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PEOPLE WHO CARE v. ROCKFORD BD. OF EDUC.

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS, WESTERN DIVISION


November 3, 1993

PEOPLE WHO CARE, an unincorporated association; LARRY & CHASTY HOARDE, minors, by their parent and next friend Flossie Hoarde; JONATHAN HUGHES, a minor, by his parents and next friends, Sidella & Nathan Hughes; SIDNEY & ANDRE MALONE, minors, by their parent and next friend, Rev. Louis E. Malone; SHAHEED SALEEM, a minor, by his parent and next friend, Christine Saleem; ANISSA TRIPPLETT, a minor, by her parent and next friend, Beulah Tripplett; ASIA EASON, a minor, by her parent and next friend, Granada Williams; JAMES & KELLY CURTIN, minors, by their parents and next friends, Larry Curtin & Sue Belvoir; LEONARDO MEDRANO, by his parent and next friend, Jesus Medrano; each individual suing as a class representative of the class certified by the court; Plaintiffs,
v.
ROCKFORD BOARD OF EDUCATION, SCHOOL DISTRICT # 205, Defendant, and ROCKFORD EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, ROCKFORD BUILDING MAINTENANCE ASSOCIATION, & EDUCATION OFFICE PERSONNEL ASSOCIATION, Intervenor-Defendants.

[EDITOR'S NOTE: PART 3 OF 3. THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN SPLIT INTO MULTIPLE PARTS ON LEXIS TO ACCOMMODATE ITS LARGE SIZE. EACH PART CONTAINS THE SAME LEXIS CITE.]

The essential educational function of the Bilingual Program, however, distinguished it from the educationally supplemental white alternative and focus (magnet) programs. For example, State regulations require that whenever a school has twenty or more non-English-speaking children or children for whom English is a second language, there is to be a bilingual program in that school. 105 ILCS 5/14C-3, formerly Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 122, P 14C-3. In contrast, the predominantly white alternative/focus programs provided enhanced educational experiences for their students.

The RSD persisted in its discriminatory use of the bilingual students as involuntary participants in desegregation despite opposition by the Hispanic-American community. The transfer of the bilingual students from Barbour and King to Whitehead drew opposition from Hispanic-American parents concerned about the removal of the program from the heart of the Hispanic community. B32708. In December of 1979, the Bilingual Parent Advisory Council (hereinafter "BPAC") initiated a boycott of the Bilingual Program because of transportation problems, frequent relocation of the Program and placing of the program so far away from the Hispanic community so that parents could not easily get to the schools. Gerdes Dep. at 38; Bd. Min., 12/10/79, B16586-B16596; Pulido-Logeman Dep. at 16. Despite a promise to the BPAC (in response to the boycott) that it would attempt to curtail the frequent transfer of the Bilingual Program, the RSD failed to keep its promise. Gerdes Dep. at 42. In 1986, Hispanic parents met with Superintendent Mell Grell voicing opposition to the relocation of the bilingual program. The response of the Board was another relocation.

Given the fact that bilingual education is essential for non- or limited-English-speaking students, transfer of the Bilingual Program from school to school over the years was essentially a mandatory reassignment of the Hispanic-American students for desegregation purposes. Like the burden placed on African-American students in the RSD, the mandatory reassignment of Hispanic-American students for desegregation purposes was unmatched by the mandatory reassignment of white students for desegregation purposes.

 Segregation Of Elementary Bilingual Students

 When the RSD's Bilingual Program began at Barbour School, the curriculum consisted of participants attending classes with regular students for part of the day and then attending "pull out" bilingual classes for the other part of the day. Such a multi-cultural system served to integrate bilingual students into the school's student body.

 Despite this success, however, the RSD terminated the pull out program and instituted a full-time Bilingual Program. Ms. Victoria Mayer testified that bilingual students spent a whole day with the bilingual teacher. Thus, the only interaction they had with the "regular" students at the school was during lunch and recess.

 Transportation Discrimination

 The RSD transportation for bilingual students was qualitatively different from the transportation provided for white desegregation students. White student participation in desegregation was voluntary in the RSD. The RSD transportation policy with regard to the voluntary alternative/focus programs (predominantly white) was to provide a yellow school bus to students who lived more than 1.5 miles from school, regardless of their proximity to an RMTD bus stop.

