dismiss Counts V-X under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6) and Raw has filed a motion to dismiss Counts V-VII on the same theory. Raw has also moved to dismiss the amended complaint under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 9(b), alleging that Midwest has failed to plead fraud with the required particularity. Because the issues in both motions are essentially identical, the court considers both of these motions together.
To survive a motion to dismiss under 12(b)(6), "the complaint need only contain a 'short and plain statement of the claim showing that the pleader is entitled to relief.'" Equal Opportunity Comm'n v. Concentra Health Servs., Inc., 496 F.3d 773, 776 (7th Cir. 2007) (quoting Fed. R. Civ. P. 8(a)(2)). The complaint "must describe the claim in sufficient detail to give the defendant 'fair notice of what the . claim is and the grounds upon which it rests' . [and] its allegations must plausibly suggest that the plaintiff has a right to relief, raising that possibility above a 'speculative level'; if they do not, the plaintiff pleads itself out of court." Concentra, 496 F.3d at 776 (quoting Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, --- U.S. ----, 127 S.Ct. 1955, 1964, 1973 n.14 (2007)).
A. Midwest's Counts V-VII
Count V claims specifically that the invoice accompanying Raw's shipment of the blanket to Midwest constituted advertising under the Lanham Act, and that Commonwealth and Raw's collective actions of selling blankets that are purported to be 1" thick but are not constitute material false and misleading misrepresentations about the nature of Commonwealth's products.
The Lanham Act (§ 43(a)) provides in relevant part that any person who: "in commercial advertising or promotion, misrepresents the nature, characteristics, qualities, or geographic origin of his or her or another person's goods, services, or commercial activities, shall be liable in a civil action by any person who believes that he or she is likely to be damaged by such act." 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a)(1)(B). To establish a claim under the false or deceptive advertising prong of § 43(a) of the Lanham Act, a plaintiff must prove: (1) a false statement of fact by the defendant in a commercial advertisement about its own or another's product; (2) the statement actually deceived or has the tendency to deceive a substantial segment of its audience; (3) the deception is material, in that it is likely to influence the purchasing decision; (4) the defendant caused its false statement to enter interstate commerce; and (5) the plaintiff has been or is likely to be injured as a result of the false statement, either by direct diversion of sales from itself to defendant or by a loss of goodwill associated with its products. Hot Wax, Inc. v. Turtle Wax, Inc., 191 F.3d 813, 819 (7th Cir. 1999); The Monotype Corp. v. Simon & Schuster, Inc., No. 99 C 4128, 2000 WL 1852907, at *6 (N.D. Ill. Sept. 8, 2000).
Midwest specifically claims that the invoice accompanying the allegedly misrepresented curing blanket constitutes false commercial advertising under the Lanham Act. For a statement to amount to "commercial advertising or promotion" the statements must be (1) commercial speech (2) by a defendant who is in commercial competition with the plaintiff (3) for the purpose of inducing consumers to buy defendant's goods or services (4) disseminated sufficiently to the relevant purchasing public. Health Care Compare Corp. v. United Payors and United Providers, Inc., No. 96 C 2518, 1998 WL 122900 at *3 (N.D. Ill. Mar. 13, 1998).
The court finds that Midwest's argument that the invoice accompanying Raw's delivered curing blanket constitutes advertising fails to meet these criteria. An invoice sent to an individual customer and accompanying an order can hardly be construed to have been "disseminated sufficiently to the relevant purchasing public" because it lacks the element of publicity required by the Lanham Act. American Needle & Novelty, Inc. v. Drew Pearson Marketing, Inc., 820 F. Supp. 1072, 1078 (N.D. Ill. 1993) (Lanham Act's use of the terms "advertising" or "promotion" have requisite element of publicity); see also Park 'N Fly, Inc. v. Dollar Park & Fly, Inc., 469 U.S. 189, 194 (1985) ("Statutory construction must begin with the language employed by Congress and the assumption that the ordinary meaning of that language accurately expresses the legislative purpose."). An invoice accompanying an order shipped to an individual customer lacks the requisite element of publicity. It is true, as Midwest points out correctly, that the required level of circulation establishing publicity will vary according to the specifics of each industry and can be so small as to comprise a single party. Seven-up Co. v. Coca-Cola Co., 86 F.3d 1379, 1385 (5th Cir. 1996). Nevertheless, even if a presentation to a single individual could possibly be considered public enough to satisfy publicity requirement of the statute, an invoice cannot be advertising because it is not an inducement to buy, but rather reflects an agreed-upon transaction.
Specifically, an invoice accompanying an order shipped to a client is not sent for the "purpose of inducing consumers to buy defendant's goods or services"; the goods accompanying a shipment have already been ordered by the consumer who needs no further inducement to buy them. In sum, a single private communication from one party to another that is not an inducement to buy does not constitute commercial advertising sufficient to establish liability under the Lanham Act. See American Needle, 820 F. Supp. at 1078.
