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Raytheon Company v. Ashborn Agencies

June 29, 2004

RAYTHEON COMPANY, APPELLANT
v.
ASHBORN AGENCIES, LTD, APPELLEE



Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Columbia (No. 02cv02133)

Before: Ginsburg, Chief Judge, and Sentelle and Roberts, Circuit Judges.

The opinion of the court was delivered by: Ginsburg, Chief Judge

Argued May 10, 2004

Raytheon Company appeals from the district court's dismissal of its petition to compel arbitration pursuant to the Federal Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C. §§ 4 and 206. Because Raytheon's claimed injury is not redressable by the court, the Company lacks standing to sue under Article III of the Constitution of the United States. Hence we affirm the judgment of the district court dismissing its petition.

I. Background

In March 1977 Raytheon's predecessor, E-Systems, Inc. entered into a Consulting Agreement with Ashborn Agencies, Ltd., an Israeli corporation. The Agreement contained the following arbitration clause:

If any dispute arises between the parties hereto, as to the meaning of this Agreement or any parts thereof, or as to the rights or obligations of either party hereunder, such dispute or difference shall be referred for decision to a Board of three arbitrators. In case of failure of either party to appoint its arbitrator ... the missing members of the Board shall be appointed by the International Chamber of Commerce. The arbitration shall be conducted in Washington, D.C., United States of America. The parties hereto agree to accept the decision of the Board of arbitrators and judgment upon any award rendered hereunder may be entered into in any Court of CONSULTANT's country or the United States of America. The rules of arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce shall apply. The arbitrator shall apply the laws of the State of Texas, United States of America.

In March 2000 Ashborn demanded $575,152 from Raytheon for services provided under the Agreement, but Raytheon disputed the amount. When the parties proved unable to settle the matter, Raytheon filed a demand for arbitration with the ICC. Shortly thereafter Ashborn informed Raytheon it had decided to pursue its claims in the courts of Israel, and it would "strictly oppose any attempt to enforce [the arbitration] provision."

Ashborn filed an action for damages in the Tel Aviv-Jaffa District Court, raising claims Raytheon was seeking to resolve through arbitration. Raytheon responded by filing in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia a petition to compel arbitration pursuant to the Federal Arbitration Act; it sought an order requiring Ashborn "to comply with its written commitment to arbitrate its commercial disputes arising from its two-decade marketing consulting agreement with [Raytheon]."

As a party to an international arbitration agreement, Raytheon was proceeding pursuant to Chapter 2 of the FAA, see 9 U.S.C. § 201 et seq., which incorporates the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. Chapter 1 of the Act applies, however, "to actions and proceedings brought under [Chapter 2] to the extent that [Chapter 1] is not in conflict with [Chapter 2] or the Convention as ratified by the United States." Id. § 208. Chapter 1, section 4 of the Act, 9 U.S.C. § 4, provides in relevant part:

A party aggrieved by the alleged failure, neglect, or refusal of another to arbitrate under a written agreement for arbitration may petition ... for an order directing that such arbitration proceed in the manner provided for in such agreement.

Although the district court determined the parties had agreed to arbitrate many of the claims Ashborn is pursuing in Israel, it dismissed Raytheon's petition. The district court concluded, first, the aggrieved party requirement in § 4 does not conflict with anything in Chapter 2 or the Convention; and second, because the arbitration rules of the ICC -- which were incorporated by reference into the parties' agreement --permit ex parte proceedings, Raytheon is not "aggrieved" within the meaning of § 4 by Ashborn's refusal to participate, and therefore lacks standing to sue.

On appeal Raytheon disputes both points. Because we conclude Raytheon does not have constitutional standing to sue, we do not reach either one. See Steel Co. v. Citizens for a Better Environment, 523 U.S. 83, 96-102 (1998) ...


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