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Miller v. Hypoguard USA

December 20, 2005


The opinion of the court was delivered by: David R. Herndon United States District Judge


I. Introduction and Procedural Background

Now before the Court is Defendants Hypoguard and Medisys' motion to dismiss (Doc. 51).*fn1 Plaintiffs oppose the motion (Doc. 61). Based on the pleadings, the applicable law and the following, the Court grants in part and denies in part Defendants' motion to dismiss.

On May 27, 2005, Plaintiffs filed a First Amended Complaint (Doc. 39). The First Amended Complaint added a new Defendant Fox Med-Equip Services, Inc. ("Fox Med-Equip") and deleted Fox Medical and Martin as Defendants. The First Amended Complaint, as their original complaint, alleges mainly state law causes of action: Count I - breach of implied warranty; Count II - breach of express warranty; Count III - breach of contract; Count IV - breach of implied warranty under the Magnuson-Moss Act; Count V - Illinois Consumer Fraud and Deceptive Practices Act/Minnesota Deceptive Trade Practices Act; and Count VI - common law fraud. Plaintiffs seek actual and compensatory damages arising out of the manufacturing, marketing and sale of the Hypoguard "Advance Blood Glucose Monitor, and the "Assure" I, II or III or Quick Tek blood glucose monitors. Plaintiffs contend that the blood glucose monitors and/or strips were defectively designed and/or manufactured resulting in inaccurately high or low readings. Plaintiffs also allege that Defendants made material misrepresentations and concealed material facts in connection with the marketing, sale and warranty of the Hypoguard blood glucose monitors.*fn2

Defendants move to dismiss Plaintiffs' First Amended Complaint arguing that it fails as a matter of law. As to Counts I and IV, Defendants argue that these claims fail as a matter of law as breach of implied warranty claims that seek only economic damages can only be brought against those in privity with Plaintiffs and Plaintiffs fail to allege that they gave Defendants notice of the alleged breach.

Defendants maintain that Count II fails because the warranties attached to the complaint to do extend to the "design" claims and Plaintiffs fail to allege that they gave Defendants notice of the alleged breach. Defendants contend that Count III fails to state a claim because Plaintiffs have failed to plead the necessary elements of the claim. As to Counts V and VI, Defendants argue that these fail to state a claim because Plaintiffs did not plead the requisite elements of such claims, including any deception or misrepresentation, with the particularity required by Rule 9(b). Lastly, Medisys claims that it should be dismissed because Plaintiffs only allege that Medisys is the parent company of Hypoguard and that Hypoguard manufactured and sold the blood glucose monitors. This alone is not legally sufficient to state any claims against Medisys.

II. Analysis

In evaluating whether a plaintiff's complaint fails to state a claim, a court must take the plaintiff's factual allegations as true and draw all reasonable inferences in his favor. Brown v. Budz, 398 F.3d 904, 908 (7th Cir. 2005). In making such evaluation, however, the court generally should consider only the allegations of the complaint. Centers v. Centennial Mortgage, Inc., 398 F.3d 930, 933 (7th Cir. 2005). "Dismissal is proper under Rule 12(b)(6) only where 'it appears beyond doubt that the plaintiff can prove no set of facts in support of his claim which would entitle him to relief.'" Id. (citing Conley v. Gibson, 355 U.S. 41, 45-46, 78 S.Ct. 99, 2 L.Ed.2d 80 (1957)). "Indeed, if it is possible to hypothesize a set of facts, consistent with the complaint, that would entitle the plaintiff to relief, dismissal under Rule 12(b)(6) is inappropriate." Brown, 398 F.3d at 909 (internal quotations omitted). "Whether a complaint sufficiently states a claim turns on whether it meets the general rules of pleading a claim for relief. Rule 8(a)(2) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure requires that a complaint contain 'a short and plain statement of the claim showing the pleader is entitled to relief.' This 'short and plain statement' requires a plaintiff to allege no more than 'the bare minimum facts necessary to put the defendant on notice of the claim so that he can file an answer.'" Id. at 908. However, FEDERAL RULE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE 9(b) provides that "[i]n all averments of fraud or mistake, the circumstances constituting fraud or mistake shall be stated with particularity."

Counts I II, and IV

In Counts I, II and IV, Plaintiffs allege breach of implied warranty, breach of express warranty and breach of implied warranty under the Magnuson-Moss Act. Defendants argue that the Court should dismiss these claims because Plaintiffs have failed to provide proper notice to Defendants of the alleged breach as required by 810 ILCS § 5/2-607(3)(a ). Plaintiffs argue that Defendants should be estopped from arguing lack of notice because it deliberately failed to disclose the defect to the public and that the notice requirement should not be rigidly applied in consumer class actions. The Court rejects Plaintiffs' argument.

Section 2-607(3)(a) provides, in relevant part, that: "The buyer must within a reasonable time after he discovers or should have discovered any breach notify the seller of breach or be barred from any remedy." 810 ILCS 5/2-607(3)(a). Likewise, under Section 2310(e) of the Magnuson-Moss Act, no individual or class claim may be maintained "unless the person obligated under the warranty or service contract is afforded a reasonable opportunity to cure such failure to comply." 15 U.S.C. § 2310(e); see also Borowiec v. Gateway 2000, Inc., 209 Ill. 2d 376, 387 (IL 2004).

In Connick v. Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd., 174 Ill.2d 482, 221 Ill.Dec. 389, 675 N.E.2d 584, 590 (1996), the Illinois Supreme Court explained that section 2-607(3)(a) requires a plaintiff to notify the defendant of the claimed deficiency in its product prior to filing suit. Connick, 221 Ill.Dec. 389, 675 N.E.2d at 590. Under Illinois law [t]here are instances ··· when a buyer can fulfill the notice requirement without giving direct notice to the seller. Direct notice is not required when (1) the seller has actual knowledge of the defect of the particular product, Malawy v. Richards Manufacturing Co., 150 Ill.App.3d 549, 103 Ill.Dec. 355, 501 N.E.2d 376 (1986)); or (2) the seller is deemed to have been reasonably notified by the filing of the buyer's complaint alleging breach of UCC warranty ( Perona v. Volkswagen of America, Inc., 276 Ill.App.3d 609, 213 Ill.Dec. 328, 658 N.E.2d 1349 (1995)). Connick, 221 Ill.Dec. 389, 675 N.E.2d at 589.

"The notice of the breach required is not of the facts, which the seller presumably knows quite as well as, if not better then, the buyer, but of the buyer's claim that they constitute a breach." Id., at 590. Rather, "even if a manufacturer is aware of the problems with a particular product line, the notice requirement of section 2-607 is satisfied only where the manufacturer is somehow apprised of the trouble with the particular product purchased by a particular buyer." Id.

Based on the allegations, the Court finds that Plaintiffs failed to give proper notice and that neither exception to the notice requirement applies to this case. In response to the motion and in their First Amended Complaint, Plaintiffs concede that notice was not given. The First Amended Complaint merely states: "Defendants should also be estopped from arguing that Plaintiffs failed to provide notice of the breach because it deliberately failed to disclose the defect to the public. Defendant had ample notice of the defect in the products well before the lawsuit was filed, and indeed, well before Plaintiffs themselves did, and chose not to remedy the defects." (Doc. 39, ¶ ¶ 51 & 52). The First Amended Complaint does not allege that they notified Defendants that there were problems with their monitors or that they believed that the monitors beached any ...

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