 The bilingual students were provided with Board-paid transportation. Unlike alternative and majority focus program students, however, the transportation for bilingual students was, in most cases, through the Rockford Mass Transit District (hereinafter "RMTD") and not by yellow school buses. This was so, even though, for reporting purposes, the RSD called bilingual students "focus program" participants. See, infra, Inequitable Acess to Transportation. Transportation Department documents showed that majority open enrollment, focus and alternative students qualified for Board-paid transportation both if they lived less than 1.5 miles from an RSD stop and if they lived more than 1.5 miles from an RMTD stop. Accordingly, these white desegregation students qualified for Board-paid transportation under all circumstances. In contrast, when transportation was provided to bilingual students, it is always "mass transit only." No similar notation appeared next to any majority alternative, open enrollment or focus transfers. Id.

 Even for those few bilingual students who rode yellow school buses, the burden of crosstown busing was substantial. Raul Medrano, a former student in the RSD's bilingual program, was bused, along with other students in his neighborhood, to Whitehead School. Medrano testified that because of the great distance and the long bus ride, his day usually began at 6:30 a.m. He walked five or six blocks to a bus stop for the 7:30 a.m. bus. The bus ride usually lasted 45-50 minutes. The bused students would then arrive 10-15 minutes before school began but were forced to remain on the school bus while neighborhood students were allowed on the playground.

 Educational Deficiencies

 Serious educational deficiencies in the Bilingual Program existed in the RSD. The educational services received by Bilingual Program students were not equal to those received by students in the regular instructional program. Furthermore, the RSD failed to adequately identify and assess students who were in need of bilingual services.

 State of Illinois And U.S. Department of Education Findings of Deficiencies

 In April of 1980, the Illinois State Board of Education (hereinafter "ISBE") issued findings with regard to the "degree of district conformance with requirements for transitional bilingual education programs." Bethke Letter, 4/17/80, B500230. As to the Bilingual Programs districtwide, the ISBE found that procedures for the identification of students in need of bilingual education "were inadequate." No standard procedures existed and "program personnel evidenced little understanding as to how students enter and exit the program." The ISBE further found that referrals for special services were not processed in a timely manner. Finally while the administrative staff at the building level demonstrated support for the efforts of the program, the ISBE reported that the RSD failed to provide the necessary leadership at the central staff level for communicating with parents and developing staff and curriculum. The RSD provided leadership that was said to be "diffused and unfocused." Id. at B500231.

 The ISBE also reported numerous deficiencies with the Bilingual Program at both the elementary and secondary levels. At Gregory, for example, the ISBE found that the staff appeared to be "insufficient" for the English reading instruction, and stated that it was "doubtful that students received a full program." Id. at B500230. At Flinn Middle School, the ISBE reported that the "[English as a Second Language] ESL instruction was insufficient." Mr. Bethke of the ISBE explained:

 

Only one period of ESL is available to most students. Two periods per day should be the minimum. Required courses must be available to the students and 90 minutes of instruction using Spanish is required. This program should be examined thoroughly and restructured for the next year.

 Id. at B500231.

 The same findings were made with regard to the program at West High School. The West High program did "not conform to statutory requirements" and was ordered to be modified for FY-81. Id.

 In July of 1980, after an investigation of the RSD's practices with regard to non- and limited-English-speaking students, the U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights (hereinafter "OCR") made several findings of educational discrimination by the Rockford School District. B32390-B32399. First, the OCR found that the RSD failed to identify and assess adequately those students who were non- and limited-English-speaking and who were, therefore, unable to participate effectively in the RSD's regular program of instruction. B32390. Identification and assessment procedures were said to be seriously flawed. To illustrate, on an annual basis, the District determined which students were from non-English-language backgrounds and, thus, potentially non- and limited-English speaking. Principals, classroom teachers and secretaries generally relied on personal knowledge about the student's families to provide this information. In two schools, the Ethnic Code from the Student Information Form was used to identify non- English-language background students, even though ethnicity and home language background are not synonymous. In several other elementary schools, such information was provided by the students themselves or "in conjunction with students." B32391. The OCR considered this last method to be especially inappropriate with elementary-age students who may not have fully understood the questions or the reasons for which the information was sought. Id. The RSD also placed students in nonexistent language groups, for example, "East India, Oriental, Hawaiian, and Indian."

 District staff admitted that students from non-English language backgrounds were missed, thus confirming the inadequacy of the identification process. Id. The result was that the non- English-speaking students were excluded from further consideration for bilingual or other special language services. As only the students who were from non-English backgrounds, according to the District's own records, were assessed for their English proficiency, those students who had not been initially identified in the screening process simply fell through the cracks. B32392.

 Where students had successfully been identified as being from non-English backgrounds, classroom teachers and principals were personally responsible for determining whether students were limited English proficient and, therefore, eligible for bilingual services. District personnel indicated that these determinations were not based upon the results of a standardized valid instrument measuring English language proficiency; instead, District staff relied on other information (e.g., observations of students) which the OCR found to be an invalid method of determining English language proficiency. Id.

