Appeal from the Circuit Court of Winnebago County. No. 06-MH-628 Honorable Patrick L. Heaslip, Judge, Presiding.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Justice Callum
Respondent, Angel S., appeals from the trial court's order finding her to be a person subject to involuntary admission and committing her to the Department of Mental Health for 90 days. On appeal, respondent challenges the order on the bases that (1) the State failed to present clear and convincing evidence that because of her mental illness she was unable to provide for her basic physical needs, and (2) the trial court failed to consider less restrictive treatment alternatives to hospitalization. We agree with respondent's second contention and reverse.
On August 7, 2006, Sheila Dock, a counselor at Swedish American Hospital, filed a petition for involuntary admission, alleging that respondent was mentally ill and by reason of her mental illness was unable to provide for her basic physical needs so as to guard herself from serious harm. The petition was accompanied by the certificates of two psychiatrists. On August 15, 2006, the trial court held a hearing on the matter. The facts presented below are derived from the evidence presented at that hearing.
Sheila Dock testified that she is the assessment and referral counselor in the emergency room of Swedish American Hospital. Her position entails meeting with patients who suffer from mental illness and referring the patients to the most suitable placement. Dock testified that on August 5, 2006, respondent came to the emergency room stating that she had suffered burns to her neck from a ventilator in her car. Dock did not observe any burns to respondent's neck. Respondent further stated that there was an invisible man stabbing her in the chest. Dock testified that respondent was delusional and very hostile. Respondent reported that she was not sleeping much. Respondent denied that she was on medication and denied that she had been seeing a mental health counselor. Dock then checked the hospital's computer system and determined that at respondent's last hospital visit, respondent was taking psychotropic medications, which she had now stopped taking. Dock also determined that respondent had made previous visits to the Janet Wattles Center, which provides mental health services. Later that evening, a counselor from the Janet Wattles Center came to the hospital to assess respondent. The counselor recommended that respondent be hospitalized. Dock in turn filed the petition for involuntary admission.
Dock further testified that during respondent's stay at the hospital, respondent ignored the hospital staff's request to stay in her room and instead would circle around the nurses' station, mumbling unintelligibly to herself. Respondent was very agitated and upset. Dock believed that respondent was unable to care for herself due to her delusional state. Dock also testified that respondent drove herself to the hospital but that it was unsafe for respondent to drive at this time.
On cross-examination, Dock admitted that respondent arrived at the hospital safely in her own car. Dock was also told that respondent had a place to live. Dock stated that respondent did not appear to be malnourished and that respondent's appetite was normal. Dock never questioned respondent about how she obtained food, if she cooked for herself, or whether she had any financial means of support. Dock also failed to evaluate whether respondent had an understanding of money. Dock testified that although respondent had been previously prescribed medication, it was possible that respondent was not currently under a doctor's order to take medication.
Next, psychiatrist Joann Langley testified that she was appointed by the court to examine respondent. Langley examined respondent on August 7, 2006, and again briefly on the day of the hearing. During both examinations, respondent exhibited signs of mental illness, including delusions, paranoid ideation, agitation, and hostility. Langley opined that respondent suffered from paranoid schizophrenia. Langley came to this conclusion based on respondent's beliefs that her identity and money had been stolen and that she had been placed in the hospital by mistake. Respondent insisted that another person by the same name must be responsible for this situation. Respondent also stated that someone was tampering with her mailbox, preventing her from receiving her medications. Langley explained that it is common for a person with paranoid schizophrenia to believe that her identity or thoughts are being stolen, or that ideas are being inserted into her brain.
When Langley reviewed with respondent the petition seeking involuntary admission, respondent explained that her comments in the emergency room were misunderstood and that it only felt like someone was stabbing her in the chest. Respondent also explained that the heat vent in her car had been focused on her neck, causing the burning to her neck.
During her hospital stay, respondent was very hostile toward the hospital staff and would yell, swear, and make derogatory remarks about them. Respondent accused the staff of fabricating lies and accused Langley of being an advocate for the devil. Respondent expressed fear that the staff would assault and rape her. Langley witnessed a phone conversation between respondent and her case manager, where respondent screamed into the phone and insisted that her money, belongings, and identity were being stolen. On August 15, Langley was unable to finish her interview because respondent was speaking over Langley in a loud voice and eventually respondent simply left the room.
Langley opined that respondent was mentally ill and because of her illness was unable to provide for her basic care. Langley considers several criteria in making such a determination, including whether the patient has a place to stay, and in this case respondent indicated that she had an apartment. Langley did not, however, verify this information. Langley would also generally ask a patient how she would receive medical care, how she would obtain food, and how she would keep herself safe. Langley did not provide respondent's responses to these specific questions, although Langley later reported that respondent was not forthcoming with information during the interviews. Respondent refused to discuss food, money, or whether she had family or friends who could provide her with assistance. Respondent stated that she was with the military, and Langley verified with the Veteran's Administration that respondent was indeed a veteran and a patient. Langley testified that respondent sought medical attention on her own and that while at the hospital she agreed to receive an electrocardiogram.
Langley further testified that, while at the hospital, respondent was receiving "emergency medication" that is "ordered through restriction of rights when a person is evaluated as being at risk of harming themselves, someone else, or at risk of decompensating to the point where there would be serious problems." The emergency medication was ordered on August 9, five days after respondent's initial hospitalization, because respondent was screaming, pounding on a desk, and threatening to break furniture.
A report prepared by Langley was also before the court. Langley did not testify regarding the report, but the report reveals that respondent was being treated by a psychiatrist and a social worker with the Veteran's Care Facility. Also, the report reveals that respondent stated that she rents an apartment but she became angry and suspicious when Langley asked about it.
Langley further explained that her primary concern was respondent's lack of trust. Langley opined that while respondent would probably be safe in her own home and possibly at the clinic where she receives treatment, respondent "would have difficulty getting to and from anywhere." Because of her extreme paranoia, her argumentativeness, and her belief that people are trying to harm her, Langley opined that respondent would have difficulty with many activities, including shopping in a store, taking a bus, accepting a policeman's assistance, and waiting in a clinic waiting room. Langley further testified that if respondent had enough food in her apartment, she could probably survive for a period of time without any assistance, but otherwise, respondent would be unable to care for herself at the present time.
After the presentation of the evidence, the trial court found that it was clear that respondent suffered from paranoid schizophrenia. The court noted that it next had to decide whether respondent could provide for her basic physical needs without ...