The opinion of the court was delivered by: GETTLEMAN
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
On July 29, 1996, plaintiffs D. Pelfresne ("Pelfresne") and S. Eisenberg ("Eisenberg"), filed a seven-count complaint against defendants, The Village of Rosemont ("Village"), Donald E. Stephens ("D. Stephens"), individually and as the Village President,
Lorraine Clemmensen ("Clemmensen"), John Dorgan ("Dorgan"), Anthony Esposito ("Esposito"), Jack Hasselberger ("Hasselberger"), Emmett Michaels ("Michaels"), Bradley Stephens ("B. Stephens"), individually and as members of the Village Board of Trustees ("Board of Trustees"), Vito Corriero ("Corriero"), individually and as the Director of Public Works, and August Sansone ("Sansone"), individually and as the Director of Purchasing and Commercial Leasing. Plaintiffs alleged Sherman Act violations and state law claims for breach of contract and fraud. Defendants moved to dismiss plaintiffs' complaint. On February 3, 1997, the court granted defendants' motion to dismiss on grounds of abstention under Younger v. Harris, 401 U.S. 37, 27 L. Ed. 2d 669, 91 S. Ct. 746 (1971), and the Anti-Injunction Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2283. The judgment order terminating the case was entered on February 4, 1997, and was docketed February 6, 1997.
Meanwhile, on February 4, 1997, plaintiffs filed a fourteen-count amended complaint pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 15(a), and a "motion for rehearing" of the court's February 3 memorandum opinion and order. Both documents were docketed on February 5. On March 6, 1997, plaintiffs filed a motion for leave to file a second amended complaint. In the amended complaint, plaintiffs named three additional defendants -- Terry Reagan ("Reagan"), as an individual and as the Head of Fire Prevention Bureau, Edward M. Burke ("Burke"), as an individual, and Joseph Martinez ("Martinez"), as an individual -- and alleged violations of anti-trust laws, plaintiffs' civil rights under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, plaintiffs' Fifth and Fourteenth Amendment rights under the United States Constitution, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act ("RICO"), 18 U.S.C. § 1961, et. seq., and Illinois state law. In the second amended complaint, plaintiffs made some minor changes and named two more defendants: Joseph Kusper ("Kusper"), as an individual; and Nicholas Peppers ("Peppers"), as an individual. On July 8, 1997, the court denied plaintiffs' motion for a rehearing and motion to file a second amended complaint. Thereafter, the court gave plaintiffs permission to file an amended RICO complaint.
Plaintiffs have filed a third amended complaint alleging a civil RICO claim against all of the individual defendants.
move to dismiss the third amended complaint pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6) for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. For the reasons explained below, the court grants defendants' motion, but grants plaintiffs leave to file a fourth amended complaint.
For purposes of a motion to dismiss, the court accepts all well-pleaded allegations in the complaint as true and draws all reasonable inferences in favor of the plaintiff. Travel All Over the World, Inc. v. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 73 F.3d 1423, 1428 (7th Cir. 1996). Pelfresne, as trustee, is legal title holder of a tract of land within the Village ("Parcel A"). Eisenberg, as trustee, is legal title holder of a different tract of land within the Village ("Parcel B") on which a masonry restaurant building stands. Although Parcel A is presently devoted to agricultural use, Pelfresne has well-known intentions to develop it for commercial use. Eisenberg owns, leases, and operates restaurants. She and her predecessors in title have regularly leased Parcel B to food service tenants. Both parcels are zoned for commercial use.
Plaintiffs claim that defendants have been trying to acquire what is now plaintiffs' property since 1979. Defendants have attempted to acquire the property by condemning it as "blighted," through eminent domain proceedings, and by raising the real estate taxes to confiscatory levels. On September 24, 1990, however, the Village, by and through Village President D. Stephens, entered into an agreement with plaintiffs' predecessor in title. The agreement provided for the uninterrupted continuation of "DD" Commercial zoning and use and enjoyment of Parcels A and B, including the right to develop, for a term of not less than 15 years.
Plaintiffs claim that defendants have failed to honor this agreement. Parcel B is zoned for restaurants and, according to plaintiffs, does not require a special use permit. Defendants, nevertheless, have denied permits and approvals to Eisenberg's prospective tenants. For example, defendant Corriero, the Director of Public Works for the Village, sent Eisenberg a letter dated May 14, 1996, stating that the Village was refusing to process his permit application for operating an International House of Pancakes restaurant on Parcel B on the grounds that a special use permit was required and that no action could be taken on the project until a hearing was held before the Zoning Board of Appeals. Plaintiffs also allege that defendants sent their predecessor in title a letter dated July 17, 1996, stating that the Village intended to file an eminent domain action to acquire Parcels A and B as public park land and open space. On August 20, 1996, the Village initiated eminent domain proceedings, seeking to acquire plaintiffs' property.
Plaintiffs further allege that defendants' conduct is part of a broader ongoing scheme. According to plaintiffs, defendants acquire property in the Village by wrongfully condemning it as "blighted" or through "sham" eminent domain proceedings or the threat thereof. Defendants then either: (1) use the property for facilities or businesses owned or operated by the Village and award themselves lucrative concessions; or (2) collusively put the property into the hands of a few favored developers who, aided by improper real estate tax exemptions, have the ability to compete unfairly with private businesses. Defendants also use their real estate control and municipal powers to enrich themselves and their own businesses. For example, Sansone, the Director of Purchasing and Commercial Leasing, is given a bargain rent for his hot dog stand and a tax-free parking garage for his patrons. Plaintiffs claim Mayor D. Stephens has sold millions of dollars in real estate to the Village, despite obvious conflicts of interest. To further their scheme, defendants manipulate zoning, wrongfully deny permits, cause harassment by the fire prevention inspector, and evade real estate taxes, in part by filing false affidavits with taxing authorities. Plaintiffs assert that, at present, almost all of the industrial and commercial real estate in the Village has been acquired by condemnation or eminent domain or the threat thereof and is controlled by defendants.
I. STANDARDS FOR A MOTION TO DISMISS
In ruling on a motion to dismiss, the court considers "whether relief is possible under any set of facts that could be established consistent with the allegations." Bartholet v. Reishauer A.G., 953 F.2d 1073, 1078 (7th Cir. 1992). A claim may be dismissed only if it is beyond doubt that under no set of facts would a plaintiff's allegations entitle him to relief. Travel All Over The World, Inc., 73 F.3d at 1429 (7th Cir. 1996); Venture Associates Corp. v. Zenith Data Systems Corp., 987 F.2d 429, 432 (7th Cir. 1993). The purpose of a motion to dismiss is to test the sufficiency of the complaint, not to decide its merits. Gibson v. City of Chicago, 910 F.2d 1510, 1520 (7th Cir. 1990).
Plaintiffs claim that defendants have violated 18 U.S.C. § ...