 In addition, even when students were assessed by these flawed methods, there was no consistent District-wide procedure for evaluating the students' English language proficiency. For example, at one school, the only students who were identified as having limited English proficiency were those who spoke virtually no English (level I of the ISBE definition of English language fluency). In other schools, limited-English students were defined as those whose English language proficiency corresponded to levels I, II, III and IV of the ISBE definition. The bilingual coordinator indicated that it may have been appropriate to include even level V students in this category. Id.

 In sum, many students who needed bilingual services were missed. In fact, the OCR investigators found that a number of recently-immigrated Laotian students who spoke very little English were not so identified. Id. The net effect of the District's procedures was that many students who were non-English-speaking or limited-English-speaking were entitled to bilingual services but never received such services since only those students who were initially identified as having limited English proficiency were eligible to receive a bilingual education. Id.

 Second, the OCR found that the RSD failed to take adequate affirmative steps to insure that all non- and limited-English-speaking students received educational services equally effective to those offered students in the regular instructional program. B32393. The OCR determined that students who spoke a non-English language other than Spanish and those who had not been identified as needing bilingual services due to the above-described methods, were not receiving the bilingual education to which they were entitled. Id.

 To illustrate, the OCR found that three Hispanic students attended schools in which no bilingual program existed. Furthermore, sixty non- and limited-English-speaking Hispanic students in twenty-two schools were not receiving bilingual services. Id. District staff maintained that these students could transfer, at District expense, to a school with a Bilingual Program. The OCR determined, however, that otherwise-eligible students did not choose to so for two primary reasons: (1) the District had no uniform procedure to notify parents, in their own language, that their children were eligible for bilingual instruction; and (2) some parents believed their children would have to be transported an unreasonable distance in order to participate in the Bilingual program. Id. The OCR concluded that parental notification of the Bilingual Program availability was not calculated to actually inform the parents since the notices were sent home in English. No translations of these notices to languages other than Spanish were available. The OCR also found that the perceived "unreasonable" distances to bilingual programs that caused parents not to exercise the school transfer option did not obviate the District's responsibility to provide special bilingual services to non- and limited-English-speaking students. Id.

 Third, and finally, when bilingual education was actually delivered despite these obstacles, the OCR found that the District did not deliver "equally effective educational services" as required by Title VI. For example, non- and limited-English-speaking Hispanic students at Flinn Middle School and West High School learned only one required subject in Spanish, Social Studies. No mathematics or science courses, also required subjects, were taught in Spanish. B32394. The net effect of the District's failure to offer all required courses in Spanish was that some non- and limited-English-speaking students were enrolled in only three one-period courses: BBP (bilingual bicultural program) social studies, BBP English and physical education. Id. The OCR further found that at Flinn Middle School, the main emphasis of the bilingual social studies course was on Latino American countries. As such, the course was not comparable to the curriculum received by English-speaking students in the regular classroom.

 Educational Deficiencies Persist

 Educational deficiencies in the Bilingual Program of the RSD remain today. Hispanics in Rockford have the highest dropout rate of all racial and ethnic groups. Pulido-Logeman Dep. at 8. Specifically with regard to the Bilingual Program, the RSD's failure to provide sufficient space has resulted in overcrowding of bilingual students and the holding of bilingual classes in inappropriate areas.

 At Nashold, two bilingual classes at one time were held in the same room. Approximately fifteen to twenty students were on each side of the room. Children would turn around and listen to the other teacher. Noise and instruction from each class interfered with the other. Also at Nashold, the bilingual classes were moved into the gym. The bilingual students were put "on the stage while gym classes were going on" or the students "would stand in the aisle . . . waiting for the gym to empty in order for them to go" back to class. Sometimes the class was held in the hallway. Campos Dep. at 19-24.

 Ms. Mercado, a bilingual teacher at East, testified that during each of her four years at East, she ordered bilingual algebra books. She never received the books and the students had to share books. Ms. Mercado filed a grievance, but the algebra class was subsequently dropped, so the grievance was never handled. Mercado Dep. at 37.

 Educational deficiencies in the Bilingual Program extended to problems in the manner in which counselling was provided to the bilingual students. Ms. Mercado testified that the counselors at East High School rejected her attempts to help bilingual students schedule their classes. When Ms. Mercado explained to the head counsellor that the students didn't speak English, the counselor replied "we understand each other." Id. at 31.

 Ms. Mercado also testified that counselors steered the bilingual students toward easier classes. Every year Ms. Mercado helped her students prepare their schedules prior to their guidance counseling appointments and every year at least half of them came back to her with changed schedules. Instead of upper level classes, the girls were put into food and child development and the boys into technology. The justification offered by the counselor at East was that the classes that the bilingual students requested were too hard for them. Id. at 32. Ms. Mercado also observed a counselor at East laugh in a bilingual student's face because the student wanted to take French. Id. at 33.