In its response to Commonwealth's and Raw's motions to dismiss, Midwest argues that the fourth prong is also satisfied because Commonwealth caused its products to become listed by NYDOT on NYDOT's website, and also because Commonwealth allegedly employed distributors who disseminated the "defendant's" (presumably Commonwealth's) statements over the internet in connection with promoting the sale of 1" NYDOT approved concrete curing blankets. The specifics of this claim are not clearly alleged in Midwest's complaint, but the court will assume, arguendo, that this argument falls under the rubric of Midwest's allegations, stated in its complaint, that Commonwealth's and Raw's "misrepresentations constituting false advertising" resulted from their "actions of selling concrete curing blankets that are purported to be 1" blankets when they are not .." Pl.'s First Amended Compl. ¶¶ 50-52 To begin with, Midwest's claims on this point fall far short of the particularity required by Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 9(b) for pleadings alleging fraud. When alleging claims of fraud or mistake, the plaintiff is required to plead with specificity the who, the what, the where, and the when of the alleged fraud. FED R. CIV. P. 9(b); Fidelity Nat. Title Ins. Co. of New York v. Intercounty Nat. Title Ins., 412 F.3d 745, 749 (7th Cir. 2005). In Count V, Midwest vaguely alleges that the listing of the Commonwealth blanket on the NYDOT site, and Commonwealth's and Raw's alleged misrepresentations, are somehow connected in such a way as to create a fraudulent advertisement in violation of the Lanham Act. But Midwest fails to allege with particularity just what, if any, the connection between the NYDOT website and Raw is. Not does it aver with any particularity what allegedly false statements have been made by Commonwealth or Raw other than the invoice; and the court has already determined that the invoice is not a commercial advertisement. Moreover, it does not allege with sufficient particularity a causal connection between Commonwealth's listing of its product on the NYDOT website and any direct or indirect misrepresentation whatever by Commonwealth to Midwest.
Even placing the issue of particularity aside, the listing of Commonwealth's (and Midwest's) curing blankets on the NYDOT website cannot be construed as a commercial advertisement by Commonwealth because the actual maker of the statement, NYDOT, a state government entity, is not in direct commercial competition with any of the companies whose curing blankets are listed on its Website, including Commonwealth and Midwest. Therefore, the listing cannot be a commercial advertisement or promotion by which liability can be established under § 43(a) of the Lanham Act. Health Care Compare, 1998 WL 122900 at *3.
Furthermore, the NYDOT website listing of approved construction materials, including curing blankets, is not an inducement to the public to buy Commonwealth's (or any of the other manufacturer's) products. The listing of approved materials on the NYDOT website is presented as part of a "quality assurance program for materials incorporated into [NYDOT] projects .." See https://www.nysdot.gov/portal/page/ portal/divisions/engineering/technical-services/materials-bureau/materials-and-equipment (last visited Jan. 8, 2008). In short, the website lists materials approved for use by NYDOT and its contractors in carrying out NYDOT projects. It is just possible, arguably, that such a listing could have mixed commercial and non-commercial components - identifying blankets suitable for NYDOT purposes as well as supporting preferred vendors. The key to determining whether such a listing might qualify as commercial advertising for Lanham Act purposes is an analysis of whether the language is motivated primarily by commercial concerns, or whether there are sufficient noncommercial motivations. Monotype, 2000 WL 1852907, at *7: Oxycal Lab., Inc. v. Jeffers, 909 F. Supp. 719, 725 (S.D. Cal. 1995). Under this analysis, the listing of approved materials cannot be construed as commercial advertising: its principal purpose is to ensure that approved materials of sufficient quality are employed by NYDOT and its contractors in its construction projects. Such a purpose is most reasonably interpreted as being motivated by both quality assurance and public safety concerns. Because the principal purpose of the listing is informational, rather than commercial, it is not commercial advertising, and Midwest's claim fails. Monotype, 2000 WL 1852907, at *7.
Finally, Counts VI and VII allege the same factual elements as Count V. The same analysis employed in determining whether a claim for false or deceptive advertising exists under the Lanham Act is employed for Illinois false advertising claims. Muzikowski v. Paramount Pictures Corp., 477 F.3d 899, 907 (7th Cir. 2007); Peaceable Planet, Inc. v. Ty, Inc., 362 F.3d 986, 994 (7th Cir.2004). Therefore, for the same reasons presented above, Counts VI and VII also fail to state a claim upon which relief can be granted under the Illinois Uniform Trade Practices Act, 815 ILCS 510/1 et seq., and state common law unfair competition.*fn2 Midwest's Counts V through VII against Commonwealth and Raw are consequently dismissed.
B. Midwest's Counts VIII-X
Midwest's Counts VIII through X against Commonwealth and CC.com have the same weaknesses as do Counts V through VII of their amended complaint against Commonwealth and Raw. Midwest's argument that the "work order" accompanying its order of two curing blankets from CC.com fails because a work order cannot be construed as commercial advertising by the court for the same reason that an invoice cannot be: it fails to meet the required elements of inducement of the public to buy and publicity. See American Needle, 820 F. Supp. at 1078. Midwest's implied claim that Commonwealth is somehow responsible for the representations on CC.com's website (which are presented as exhibits but not alleged as constituting false advertising in Counts VIII-X complaint) is not made with sufficient particularity to satisfy the requirements of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 9(b).*fn3 Moreover, for the same reasons as listed above, because Count VIII fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted under the Lanham Act, the Illinois statutory and common law claims of Counts IX and X also fail and Commonwealth's motion to dismiss these Counts is also granted.
For the reasons listed above, Commonwealth's motion to dismiss Counts V-X and Raw's motion to dismiss Counts V-VII of Midwest's first amended complaint are granted.
JOAN B. GOTTSCHALL United States District Judge