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Suarez v. Kwoks International Trading

September 25, 2007


The opinion of the court was delivered by: Judge Rebecca R. Pallmeyer


Plaintiff Richard Suarez, an Hispanic man born in Mexico, worked for Defendant Kwoks International Trading Inc. (hereinafter "Kwok's") from June 2002 until May 2003, when Kwok's terminated his employment. Suarez sued Kwok's under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e et seq., alleging that the company discriminated against him by paying him inadequately, by creating a hostile work environment, and by terminating him on the basis of his Hispanic status and in retaliation for his complaints about prior discrimination.

Kwok's now moves for summary judgment on all of Suarez's claims. Suarez moves to strike portions of Kwok's Reply in Support of Its Motion for Summary Judgment and its Response to Plaintiff's Additional Statements of Fact. For the reasons stated below, this court grants summary judgment in favor of Kwok's on the pay discrimination claim, denies summary judgment on Suarez's other claims, and denies Suarez's motions to strike.


The facts are recounted in the light most favorable to Suarez, the non-movant on this motion for summary judgment.

Kwok's Owners and Managers

Kwoks International Trading, Inc., d/b/a Kwok's Food Service, was an Illinois corporation, dissolved in August of 2004, that was in the business of selling meats and poultry at wholesale. (Pl.'s LR 56.1 Resp. ¶ 2.) In June 2002, Kwok's hired Suarez, who is of Mexican national origin, as a sales representative, in an effort to tap into Suaraz's prior experience selling meat to Hispanic-owned businesses. (Id. ¶¶ 1, 11, 13.) At the time he was hired, Suarez had more than thirty years of experience in the meat industry, (id. ¶ 6), and was friendly with two of Kwok's owners, Peter Ng and Christine Chun. (Id. ¶¶ 7-9.)

Peter Ng oversaw all aspects of Kwok's business and also personally purchased and sold meat. (Def.'s LR 56.1 Resp. ¶ 3.) Christine Chun, also a manager of Kwok's, was responsible for office administration and human resources functions, including hiring. (Id. ¶ 2.) Charlie Chun, Christine Chun's younger brother, was the Sales and Operations Manager of Kwok's; he had the power to hire and fire employees. (Id. ¶¶ 1-2; Ng Dep. 16:22-17:7.) Louis Ng's role at Kwok's is disputed, but Suarez notes that in its response to his EEOC charge, Kwok's successor admitted Louis Ng was a manager and owner of Kwok's. (EEOC Charge of Discrimination, Pl's App. Ex. 1, DEF0107 ¶ 4; Charles Austin Limited's EEOC Response, Pl's App. Ex. 1, DEF0112 ¶ 4.) Louis Ng apparently exercised supervisory authority over workers in the shipping and receiving areas of the warehouse; Charlie Chun testified that Louis Ng "watched over the warehouse, the shipping and receiving" and "[made] sure that no one was doing something that they weren't supposed to [do]." (Charlie Chun Dep. 69:16-19.)

Peter Ng, Louis Ng, and Christine Chun are of Asian origin. (Answer to Am. Compl. ¶ 8.) Suarez asserts that apart from him, all the office staff at Kwok's were of Asian descent while he was employed there, (Suarez Dep. 48:10-12), and Kwok's has not denied this. (Def.'s LR 56.1 Resp. ¶ 6.) The parties agree that the "great majority" of Kwok's employees who worked "on the floor"-that is, in the warehouse and the area where chickens were deboned-were Hispanic, and that the majority of Kwok's employees worked on the floor. (Def.'s LR 56.1 Stmt. ¶¶ 46, 48; Pl.'s LR 56.1 Resp. ¶¶ 46, 48.)*fn2

Suarez's wages were $1,250 per week throughout the time of his employment at Kwok's. (Pl.'s LR 56.1 Resp. ¶ 15.) He contends that he was initially promised $1300 per week, but never received this amount. (Suarez Dep. 28:6-17.) Suarez contends that he was also promised a $20,000 year-end bonus, (id. at 30:4-6), but did not receive it. (Pl.'s LR 56.1 Resp. ¶ 16.) It is undisputed, however, that the amount of Suarez's compensation at Kwok's was based entirely on its business needs, and had nothing to do with his Hispanic status. (Id. at ¶ 20.)

Plaintiff's Evidence of Harassment

Suarez testified that, while he worked at Kwok's, Peter Ng regularly referred to his Hispanic employees, including Suarez, as "chaquetons," a Spanish term which Suarez renders into English as "jagoff." (Suarez Dep. 62:22-63:9, 136:11-21; Pl.'s Supp. 2.) Peter Ng also regularly referred to both Suarez and other Hispanic employees as "stupid." (Suarez Dep. 136:15-21; Pl.'s Supp. 2.) This conduct continued into April of 2003, during which Suarez claims that Peter Ng called him "chaqueton" twice and "stupid" a few times. (Pl.'s Supp. 2.) Suarez further testified that Charlie Chun also regularly referred to Hispanic employees as "chaquetons." (Suarez Dep. 141:2-7.) Suarez estimates that Christine Chun overheard this language four to five times per month between January and April of 2003. (Pl.'s Supp. 2.)

According to Suarez, Louis Ng called Hispanic workers abusive names every day that he was at work. (Suarez Dep. 132:23-133:4.) He regularly called Suarez and other Hispanic workers "stupid Mexicans," (id. at 124:1-125:13), announced to the workers in the shipping department that "Mexicans are stupid," (id. at 162:21-24) and referred to Suarez using the terms "chaqueton" and "bendejo," which is a Spanish-language term for "asshole." (Id. at 129:1-7.) Louis Ng did not speak Spanish at work aside from these terms of abuse. (Id. at 125:21-22.) Christine Chun was present on at least five occasions when Louis Ng referred to Hispanic workers in the shipping department in a derogatory way. (Id. at 161:9-20.) Charlie Chun also witnessed Louis Ng making offensive comments to Hispanics at least once a week. (Charlie Chun Dep. 165:8-17.) Furthermore, Suarez contends, and Kwok's admits, that Louis Ng raised his voice at the Hispanic workers, and never did so towards the Asian employees. (Suarez Dep. 164:16-18; Def.'s LR 56.1 Resp. ¶ 16.)