 Failure to Provide Effective Special Education to Non- and Limited-English-Speaking Students

 In 1980, during the course of its investigation into the practices of the RSD with regard to the Bilingual Program, the OCR discovered that the RSD also failed to assess and serve appropriately non- and limited-English-speaking students who required special education services. The RSD used bilingual psychologists to evaluate such students, and when bilingual psychologists were not available, the District obtained evaluations through the Northwestern Illinois Association (hereinafter "NIA"). The OCR found, however, that often there was a considerable delay between the referral to the bilingual NIA psychologist and the completion of the evaluation. B32396. For example, one student was referred for an NIA evaluation on November 28, 1979, but was not scheduled to be tested until June 19, 1980. Id. In contrast, District officials told the OCR investigators that monolingual-English-speaking special education students were generally evaluated and staffed within sixty days, as prescribed by State regulations. Id.

 Even when non- and limited-English-speaking students were timely evaluated, the appropriateness of those evaluations was doubtful. No determination was ever made of the student's English language proficiency, even though the District conducted evaluations of these students in English by monolingual English-speaking professionals. Id.

 In addition to the flawed and inadequate evaluation procedures, the OCR found that the RSD did not provide appropriate special education services to non- and limited-English-speaking students in a language they could understand. Id. The RSD employed only one Spanish-speaking learning disabilities (hereinafter "LD") teacher. However, because of the District's practice of assigning LD teachers to particular schools, Spanish-speaking students in schools to which she was not assigned could not be evaluated or receive direct services from her except in unusual circumstances. B32397. Additionally, because this teacher conducted a large number of evaluations during the first year of her assignment to schools with bilingual programs, Spanish-speaking LD students did not receive direct services from her comparable to that received by monolingual English-speaking LD students from other LD teachers. Id. The OCR found that there was at least one limited-English proficient Spanish-speaking student who was determined to be mentally impaired (hereinafter "MI"). However, because there was no bilingual MI teacher, this student received educational services in the regular bilingual program; no direct services were provided by an MI teacher in either language. Id.

 In light of its findings, the OCR ordered the RSD to "develop a comprehensive plan acceptable to the Department [of Education] which provides equally effective educational services to non- and limited-English-speaking national origin minority students." Id. In response to the OCR's mandate, the RSD made several changes. The RSD addressed the problem of parental notification of the existence of Bilingual Programs by distributing a survey to determine the home language background of all students in the District. B2598-B2603. The District followed up its survey with an assessment procedure to determine the English language fluency of students from non-English language backgrounds. B2598.

 Despite these steps, the RSD's assessment of non- and limited-English-speaking students for special education remains inadequate and its education of special needs students who are non- and limited-English-speaking remains inferior to the special education it provides English-speaking students. Although English-speaking students are provided with self-contained special education classes at the middle and high school levels, the RSD does not presently offer a self-contained learning disabilities classroom or resource room or a behavior disorder class for bilingual students at the middle and high school levels. Mercado Dep. at 6-8. The result is that bilingual students who need special education are either left in bilingual classes without special education or are placed in special education classes where only English is spoken. Id. at 13-17. Furthermore, the RSD does not employ a bilingual learning disability/behavior disorder teacher at the secondary level. Id. at 8. The RSD also does not employ a LD/BD resource person for bilingual students at the high school level. Id. at 12. Accordingly, bilingual teachers must attempt to deal with the problems of the LD or BD student while trying to conduct a regular class. Id. The lack of bilingual teacher's aides has aggravated the problems caused by the shortage of bilingual special education teachers.

 The absence of effective special education for students with non- or limited-English speaking ability has left such students in the middle of an administrative stalemate. Ms. Mercado testified that she has expressed her concerns about bilingual LD/BD students to the Director of Special Education and to the coordinator of bilingual education:

 

I have asked them both for help. I have expressed my concerns about the students. I have told them their behaviors. And I have asked them if we could get someone to work with these kids. And the special education lady said that it is bilingual's job to hire a teacher to work with them. And bilingual said that it is special education's job to hire a teacher to work with those kids.

 Id. at 23.

 In addition to failing to provide effective special education services for non- or limited-English-speaking students, the RSD's LD/BD assessment procedure is also lacking. Though the OCR, thirteen years ago, found that the RSD's referral of bilingual students to an outside bilingual psychologist for evaluation of learning behavior disorders resulted in an unjustifiable delay in the assessment of these students, the RSD, at present has no bilingual psychologist on staff. The students continue to be referred to an outside contractor and the delays in assessment continue to result. Id. at 7-8.

