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In re Bally Total Fitness Securities Litigation

February 20, 2007


The opinion of the court was delivered by: John F. Grady, United States District Judge


Before the court are defendants' motions to dismiss the amended consolidated class action complaint. For the reasons explained below, the motions are granted.


Plaintiffs have filed several related securities fraud putative class actions against Bally Total Fitness Holding Corporation ("Bally"); three former officers and directors of Bally, Lee S. Hillman, John W. Dwyer, and Paul A. Toback;*fn1 and Bally's former auditor, Ernst & Young LLP ("E & Y"), for violations of §§ 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, 15 U.S.C. §§ 78j(b) and 78t(a), and Rule 10b-5 promulgated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), 17 C.F.R. 240.10b-5. Plaintiffs allege that defendants violated federal securities laws by publicly disseminating false and misleading corporate reports, financial statements, and press releases primarily through "two related fraudulent techniques": improperly recognizing revenue prematurely and improperly delaying the recordation of expenses. (Amended Consolidated Class Action Complaint ("ACCAC") ¶ 5.)

Lead plaintiff Cosmos Investment Company, LLC previously filed a consolidated class action complaint on behalf of a class consisting of those who purchased or acquired Bally securities between August 3, 1999 and April 28, 2004, inclusive. Defendants' motions to dismiss the consolidated class action complaint were granted. See In re Bally Total Fitness Sec. Litig., Nos. 04 C 3530 et al., 2006 WL 3714708 (N.D. Ill. July 12, 2006) ("Bally I"). Plaintiffs were given leave to file, and did file, an amended consolidated class action complaint (the "amended complaint"). Defendants now move to dismiss the amended complaint.*fn2

Our opinion in Bally I contained a detailed recitation of plaintiffs' allegations, which will not be repeated here.*fn3 Instead, we will describe the changes and additions plaintiffs have made to the complaint. The primary substantive additions are allegations relating to four witnesses-three confidential witnesses as well as David Laird, a former owner of a Planet Fitness, a group of fitness centers that was acquired by Bally during the Class Period. Plaintiffs have also added allegations relating to the following: overstated earnings figures; inadequate accounting controls; the Audit Committee's findings, the preparation of Bally's original Restatement, and a Bally December 1, 2005 conference call with analysts; executive compensation; Bally's discontinuation of defendants Hillman and Dwyer's severance pay; a criminal investigation that was announced in February 2005; and "red flags."


A complaint alleging violations of § 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder must allege that the defendant (1) made a false statement or omission, (2) of material fact, (3) with scienter, (4) in connection with the purchase or sale of securities, (5) upon which the plaintiff justifiably relied, and (6) that the false statement or omission proximately caused the plaintiff's injury. Otto v. Variable Annuity Life Ins. Co., 134 F.3d 841, 851 (7th Cir. 1998). Because plaintiffs allege securities fraud, not only do the heightened pleading requirements of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 9(b) apply here, see Sears v. Likens, 912 F.2d 889, 893 (7th Cir. 1990), but also the even more stringent fact-pleading requirements of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act (the "PSLRA"), 15 U.S.C. § 78u-4 et seq., see Makor Issues & Rights, Ltd. v. Tellabs, Inc., 437 F.3d 588, 594 (7th Cir. 2006), cert. granted, 127 S.Ct. 853 (2007).

The primary issue before us is whether the amended complaint adequately alleges defendants' scienter with sufficient, particularized facts.*fn4 In Makor Issues, the Seventh Circuit discussed the PSLRA scienter requirement as follows:

Under the PSLRA, a securities fraud complaint must (1) "specify each statement alleged to have been misleading, the reason or reasons why the statement is misleading, and, if an allegation regarding the statement or omission is made on information and belief, the complaint shall state with particularity all facts on which that belief is formed" and (2) "state with particularity facts giving rise to a strong inference that the defendant acted with the required state of mind." 15 U.S.C. § 78u-4(b)(1), (2). In other words, plaintiffs must not only plead a violation with particularity; they must also marshal sufficient facts to convince a court at the outset that the defendants likely intended to deceive, manipulate, or defraud.

