Appeals from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Indiana, South Bend Division. No. 99 C 371--Robert L. Miller, Jr., Judge.
Before Posner, Ripple and Kanne, Circuit Judges.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Ripple, Circuit Judge
ARGUED SEPTEMBER 24, 2001
On April 11, 1990, shortly after the birth of her first child, Lisa Nelson, at the age of twenty-five, suffered a debilitating stroke that impaired the left side of her body. At the time of her stroke, Mrs. Nelson had a prescription for, and was using, the drug Parlodel. Approximately five years after suffering the stroke, Mrs. Nelson and her husband, David, (collectively, "the Nelsons") filed this action against Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation ("Sandoz")--the manufacturer of Parlodel. They alleged that the prescription drug had precipitated Mrs. Nelson's stroke.
The district court entered summary judgment for Sandoz, concluding that the Nelsons had failed to file their action within the applicable statute of limitations period. The district court also rejected the Nelsons' contention that Sandoz should be equitably estopped from asserting the statute of limitations as a defense to the action because of alleged misrepresentations it made to Mrs. Nelson's physician. For the reasons set forth in the following opinion, we affirm in part and reverse in part the judgment of the district court, and we remand this case for further proceedings.
At a hospital located in Wabash, Indiana, Mrs. Nelson, an Indiana resident, gave birth to her first child on March 21, 1990. In the days following the delivery, a physician prescribed the drug Parlodel for Mrs. Nelson. This medication is designed to suppress lactation in postpartum women. Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, a Delaware corporation, manufactured Parlodel and marketed the product to various individuals, including physicians in Indiana.
On April 5, 1990, Mrs. Nelson began her regimen of Parlodel therapy, which consisted of a 2.5 milligram dose of the medication taken twice a day for fourteen consecutive days. Although her consumption of the medication coincided with the onset of nausea and headaches, Mrs. Nelson continued to follow the prescription. On approximately the seventh day of the Parlodel regimen, Mrs. Nelson collapsed; her husband discovered her lying unconscious on the floor of their home. At a local hospital, physicians treated Mrs. Nelson and concluded that, at the age of twenty-five, she had suffered a severe stroke.
During Mrs. Nelson's hospitalization, Dr. Matthew Sprunger, a treating physician, learned that Mrs. Nelson had taken Parlodel and initially suggested a possible correlation between the medication and his patient's condition. Specifically, in Mrs. Nelson's progress report, Dr. Sprunger noted, "Had been on Parlodel for lactation suppression. Some case reports in the literature of postpartum cardiac and vascular insults in [patients] on Parlodel. [Question or question of] relationship in this case. Will [check] literature."*fn1 Vol. VI, Ex.A. Investigating his theory, Dr. Sprunger turned to the Physicians' Desk Reference ("the PDR")--a medical reference that provides information concerning the uses and side effects of numerous prescription drugs. Under its entry for Parlodel, the PDR indicated that incidents of stroke had been reported among individuals who used the medication. In particular, the reference noted that "[s]erious adverse reactions reported include . . . 15 cases of stroke . . . . An unremitting and progressively severe headache, sometimes accompanied by visual disturbance, often preceded by hours to days, many cases of seizure and/or stroke." Vol. V, R.43, Ex.H. However, the PDR, cautioned that "[t]he relationship of these adverse reactions to Parlodel . . . administration has not been established." Id.
Dr. Sprunger next consulted Elaine Thomas, the Sandoz sales representative for the Fort Wayne, Indiana area. Dr. Sprunger informed Ms. Thomas that he sought information from Sandoz concerning a possible link between Parlodel and the occurrence of strokes in postpartum women. During deposition testimony regarding her conversation with Dr. Sprunger, Ms. Thomas stated:
Basically, I told him that we were aware of some episodes of stroke but that they occurred more frequently in the postpartum population than in the normal population anyhow, and it was my understanding that they didn't occur any more frequently with patients treated with Parlodel than they did in the postpartum population. Vol. VI, Ex.E, at 26.
Although Ms. Thomas provided Dr. Sprunger with literature relating to this topic, neither individual recalls the article's author, title or precise contents.
After conducting this investigation, Dr. Sprunger concluded that a connection did not exist between Mrs. Nelson's stroke and Parlodel, and he relayed this determination to Mrs. Nelson's family practitioner. In Mrs. Nelson's progress report, Dr. Sprunger wrote: "Obstetrics, see information on front of chart re: Parlodel and strokes. As per Sandoz information, negative correlation of Parlodel and stroke. Will sign off." Vol. VI, Ex.A. (emphasis in original). During deposition testimony, Mr. Nelson indicated that Dr. Sprunger also relayed these findings to him.
The Nelsons also relate that they asked a second physician, Mrs. Nelson's neurologist, if Parlodel induced the stroke. According to the Nelsons, the neurologist brushed aside this theory. Soon after, Mrs. Nelson's physicians dis charged her from the hospital, and she returned home.
In October 1992, Mrs. Nelson gave birth to her second child. After the delivery, Mrs. Nelson informed her nurse that she would not take Parlodel. In particular, on Mrs. Nelson's chart, the nurse wrote "states had 'stroke' 3 [weeks] past due last [pregnancy]. States won't take Parlodel." Vol. V, R.43, Ex.J. (emphasis in original). Also in 1992, the Nelsons contacted an attorney and inquired whether Mrs. Nelson's family practitioner bore some responsibility for her earlier ...