The opinion of the court was delivered by: Honorable David H. Coar
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
A. Plaintiff and the November 2004 Election
Plaintiff Bruce M. Zessar is a resident of Lake County, Illinois, but works in Chicago's Loop area. In early October 2004, Zessar contacted the Lake County Clerk's office about requesting an absentee ballot because he expected to be absent from Lake County on Election Day that year. Zessar received an absentee ballot application and an absentee ballot by mail. He completed the application and returned it to the Clerk's office by mail, after checking the box indicating that he expected to be absent from Lake County and would be unable to vote in person at his precinct. Zessar provided his name, address, and business telephone number on the absentee ballot application, but did not provide his email address although there was space provided. In addition, he voted the absentee ballot, signed and dated the certification form on the accompanying envelope on October 4, 2004, and returned it by mail to the Lake County Clerk's Office, well before the November 2, 2004 General Election.
On Election Day, Zessar was absent from Lake County during polling hours. He took the 5:50 a.m. commuter train from Highland Park, Illinois (in Lake County) to the Loop and returned on the 7:00 p.m. commuter train from Chicago. During the days immediately before and after Election Day, Zessar did not leave the greater Chicago and Lake County area.
In mid-January 2005, some two and a half months after the November 2004 election, Zessar received a yellow Notice of Challenge postcard by mail from the Lake County Clerk's office. The Notice of Challenge card, which had been prepared on the night of the election by Lake County election judges, informed Zessar that election officials in Moraine Precinct number 215 (Lake County) had determined that Zessar's signature on his absentee ballot did not match the signature on file on his voter registration card and that his ballot had been rejected. All parties now agree that this determination was erroneous. Zessar's vote was not cast and did not count in the election results. For the November 2004 election, Lake County reported 538 rejected ballots from a total of 458 precincts.
The final election results for Lake County had been posted on the County Clerk's website on November 17, 2004, approximately two weeks after Election Day. The results were labeled "unofficial," although the Lake County operations manager state that they were final. Under Illinois law, county offices were required to complete the abstract of votes and official canvass for county offices by November 23, 2004. The Illinois State Board of Elections must complete the official canvass and abstract of votes for state and judicial offices by 31 days after the election.
The Illinois Election Code and related regulations require that a rejected absentee voter must receive notice of the ballot rejection but otherwise give no guidance about the time frame in which such notice must be given. State law makes no provision for a rejected absentee voter to challenge the ballot rejection or to have any form of hearing prior to the rejection of the ballot or completion of the official canvass.
B. Illinois Election Authorities
The Illinois State Board of Elections ("The State Board") is an independent state agency created to supervise voter registration and the administration of elections throughout Illinois. Locally, elections are administered by the state's 110 election authorities, which consist of the county clerks in Illinois' 101 counties, one county election commission, and eight municipal election commissions. These local election authorities oversee local voter registration programs, train election judges,*fn2 identify polling places, get ballots printed, oversee election day activities, and supervise the local vote count. The State Board works with the election authorities by providing oversight and guidance, including ongoing training programs for authorities. Both the State Board and the local election authorities are governed by the Illinois Election Code and its provisions regarding absentee ballot procedures.
C. Absentee Ballot Procedures
Under the Illinois Election Code, absentee ballots received prior to Election Day are placed, unopened, together with the absentee ballot application in a large, securely sealed envelope, which is endorsed by an official of the election authority with the words, "This envelope contains an absent voter's ballot and must be opened on election day." 10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/19-7. The envelopes are kept in the election official's office until Election Day, when they are delivered to the polling place of the precinct where the voter resides. 10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/19-8. Election judges at each precinct "cast" absentee ballots at the close of polls on Election Day. State law provides that the election judges shall open the outer envelope, announce the absent voter's name, and compare the signature on the application with the signature on the ballot envelope. If the signatures do not correspond, the applicant is not a duly qualified voter, the ballot envelope is open or has been opened and resealed, or the voter has voted in person on Election Day, the absentee ballot will be left unopened and on its face shall be marked "Rejected," along with the reason therefor. 10 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 5/19-9. The Election Code further provides that if a challenge to an absentee ballot is sustained, "notice of the same must be given by the judges of election by mail addressed to the voter's place of residence." 10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/19-10.
The State Board publishes manuals for local election officials. Under regulations contained in these instruction manuals, a majority of the election judges decides whether a challenged ballot will be counted. Acceptable reasons in addition to those provided by the Illinois Election Code include: the voter filled out the certification envelope incompletely; the information in the certificate is incorrect; the signature and/or address on the application do not match the signature and/or address on the verification record or on the certification envelope; the individual is not a qualified voter; or the individual died prior to the opening of polls on Election Day.
After agreeing to reject an absentee ballot, the election judges complete and sign a Notice of Challenge card (a yellow postcard) provided by the election authority. The election judges return the notice of challenge cards to the election authority, along with all election materials, on election night. The election authority then mails the card to the voter. Lake County's Election Judge Manual ...