437 F.3d at 594-95 (some internal quotation marks omitted). "[T]he best approach is for courts to examine all of the allegations in the complaint and then to decide whether collectively they establish [a "strong"] inference [of scienter]." Id. at 601. "Instead of accepting only the most plausible of competing inferences as sufficient at the pleading stage, we will allow the complaint to survive if it alleges facts from which, if true, a reasonable person could infer that the defendant acted with the required intent." Id. at 602.

In Bally I, we found that plaintiffs had not adequately pled scienter. More specifically, we found that Bally's February 2005 press release and the Audit Committee's findings were vague and unspecific as well as hindsight conclusions and thus did not support an inference of scienter; that the characteristics of the Restatement did not support an inference of scienter; that plaintiffs' "motive and opportunity" allegations were insufficient to establish scienter; and that Bally's violation of its own internal accounting policies did not assist plaintiffs in establishing that the misstatements were made with the requisite intent. We noted that, with regard to the Individual Defendants, there were no allegations of circumstances suggestive of scienter, such as large insider stock sales or specific meetings during which particular financial representations were discussed. Because plaintiffs failed to allege facts giving rise to a strong inference that anyone acting for Bally had the requisite state of mind, they failed to adequately allege scienter against Bally. As for E & Y, we found that the alleged accounting errors, the characteristics of the Restatement and Bally's violation of its internal accounting policies failed to support an inference of scienter and that plaintiffs' "red flag" allegations were insufficient to support an inference of scienter. Taking all plaintiffs' allegations together, we found that plaintiffs had failed to allege sufficient particularized facts to give rise to a strong inference that the defendants acted recklessly or intentionally.

In an attempt to remedy the scienter deficiencies of the original complaint, plaintiffs have repackaged some of their original allegations. In Bally I, we commented on plaintiffs' previous allegations of Bally's reported financial results, which showed that revenue was sometimes understated and losses sometimes overstated. Plaintiffs have now restyled those financial results (omitting the quarterly results unfavorable to them) and allege that "earnings were inflated or loss understated in a consistent pattern." (ACCAC ¶¶ 27, 180.) These repackaged allegations regarding the restated earnings do not alter our prior conclusion, which is that we can infer from the magnitude of the restatement that significant mistakes were made, but not that defendants acted with the required recklessness or deliberate intent. See Davis v. SPSS, Inc., 385 F. Supp. 2d 697, 714 (N.D. Ill. 2005) ("Davis I") ("Restatements establish that misleading statements were made, but . . . provid[e] no assistance in determining the intent behind the misstatements.").

In addition, plaintiffs have merely boldfaced certain original allegations regarding inadequate accounting controls, adding nothing new. The amended complaint also reiterates the prior allegations of the Audit Committee's findings as set forth in the February press release, adding only that some of these acknowlegments of prior accounting errors were repeated by Toback and Bally's then-CFO Carl Landeck in a conference call that took place on December 1, 2005 (ACCAC ¶ 184), and that errors discovered during the preparation of the original Restatement should have alerted defendants to the possibility that additional errors existed and that internal controls were flawed (ACCAC ¶¶ 182-183).*fn5

These new allegations, like the prior ones, do not support an inference of scienter because they are vague and unspecific*fn6 as well as hindsight conclusions that do not assist in determining the state of mind behind the misstatements at the time they were made. See Davis I, 385 F. Supp. 2d at 714 ("Permutations of 'fraud by hindsight' do not create an inference, much less a strong inference, of scienter.").

Plaintiffs also have made certain substantive additions to the amended complaint. The amended complaint includes additional details regarding executive compensation, the discontinuation of severance pay to Hillman and Dwyer, a criminal investigation that was announced in February 2005, and "red flags" that allegedly should have alerted E & Y to the risk of fraud. Also included are statements by four witnesses. We will consider each category of additional allegations in turn.

Executive Compensation

Plaintiffs now have included details of the Individual Defendants' compensation, including incentive-based bonuses, for the entire Class Period instead of for a single year. (ACCAC ¶¶ 39-41, 405.) Even considering the additional detail, our conclusion in Bally I still applies to the compensation allegations: "Regarding the motive to earn bonuses and awards, we agree with the view of numerous courts that these allegations are too common among corporations and their officers to be considered evidence of scienter." Bally I, 2006 WL 3714708, at *9 (citing, inter alia, Abrams v. Baker Hughes Inc., 292 F.3d 424, 434 (5th Cir. 2002) ("Incentive compensation can hardly be the basis on which an allegation of fraud is predicated. . . . It does not follow that because executives have components of their compensation keyed to performance, one can infer fraudulent intent.")).