 CONCLUSIONS OF LAW

 A court may consider the school district's conduct relating to Bilingual Education Programs in evaluating the entire school system. See e.g., Lorain NAACP v. Lorain Bd. of Educ., 979 F.2d 1141 (6th Cir. 1992); Coalition to Save Our Children v. Buchanan, 744 F. Supp. 582 (D. Del. 1990); United States v. Bd. of Educ. of City of Chicago, 588 F. Supp. 132, 169 (N.D. Ill. 1984), vacated on other grounds, 744 F.2d 1300 (7th Cir. 1985), cert. denied, 471 U.S. 1116 (1985).

 The goal of language remediation programs is to integrate Spanish-speaking students into the English language classroom. Castaneda v. Pickard, 648 F.2d 989, 998 n.4 (5th Cir. 1981). A properly implemented program raises the academic achievement of limited-English-proficient students, thus creating equal educational opportunities for these students. United States v. Bd. of Educ. of City of Chicago, 588 F. Supp. at 169. Given these goals, language remediation programs should not isolate their participants from English speaking children. Castaneda, 648 F.2d at 998; Cintron v. Brentwood Union Free School Dist., 455 F. Supp. 57, 64 (E.D.N.Y. 1978). As much as possible, the program should encourage contact between non-English and English-speaking children. Id. Allowing participation in mainstream academic and extracurricular programs is one manner of achieving this goal. See Coalition to Save Our Children, 744 F. Supp. at 594.

 In reviewing the appropriateness of a school district's language remediation program, three factors are relevant: (1) whether the school system is pursuing a program informed by an educational theory recognized as sound by experts in the field; (2) whether the programs and practices actually used by a school system are reasonably calculated to implement effectively the educational theory adopted by the school; and (3) whether, after a sufficient period of time, the program actually overcomes the language barriers confronting students. Castaneda, 648 F.2d at 1009-10. Further, the school district's transportation policies with respect to specialized programs, such as bilingual education, should not place disproportionate or stigmatizing burdens on minority students. See United States v. Yonkers Bd. of Educ., 624 F. Supp. 1276, 1455 (S.D.N.Y. 1985).

 The court finds that the RSD operated its Bilingual Education Program in violation of the constitutional rights of Hispanic students. The RSD placed an unlawful transportation burden on Hispanic students by requiring the involuntary movement of bilingual students for desegregation purposes. No involuntary transfer burdens for desegregation purposes were imposed on majority students. Repeated relocation of the Bilingual Program furthered the unlawful transportation burden on Hispanic students. Bilingual students were provided transportation that was qualitatively inferior to that provided to white desegregation students.

 The court further finds that the RSD administered the Bilingual Program in violation of the constitutional rights of Hispanic students. The RSD converted the elementary half-day pull-out bilingual program which allowed bilingual students to interact with the general school population into a whole-day program completely segregated from the rest of the school. Bilingual students were steered toward easier and less beneficial classes by English-only speaking counselors and were inadequately provided with educational services and curricula comparable to white students. Furthermore, the RSD failed to adequately identify and assess non- and limited-English-speaking students as eligible to participate in the Bilingual Program. Finally, the RSD failed to provide effective and meaningful special education services to non- and limited-English-speaking students.

 SPECIAL EDUCATION

 INTRODUCTION

 Special Education students should be exempt from desegregation programs. They have enough problems without being moved around in order to make a building appear numerically integrated. In the school year 1988-89, the RSD assigned 99.6% of the Southwest Quadrant elementary students to non-Southwest schools. The court has not been convinced that the assignment was an act of intentional discrimination. The RSD should continue to exempt special education students from desegregation programs.

 FINDINGS OF FACT

 In June of 1974, the RSD recommended to the QUEFAC court that elementary special education students be "exempt" from participating in desegregation programs due to their needs for special facilities and equipment. In subsequent status reports to the court, the RSD restated its position that special education students were exempt from desegregation programs.

 Notwithstanding the RSD's stated policy that elementary special education students were "exempt" from desegregation activities, the RSD assigned all elementary students to non-Southwest schools. Most of these students were assigned to Eastside schools. This practice was evident as early as the first school-by-school Self-Contained Special Education (SCSE) data in 1980 and continued until entry of the Second Interim Order in 1991.

