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FREEMON v. FOLEY

November 7, 1995

JIMMYE FREEMON, Plaintiff,
v.
STEVE FOLEY, WIC Program Director, GILDA IVY, WIC Western Site Assistant Coordinator, JUAN CORBIN, Acting Assistant Supervisor, STEVEN HULSH, Vice President of Human Resources, and MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL MEDICAL CENTER OF CHICAGO, Defendants.



The opinion of the court was delivered by: ASPEN

 MARVIN E. ASPEN, Chief Judge:

 Plaintiff Jimmye Freemon brings this complaint against Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Center of Chicago ("Mt. Sinai") and several of its employees, alleging violations of the Family and Medical Leave Act ("FMLA"), 29 U.S.C. §§ 2601-2654. *fn1" Presently before this court is Defendants Steve Foley, Gilda Ivy, Juan Corbin, and Steve Hulsh's motion for summary judgment. For the reasons set forth below, the defendants' motion is granted in part and denied in part.

 I. Background

 From December 13, 1988 to July 7, 1994, Freemon was employed as a nutritionist at Mt. Sinai in the Woman with Infants and Children ("WIC") program. *fn2" Her immediate supervisor during that time was Gilda Ivy, the Site Supervisor of the WIC program from 1991-94 and Assistant Program Manager of WIC since 1993. When Ivy was out of the office Juan Corbin, a medical assistant in the WIC program, would act as Freemon's temporary supervisor. In turn, Ivy (or Corbin) reported to the WIC Program Manager, Steve Foley, whose direct supervisor was the Vice President of Human Resources, Steven Hulsh. None of these individual defendants were officers or directors of Mt. Sinai, and all but Hulsh contend that they did not have an ownership interest in the company.

 Although the parties do not elaborate on the relationship between Freemon and her supervisors, it is apparent from the record that Freemon had been disciplined in the past for poor performance and absenteeism, and was on probation during the relevant time period. On May 29, 1994, Freemon learned that her five-year old son Joseph had contracted chicken pox. The next work day, May 31, 1994, she contacted Ivy and informed her that she would not be in the office because of her son's illness. When she took Joseph to the doctor on June 2, Freemon also learned that her other son, three-year old Joshua, had a contagious fungal infection. Freemon contends that the doctor told her to keep both children at home until they recovered. Plaintiff then called Ivy and informed her of this situation and the need for her to remain at home with her children. Ivy told Freemon that her vacation time would cover her absence until June 13, 1994, and that she should return to Mt. Sinai at that time. Unfortunately, the plaintiff asserts that by the time Joshua recovered from the fungal infection, he had contracted chicken pox from his sibling. Freemon told both Ivy and Foley of these events, and informed Ivy on June 16 that she expected to be back at work on June 21 after another visit to Joshua's doctor.

 Freemon returned to work on June 21, 1994, and provided a copy of her doctor's statement about Joseph and Joshua's condition to Corbin, who was filling in for Ivy. However, Ivy claims that the note provided to her by Freemon covered only June 2, 1994, and did not justify Freemon's absence for the entire period of time. Ivy called Freemon's doctor to verify the need for her lengthy absence, but was denied specific information about the medical condition of Joseph and Joshua because Freemon had not signed a medical release form. On June 28, 1994, Ivy confronted Freemon about the problem with her documentation, but Plaintiff contended that she did not have any additional documentation in the office at that time. Ivy then went to Foley, complained to him about Freemon's poor performance and absenteeism, and recommended her termination. Foley relayed this information to Hulsh and the Director of the Sinai Family and Community Health Services, and was told by Hulsh to suspend Freemon pending an investigation of her absences in May and June. That same day Foley suspended Freemon, and told her to provide him with the proper documentation. *fn3" On June 30, 1994, Freemon gave Foley another copy of the doctor's note she provided to Ivy on June 21, but she refused to sign a medical release form. Foley maintains that he again spoke with Hulsh about Freemon, and that Hulsh directed him to tell Freemon to provide either medical records verifying the need for her May 31-June 21 absence, or a medical release form for her children, within one week. In addition, Freemon was told that if she did not comply with this request, she would be discharged. Freemon claims that she provided an original of the doctor's note to Foley, but that he told her Hulsh still wanted a release form. *fn4" On July 7, 1994, Foley contacted the plaintiff at home and told her she was discharged because of her failure to provide the necessary documentation of the need for her absence.

 II. Summary Judgment Standard

 A motion for summary judgment will be granted if there is no genuine issue of material fact and the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(c); Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 247, 91 L. Ed. 2d 202, 106 S. Ct. 2505 (1986). The moving party bears the initial burden of identifying "those portions of 'the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any' which it believes demonstrate the absence of a genuine issue of material fact." Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 323, 91 L. Ed. 2d 265, 106 S. Ct. 2548 (1986) (quoting Fed. R. CIV. P. 56(c)). Once the moving party has met this burden, the non-moving party cannot simply rest on the allegations in the pleadings; rather, the non-movant "must set forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(e); see Smith v. Shawnee Library Sys., 60 F.3d 317, 320 (7th Cir. 1995) (non-movant "must come forward with evidence of a genuine factual dispute"). Although we read the facts in a light most favorable to the non-moving party, Cuddington v. Northern Ind. Public Serv. Corp., 33 F.3d 813, 815 (7th Cir. 1994), in order to stave off summary judgment the non-movant cannot simply create a factual dispute; rather, there must be a genuine dispute over those facts that could actually affect the outcome of the lawsuit, Tolle v. Carroll Touch, Inc., 23 F.3d 174, 178 (7th Cir. 1994).

 III. Discussion

 Enacted on February 5, 1993, the FMLA is Congress's attempt to balance the demands of the workplace with the needs of employees to take leave for eligible medical conditions and compelling family reasons. 29 U.S.C. § 2601(b). In addition to providing eligible employees with up to twelve weeks of unpaid leave to handle qualified family problems, *fn5" the FMLA also ensures that those who take such leave will be restored to their former position or an equivalent one upon returning to work. *fn6" Employers who violate the statute are liable to the injured employee for compensatory damages, back pay, and equitable relief. 29 U.S.C. § 2617(a). An employer is defined in the FMLA as:

 
any person engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting commerce who employs 50 or more employees for each working day during each of 20 or more calendar workweeks in the current or preceding calendar year . . . including . . . any person who acts, directly or indirectly, in the interest of an employer to any of the employees of such employer. . . .

 29 U.S.C. § 2611(4)(A)(i), (ii) (emphasis added).

 The individual defendants argue that they cannot, as a matter of law, be held liable for any alleged violations of the FMLA because they were not Freemon's "employers." They did not employ fifty or more people during the previous twenty weeks, they were not officers or directors of Mt. Sinai, and they all disavow any "unilateral authority" to hire, discharge, or grant a leave of absence to an employee of Mt. Sinai. The plaintiff responds that although she received her paycheck from Mt. Sinai, the individual defendants exercised sufficient control over her employment ...


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