Discontinuation of Severance Pay

Plaintiffs alleged in the original complaint that Bally's Audit Committee announced as part of its findings in February 2005 that Hillman and Dwyer had been responsible for a culture of "aggressive accounting" and that their severance pay was being discontinued. We held that none of the Audit Committee's findings assisted plaintiffs in raising an inference of scienter; the term "aggressive accounting" was unspecific, and the findings were hindsight conclusions. Bally I, 2006 WL 3714708, at *7.

Plaintiffs have now added allegations that Bally's termination of Hillman and Dwyer's severance pay "effectively amounted to termination for 'cause'" and that "it must be inferred that both Hillman's and Dwyer's severance were terminated because they had, during the Class Period, engaged in fraud or dishonesty." (ACCAC ¶ 22.) The amended complaint further alleges:

398. Hillman's 2002 Amended and Restated Employment Agreement provided that he was to receive severance unless terminated for Cause. Cause is defined as:

(i) fraud or dishonesty;

(ii) failure to cease and/or cure willful misconduct or gross negligence in the performance of his duties, after 30 days written notice; or

(iii) failure to cure a material breach of the agreement after 30 days written notice 399. Hillman was not employed by the Company when it terminated his severance and decided to explore legal action against him. Therefore, his severance could not have been terminated based on a failure to cure misconduct in his duties or a breach of the agreement after written notice. While Bally's February 16, 2005 press release characterizes the reason for Hillman's termination as "misconduct," the only misconduct that would permit Bally to terminate his severance for cause was fraud or dishonesty. Thus, in the context of its investigation into Bally's false and misleading accounting which led to the Restatement, Bally found Hillman to have engaged in fraud or dishonesty during the Class Period in connection with Bally's materially false and misleading public statements regarding Bally's accounting, financial results, and controls. 400. Similarly, Bally's termination of severance to Dwyer constitutes a finding that he engaged in fraud, dishonesty, illegal conduct or gross misconduct. Upon his resignation, Dwyer entered into a General Release and Settlement Agreement ("Settlement Agreement") that provided for severance compensation and a role as a consultant. The Settlement Agreement provides that Dwyer's consultancy and severance compensation may only be terminated for "cause" under the following circumstances:

i. He is found guilty of violating a law based on his acts or omissions while he was employed by Bally;

ii. A good faith determination by Bally that during his employment he engaged in fraud, dishonesty, illegal conduct or gross misconduct; and/or

iii. During the consultancy period, he failed to perform his duties as required. 401. Dwyer's severance was terminated in the context of the Audit Committee's findings of his responsibility for the accounting manipulations at Bally and his making a false and misleading statement to the SEC. As a result, the only possibility is that Bally found Dwyer to have engaged in fraud, dishonesty, illegal conduct or gross misconduct during the Class Period in connection with Bally's materially false and misleading public statements regarding Bally's accounting, financial results, and controls. (ACCAC ¶¶ 398-401.)

Hillman argues that he was not terminated by Bally--he resigned--and that the 2002 Amended and Restated Employment Agreement referred to in ¶ 398 was expressly superseded by a Separation Agreement he and Bally entered into in December 2002 upon his resignation. The Separation Agreement, which is attached as Amended Exhibit E to Hillman's memorandum in support of his motion, indeed states that it supersedes all prior agreements and that the 2002 Amended and Restated Employment Agreement is "null and void and of no further force and effect." (Hillman's Mem. in Support of Mot., Am. Ex. E, ¶ 11.) Plaintiffs do not directly respond to Hillman's argument, but merely contend that they are "entitled to the reasonable inference that Bally believed it had a right to terminate Hillman's severance for cause, and did so based on the terms of his Employment Agreement." (Pls.' Mem. in Opp'n to the Bally Defs.' Mots. at 30 n.12.) We reject this argument. Plaintiffs are ...

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