Before Newman, Plager, and Schall, Circuit Judges.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Circuit Judge Plager.
Appealed from: United States Court of Federal Claims Judge James T. Turner United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
Dissenting opinion filed by Circuit Judge NEWMAN.
This is a contract dispute between a lessor, the United States ("Government"), and lessees, Marathon Oil and Mobil Oil (collectively "Marathon"), involving Outer Continental Shelf ("OCS") oil and gas leases on submerged lands off the coast of North Carolina. The dispute centers over the denial by the Government of the permits necessary before Marathon could engage in oil exploration, and the effect of legislation enacted subsequent to the parties entering the leases. The legislation imposed a temporary moratorium on oil exploration in the lease areas. Marathon initially pursued administrative appeals of its permit denials, then sued in the Court of Federal Claims to recover its lease rental and up-front cash bonus payments. Marathon claimed that the legislation effected a material breach of the OCS leases. The Government denied the breach and presented a number of defenses. The Court of Federal Claims agreed with Marathon, finding that the Government had materially breached the leases. See Conoco Inc. v. United States, 35 Fed. Cl. 309 (1996). In a subsequent proceeding, the court awarded both Marathon and Mobil restitution of their up-front payments, in total over $156 million. See Marathon Oil Co. & Mobil Oil Exploration & Producing Southeast, Inc. v. United States, No. 92-331C (Fed. Cl. July 24, 1997). Because the moratorium legislation was not the operative cause of Marathon's failure to obtain the required permits, the judgment of the Court of Federal Claims is reversed.
This case has a rather complicated legal and factual background. We summarize the salient law and the history of the case; for the full details see the exhaustive Court of Federal Claims opinion in Conoco Inc. v. United States, 35 Fed. Cl. 309, 314-19 (1996).
The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act of 1953 ("OCSLA"), 67 Stat. 462, as amended, 92 Stat. 629 (codified at 43 U.S.C. §§ 1331-1343 (1970)), establishes federal jurisdiction over submerged lands on the continental shelf beyond three miles from the coastline. (Submerged lands within the three mile limit fall within the jurisdiction of the individual coastal states.) See 43 U.S.C. §§ 1301, 1331(a) (1994).
Pursuant to the OCSLA, the Secretary of the Interior ("the Secretary") is authorized to grant oil and gas leases on OCS lands through a competitive bidding process. See id. § 1337(a) (1994). OCS leases run initially for five to ten years, but may be extended for as long as drilling or production is taking place on the leased tract. Lease terms grant lessees the "exclusive right and privilege to drill for, develop, and produce oil and gas resources," in exchange for an up- front cash bonus and periodic lease payments.
Obtaining a lease is one thing; obtaining the necessary permits to first explore and then produce is another. The OCSLA statutory scheme calls for specific submission and approval requirements for each step in the process of exploration, development, and production of OCS-derived oil or gas. In addition to approvals from the Department of the Interior ("DOI"), approvals may also be required from various state and federal agencies.
The first step in the process, exploration, begins with submittal by the lessee to the Secretary of a plan of exploration ("POE"). See 43 U.S.C. § 1340 (b), (c)(1). The plan must comply with all provisions of the statute, the extensive regulations prescribed by the statute, and the terms of the lease. When the plan with such modifications as may be necessary are found by the Secretary to so comply, the Secretary must approve the POE within thirty days unless the Secretary determines that the proposed activity under the lease would probably cause serious harm or damage to life (including fish and other aquatic life), to property, to any mineral deposits, to the national security or defense, or the marine, coastal, or human environment, and the proposed activity cannot be modified to avoid such harm. See id. § 1340(c)(1) (1994) (incorporating the provisions of § 1334(a)(2)(A)(i)). The Secretary is authorized to suspend operations under the lease temporarily upon finding that a similar threat exists subsequently. See id. § 1334(a)(1)(B).
Once the POE is approved, the DOI may consider issuance of the permits and approvals that are required before actual drilling takes place. In applying for a required federal license or permit, an applicant whose activities will affect land or water uses in the coastal zone of a state - such as North Carolina - with a federally approved coastal zone management program must provide to the federal licensing or permitting agency a certificate that its proposed activities comply with the state's approved program. See 16 U.S.C. § 1456(c)(2) (1994). The Coastal Zone Management Act ("CZMA") requires state concurrence with an applicant's consistency certification. See id. § 1456(c)(3)(B)(i). If the state objects, an applicant may appeal that determination to the Secretary of Commerce. See id. § 1456(c)(3)(B)(i)-(iii). The Secretary of Commerce has authority to override the state's objection by finding that the POE is consistent with the CZMA objectives or is otherwise necessary for national security interests. See id.
In addition to the requirement for an approved POE with state concurrence (or override) under the CZMA, if the POE includes discharge of pollutants into the ocean, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ("NPDES") permit must be obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA"). See Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 33 U.S.C. §§ 1311(a), 1342(a) (1994). Again, state concurrence under the CZMA is required before an NPDES permit may be granted. See 16 U.S.C. § 1456(c)(3)(A).
The leases at issue were acquired in 1981 when Marathon Oil Company, Mobil Oil Exploration and Producing Southeast Inc., and Amerada Hess Corporation each bought 1/3 undivided interests in five North Carolina OCS leases. The three corporations each paid the Government more than $78 million in front-end cash bonuses and subsequently paid the Government approximately $264,000 in annual rentals during the ten year primary term.
The first planned activity involving the leased land resulted from the combination of Marathon and other North Carolina OCS lessees into a single entity known as the Manteo Unit. The Manteo Unit proposed drilling one exploratory well about forty-five miles east of Cape Hatteras. In July, 1989, after initial objections to the proposed POE by the State of North Carolina, the state, the DOI, and the Manteo Unit operator entered into a Memorandum of Understanding ("MOU") calling for a special environmental review before the DOI would act on the Manteo Unit POE.
The Manteo Unit also needed to obtain a NPDES permit from the EPA for the POE. The permit was required because the POE included planned discharge of wastes into the ocean. ...