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November 15, 2004.

HSBC BANK USA, Appellant,

The opinion of the court was delivered by: JOHN W. DARRAH, District Judge


This matter comes before the Court on the appeal of the judgment of the bankruptcy court of March 30, 2004, by HSBC Bank USA and California Statewide Communities Development Authority ("CSCDA"). For the reasons that follow, the decision of the bankruptcy court is reversed.


  CSCDA is a joint exercise-of-powers government agency consisting of a number of California counties, cities, and other local government agencies. CSCDA is organized pursuant to Chapter 5 of Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code of the State of California ("Joint Powers Act") and an Amended and Restated Joint Exercise of Powers Agreement dated as of June 1, 1988, among the member local government agencies. Pursuant to the Joint Powers Act, CSCDA is authorized to exercise the power of its member local government agencies, among other things, to issue revenue bonds to pay the cost and expenses of acquiring or constructing publicly owned or operated commercial aviation airports and airport-related facilities.

  On June 18, 1973, United entered into the "Maintenance Base Lease" with the City and County of San Francisco. Pursuant to the lease, United leased certain ramp space and facilities at San Francisco International Airport ("SFO"). To assist United in developing certain facilities at SFO, United and CSCDA consummated a transaction in 1997 pursuant to which CSCDA issued tax-exempt revenue bonds in the amount of $154,845,000.00. The funds from the sale of the bonds were made available to United in accordance with the terms of the 1997 SFO transaction documents.

  The 1997 SFO transaction was comprised of multiple documents and agreements. Three agreements germane to the instant dispute are: (1) the Site Sublease, (2) the Facilities Lease, and (3) the Indenture of Mortgage and Deed of Trust ("Indenture").

  Pursuant to the Site Sublease, United subleased to CSCDA an approximately twenty-acre portion of the premises leased to United under the Maintenance Base Lease for the nominal rent of one dollar. The term of the Site Sublease is defined as the period from September 1, 1997 to October 5, 2033, unless a shorter or longer period is required to retire bonds to be issued by CSCDA. There are no provisions for remedies for United for any default by CSCDA.

  CSCDA then sub-subleased the leased premises back to United pursuant to the Facilities Lease. The term of the Facilities Lease is identical to that of the Site Sublease. The Facilities Lease's rental is the amount necessary to make the payments required under the Indenture — the amount needed to pay the bonds in accordance with their terms as well as administrative costs. The Facilities Lease's rental amount also constituted reasonable compensation for the use and occupation of the relevant portion of the SFO Maintenance Base Lease — the 20-acre portion of the 130-acres the City and County leased to United. The Facilities Lease provides default provisions and remedies, including CSCDA's right to take possession of the leased facilities and relet them if United fails to make the required payments.

  The Indenture provides for the issuance of tax-exempt bonds by CSCDA, for the SFO trustee to receive the proceeds of the sale of bonds for purposes of funding construction of defined improvements benefitting United, and for the SFO trustee to receive the rental payments from United under the Facilities Lease for the purpose of paying the debt service on the bonds and ultimately retiring them. The Indenture indicates that the bonds are "limited obligations" of CSCDA, payable only from the revenue received from United and earnings on this revenue. Pursuant to the Indenture, CSCDA assigned the Facilities Lease, including the right to collect rents, to the Indenture trustee, presently HSBC Bank USA.

  On December 9, 2002, United filed a voluntary petition under Chapter 11 of Title 11, United States Code. On March 21, 2003, United filed an Adversary Complaint, seeking a declaratory judgment that certain of its payment obligations related to airport improvements were not obligations arising under "leases" pursuant to Section 365 of the Bankruptcy Code. Subsequently, all parties moved for summary judgment on the issue of whether the "leases" were true leases, as opposed to financing instruments.

  On March 4, 2004, the bankruptcy court granted United's motion for summary judgment. HSBC Bank and CSCDA appeal that judgment to this Court. LEGAL STANDARD

  A bankruptcy court's grant of summary judgment is reviewed de novo. Hoseman v. Weinschneider, 322 F.3d 468, 473 (7th Cir. 2003) (Hoseman). All of the facts and the inferences therefrom are viewed in the light most favorable to the nonmoving party. Hoseman, 322 F.3d at 473. Similarly, a bankruptcy court's interpretation of statute is a question of law reviewed de novo. See Meyer v. Rigolon, 30 F.3d 1375, 1378 (7th Cir. 1994). The Court reviews the bankruptcy court's factual findings for clear error. Hoseman, 322 F.3d at 473.

  Summary judgment is proper if "the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact." Fed.R. Civ. P. 56(c); see also Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 322-23 (1986). All the evidence and the reasonable inferences that may be drawn from the evidence are viewed in the light most favorable to the nonmovant. Miller v. American Family Mut. Ins. Co., 203 F.3d 997, 1003 (7th Cir. 2000). Summary judgment may be ...

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