Suarez testified that Christine Chun used the term "bendejos" very liberally with Hispanic employees at Kwok's, but never with non-Hispanic employees. (Suarez Dep. 192:15-20.) She called Suarez "bendejo" once in February, once in March, and three times in April of 2003. (Pl.'s Supp. 2.) She also frequently called him "stupid," including during April of 2003. (Id.)

Kwok's admits that neither Peter Ng, Christine Chun, nor Charlie Chun ever heard or uttered any negative comments towards the Asian employees of Kwok's. (Suarez Dep. 137:4-7, 140:5-7, 141:11-17; Def.'s LR 56.1 Resp. ¶ 16.) Suarez testified that, as a result of the harassment at Kwok's, he experienced emotional anguish, a loss of self-confidence and self-worth, and marital difficulties. (Suarez Dep. 147:10-22.)

Suarez made a number of complaints regarding the work environment at Kwok's. He frequently asked Louis Ng to stop making derogatory comments about his race and national origin, to no avail, although there is no record evidence as to when these complaints occurred. (Suarez Dep. 190:10-17.) He complained to Christine Chun about Louis Ng's behavior in late January or early February of 2003. (Pl.'s Supp. 1.) He also told both Christine Chun and Peter Ng that Louis Ng's behavior was so severe that it had caused Suarez's brother, Armando, to quit work at Kwok's, although he does not recall when this ooccurred. (Suarez Dep. 170:8-172:6, 184:23-186:20.) Furthermore, he asked Christine Chun to stop calling him "stupid" and "bendejo" on two or three occasions, (id. at 191:7-17, 193:18-24, 195:1-11), including in March and April of 2003. (Pl.'s Supp. 2.)

Suarez's Termination

In early May of 2003, Christine Chun cancelled service on Suarez's work cell phone, and instructed him to use his desk phone instead. (Suarez Dep. 50:5-52:12.) At the same time, Kwok's also suspended the use of a credit card Suaraz used for business expenses. (Id. at 50:4-5.) At that time, or soon afterwards, Suarez took the laptop computer purchased for him by Kwoks and went home. (Suarez Dep. 52:16-24.) He had perfect work attendance until that point and a good performance record. (Id. at 176-1-8; 187:19-188:6; Ng. Dep. 78:24-79:3)

Suarez did not return to work at Kwok's. The reason his employment ended is disputed. Peter Ng testified that Christine Chun said Suarez told her he was working from home, but would return soon, and that "nobody fire[d]" Suarez. (Ng. Dep. 56:3-6; 65:2-3.) Suarez claims that after he had been absent for Kwoks for more than two days, Christine Chun called him at home, told him that there was "no chemistry" between Suarez and the business, and told him, in effect, that he was fired. (Suarez Dep. 114:13-14; 187:6-18.) Chun herself recalls that she first became aware that Suarez was not working from reports from Kwoks's customers. (Chun Dep. 79:15-82:2). She does not remember whether she had any conversations with Suarez after his departure. (Id. 82:14-19.) Kwoks nevertheless asserts that it terminated Suarez's employment because he failed to return to work for more than two days. (Def.'s LR 56.1 Stmt. ¶ 73, citing Ng Declaration ¶ 8.) Charlie Chun, Kwok's sales and operations manager, admitted, however, that although there were no "specific guidelines," Kwok's would ordinarily impose a brief unpaid suspension, not termination, as discipline for an initial unexplained absence. (Charlie Chun Dep. 59: 6-12; 92:3-15, 25.) Three months after Suarez's departure, Kwoks hired another Hispanic worker, David Centeno, to do some of the work Suarez had done; the rest was absorbed by Peter Ng and Charlie Chun. (Pl.'s LR 56.1 Resp. ¶ 79.) Suarez's Charge Suarez filed a charge of race discrimination, national origin discrimination, and retaliation with the EEOC on December 12, 2003. (EEOC Charge of Discrimination, Pl's App. Ex. 1, DEF0106.) The EEOC issued a right to sue letter on September 12, 2005, (EEOC Dismissal and Notice of Rights, Pl.'s App. Ex. 1, DEF0111), and on December 12, 2005, Suarez filed this lawsuit against Charles Austin Limited, Kwok's successor,*fn3 charging that Defendant discriminated against him because of his Hispanic status in the amount of his compensation, in the creation of a hostile work environment, and in his termination, and with retaliating against him for his complaints regarding workplace harassment. (Compl. ¶¶ 14-18, 19-20.) On May 1, 2006, Suarez amended his complaint to substitute Kwoks International Trading Inc. as named Defendant. (Am. Compl.) Kwok's now moves for summary judgment on all of Suarez's claims. (Def.'s Mot. for Sum. J. 1-2.)

Suarez, in turn, moves to strike substantial portions of Kwok's Local Rule 56.1 Response, multiple sections of Kwok's Reply, and one of its supporting affidavits.


I. Summary Judgment Standard

Summary judgment is appropriate when "the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law." FED. R. CIV. P. 56(c). To survive summary judgment, Suarez must identify sufficient evidence to sustain each element of the case he must prove at trial. Boumehdi v. Plastag Holdings, LLC, 489 F.3d 781, 787 (7th Cir. 2007) (citing Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 322-23 (1986)). When considering a summary judgment motion, the court ...

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