 Dr. David Bennett testified regarding the RSD's assignment of SCSE students. Dr. Bennett noted that behavior disorder students are provided a program based in self-contained environments because of their fragile nature. Dr. Bennett noted that usually an effort is made by a school district to keep SCSE as close to the child's home as possible. Parents and guardians are frequently brought into the school to deal with the day-to-day behavior of these students. Illustrating this point, Dr. Bennett stated that parents are often brought in to the school because of behavior problems involving the child, emergency situations based upon the delicate nature of the child's behavior, and also to discuss with teachers and administrators appropriate program choices. Dr. Bennett found, however, that SCSE students in the RSD who lived on the Southwest side of Rockford were assigned to schools outside of the Southwest Quadrant. He observed this trend from 1981 to 1989. In the 1980-81 school year, full-time SCSE students were much more likely to be assigned to non-Southwest schools. While the Southwest schools constituted roughly a third of all elementary schools, they received only 13.6% of the SCSE students. As a result, non-Southwest schools had an average number of full-time elementary SCSE students that was roughly double that for Southwest schools (an average of 42 versus an average of 22, respectively). Total Number of Number of full- Percentage of all schools schools with time special full-time special SCSE programs education education [elementary [elementary SCSE] students SCSE] students Southwest 12 4 86 13.6 % schools All other 42 13 548 86.4 % schools

 Thereafter, the policy of assigning minority SCSE students out of the Southwest Quadrant became pervasive. In the school year 1988-89, prior to commencement of this lawsuit, there were virtually complete racial disproportions in the RSD's assignment of students. During the school year, 36% of the elementary SCSE students lived in the attendance areas of the ten Southwest Quadrant elementary schools and, consequently, were predominantly minority students. The RSD, however, assigned 99.6% of elementary SCSE students to non-Southwest schools. All Southwest elementary SCSE students, except two, were assigned by the RSD to attend non-Southwest schools, but no SCSE students from elsewhere in the District were assigned to attend Southwest elementary schools. See D5291, D5334, B507386, B507061.

 A similar, but somewhat less severe, pattern occured at the high school level. During this same period, 44% of high school SCSE students lived in the attendance areas of Auburn and West, Southwest Quadrant schools, but 82% of all high school SCSE students were assigned to attend Eastside facilities. A less pronounced pattern occurred at the middle schools: 46% of SCSE students lived in the attendance areas of Kennedy or Wilson, also Southwest Quadrant schools, but 59% were assigned to Eastside schools.

 This assignment policy of the RSD represented both a unique burden on minority students and an instance of within-school segregation by the placement of substantially minority special education classes in otherwise predominantly white schools. The RSD's continued placement of SCSE students from the Southwest Quadrant in schools outside of that Quadrant was also in sharp contrast to the policy the District was implementing in relation to other students. Specifically, in 1989, the RSD, through its Reorganization Plan, was attempting a policy that would have children attending school in their own neighborhood. This policy clearly was not pursued with regard to SCSE students on the Southwest side, who are "literally the most fragile students in the school district." The minority SCSE students who lived in the Southwest Quadrant were not given the opportunity to attend schools close to their homes while their white counterparts in other areas of the city were able to attend self-contained classrooms reasonably close to their homes. This occurred despite the fact that decreasing enrollments in Southwest Quadrant schools made available space for SCSE students.

 Not only did these conditions exist, but the RSD special education staff were well aware of the SCSE assignment patterns. On January 12, 1989, Janet Jones, then Director of Special Education, submitted a memorandum to John Hartwig, Director of Student Services, presenting data that compared the residence and school assignments of SCSE students. Ms. Jones' stated in her memorandum: "It is interesting to see where most children who are bused to self-contained programs live. . . You may want to share this with [Supt.] Swanson." D5334. This memorandum was written during the month that the 1989 Reorganization Plan was being formulated. Ms. Jones apparently recognized the inequity of the RSD's assignment policy for SCSE students and suggested rectification of the disparities. However, no corrective action was taken. This fact was reflected by Ms. Jones' May 26, 1989 list of special education locations for the Fall of 1989 showing all elementary SCSE classes still located outside the Southwest Quadrant.

 The burdensome pattern of SCSE student assignment is depicted on the map below. Each dot on the map represents a 1990 SCSE student and each star on the map represents a school to which SCSE students were assigned. The court is not able to tell from the record whether these transfered minority students were in fact "counted" for desegregation purposes. The court states, however, that the District would have a potential numerical motive to have made these kinds of transfers.

 SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS

 [SEE MAP IN ORIGINAL]

  CONCLUSIONS OF LAW

 Evidence of discrimination in the operation of a special education program is relevant in a school desegregation case. See United States v. Yonkers Bd. of Educ., 624 F. Supp. 1276, 1377 (S.D.N.Y. 1985), aff'd, 837 F.2d 1181 (2nd Cir. 1987), cert. denied, 486 U.S. 1055, 100 L. Ed. 2d 922, 108 S. Ct. 2821 (1988). In Yonkers, for example, the court found the defendant school district liable for discriminatory classification, transportation and other unlawful treatment of minority Special Education students. Id. The assignment policy of the RSD placed a burden on minority students and constituted an instance of within-school segregation through the placement of substantially minority special education classes in otherwise predominantly white schools. The court, however, does not have sufficient evidence to come to the conclusion that the actions of the RSD constituted an act of intentional discrimination.

 THE LAW OF EDUCATIONAL SEGREGATION AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE EVIDENCE

 Overview of the Law

 In Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483, 98 L. Ed. 873, 74 S. Ct. 686 (1954), the United States Supreme Court held that "in the field of public education, the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place" and that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." Id. at 495. The Court further observed that "to separate [minority children] from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone." Id. at 494.

 The law governing liability in a school desegregation case can be summarized in one sentence: a State or local authority may not intentionally segregate or discriminate against minority students because of their race. A prima facie case establishing liability contains three elements: (1) "segregation or discrimination" (minority students must, in fact, experience either segregated conditions or suffer the detrimental effects of discriminatory conduct -- or both); (2) "causation" (school authorities must have caused, created or maintained such segregation or discrimination); and (3) "intent" (the conduct of school officials must have been undertaken "intentionally").

 This standard derives from the Equal Protection Clause that provides that "no state . . . shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." The Equal Protection Clause requires State and local governments to treat similarly situated groups of persons in similar fashion when classifying individuals to receive particular benefits and burdens. Hooper v. Bernalillo County Assessor, 472 U.S. 612, 618, 86 L. Ed. 2d 487, 105 S. Ct. 2862 (1985). While courts ordinarily defer to governmental classifications unless they lack a rational justification, classifications that burden "discrete and insular minorities" are "inherently suspect" and are subject to "strict" judicial scrutiny. See United States v. Carolene Products Co., 304 U.S. 144, 152 n.4, 82 L. Ed. 1234, 58 S. Ct. 778 (1938).

 Race is the paradigm "suspect" classification triggering strict scrutiny. Palmore v. Sidoti, 466 U.S. 429, 433-34, 80 L. Ed. 2d 421, 104 S. Ct. 1879 (1984). State action that, on its face, involves a racial classification is presumptively invalid and can be upheld only upon an extraordinary justification. Personnel Administrator v. Feeney, 442 U.S. 256, 272, 60 L. Ed. 2d 870, 99 S. Ct. 2282 (1979). Facially neutral State action violates the Equal Protection Clause when the action is intended to have a racial effect and, in fact, has such an effect. Washington v. Davis, 426 U.S. 229, 240-41, 48 L. Ed. 2d 597, 96 S. Ct. 2040 (1976).

 The mere existence of racially segregated schools does not constitute a constitutional violation nor does it create an obligation on the part of a school board to take remedial action. Columbus Bd. of Educ. v. Penick, 443 U.S. 449, 464, 61 L. Ed. 2d 666, 99 S. Ct. 2941 (1979). Racial imbalance in a school system only violates the Equal Protection Clause when intentional government conduct has caused or perpetuated the situation. Keyes v. School Dist. No. 1, Denver, Col., 413 U.S. 189, 213-14, 37 L. Ed. 2d 548, 93 S. Ct. 2686 (1973). A State statute or constitutional provision requiring separation of the races in schools is the most obvious type of government conduct causing or perpetuating segregation and is facially unconstitutional under Brown, 347 U.S. at 495.

 Cases subsequent to Brown, however, have clearly established that many less blatant forms of government conduct that lead to racial imbalance in school systems also violate the Constitution. A constitutional violation occurs in school districts that have never been subject to statutorily-mandated racial segregation where "school authorities have carried out a systematic program of segregation affecting a substantial portion of the students, schools, teachers, and facilities within the school system." Keyes, 413 U.S. at 201. In order to prove unconstitutional racial imbalance in a school system, a plaintiff must show that (1) the governmental authorities created or maintained racial segregation in the schools and (2) their actions were motivated by segregative intent. Keyes, 413 U.S. at 208; Diaz v. San Jose Unified School Dist., 733 F.2d 660, 662 (9th Cir. 1984), cert. denied, 471 U.S. 1065, 85 L. Ed. 2d 497, 105 S. Ct. 2140 (1985).

 In a racially unbalanced school system, the existence of racial segregation need not be numerically absolute so long as the public schools are substantially segregated and "racially identifiable." United States v. Yonkers Bd. of Educ., 624 F. Supp. 1276, 1378 (S.D.N.Y. 1985), aff'd, 837 F.2d 1181 (2nd Cir. 1987). What constitutes a racially identifiable school will depend upon the facts of each particular case. Keyes, 413 U.S. at 196. A court must examine the racial and ethnic composition of particular schools as well as "every facet of school operations -- faculty, staff, transportation, extra-curricular activities and facilities." Green v. County School Bd. of New Kent County, 391 U.S. 430, 435, 20 L. Ed. 2d 716, 88 S. Ct. 1689 (1968). Further, a court should consider the quality of education afforded to both white and minority students. See Freeman v. Pitts, U.S. , 112 S. Ct. 1430, 1446 (1992). Thus, a plaintiff may provide a school system is racially identifiable by factors that may, but need not, include student assignment. Brown v. Bd. of Educ., 892 F.2d 851, 861 (10th Cir. 1989), vacated on other grounds, U.S. , 112 S. Ct. 1657 (1992).

 With respect to causation, the first Keyes factor, the conduct of school authorities need not be the sole cause of racial segregation, but such conduct must have more than a de minimis impact. Yonkers, 624 F. Supp. at 1379. A plaintiff must demonstrate that the defendant's conduct contributed in a substantial manner to the creation or perpetuation of racial segregation. Berry v. School Dist. of Benton Harbor, 442 F. Supp. 1280, 1292 (W.D. Mich. 1977). The "conduct" under scrutiny includes acts of omission as well as affirmative acts. Yonkers, 624 F. Supp. at 1379.

 In addition to proving that the defendant's conduct created or maintained racial imbalance in the schools, a plaintiff must show that the conduct was motivated by segregative intent, the second Keyes factor. Ordinarily, only circumstantial evidence is available to establish segregative intent. Diaz, 733 F.2d at 662. Evidence of the discriminatory impact of acts, omissions or policies is one type of circumstantial evidence supporting an inference of segregative intent. Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Dev. Corp., 429 U.S. 252, 266, 50 L. Ed. 2d 450, 97 S. Ct. 555 (1977). Other types of circumstantial evidence relevant to proving segregative intent include: (1) the historical background and sequence of events leading up to the conduct maintaining or exacerbating racial imbalance in the schools; (2) departures from typical procedural sequences or substantive criteria normally considered important by the decisionmaker; and (3) contemporaneous evidence concerning the decision-making process. Id. at 267-68. If a plaintiff succeeds in establishing a prima facie case of intentional segregation, the burden then shifts to the defendant to establish that the same segregative conduct would have occurred "even had the impermissible purpose not been considered." Id. at 271, n.21.

 Further, a finding of intentionally segregative school board conduct in a meaningful portion of a school system creates a presumption that other segregated activity within the school system is not coincidental. Keyes, 413 U.S. at 208. This presumption places a burden upon the defendant to show that segregation in other schools and activities within the system have not resulted from intentionally segregative conduct. Id. In discharging this burden, the school authorities must rely upon more than some allegedly logical, racially neutral explanation for their actions. Id. at 210. The school district's burden is to adduce proof sufficient to support a finding that segregative intent was not among the factors that motivated its actions. Id.

 Causation - The First Keyes Factor

 In Keyes v. School Dist. No. 1, 413 U.S. 189, 37 L. Ed. 2d 548, 93 S. Ct. 2686 (1973), the United States Supreme Court developed two factors that must be established in a desegregation school case. The first of these factors is causation. Id. at 208. Accordingly, in order to prevail in a school desegregation case, the plaintiffs must show that the conduct of the defendant school system was State action that caused or maintained racial isolation and segregation. Yonkers, 624 F. Supp. at 1379; Berry, 442 F. Supp. at 1292; N.A.A.C.P. v. Lansing Bd. of Educ., 559 F.2d 1042 (6th Cir.) cert. denied 434 U.S. 997, 54 L. Ed. 2d 491, 98 S. Ct. 635 (1977); Oliver v. Kalamazoo Bd. of Educ., 368 F. Supp. 143, 159 (W.D. Mich. 1973), aff'd 508 F.2d 178 (6th Cir. 1974), cert. denied, 421 U.S. 963, 44 L. Ed. 2d 449, 95 S. Ct. 1950 (1975).

 The plaintiffs must demonstrate that the defendant's conduct, including acts of omission, contributed in a substantial degree to the creation or perpetuation of racial segregation in the schools. Dayton Bd. of Educ. v. Brinkman, 443 U.S. 449, 99 S. Ct. 2941, 61 L. Ed. 2d 666, (1979); Oliver 368 F. Supp. at 159; Reed v. Rhodes, 455 F. Supp. 546, 553 (N.D. Ohio 1978), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 607 F.2d 714 (6th Cir. 1979), cert. denied, 455 U.S. 1018 (1982). The defendant is not liable if it only occasionally committed segregative or discriminatory acts and these acts were of trivial importance with no significant relationship to current conditions in the school district.

 To meet their burden of proof, the plaintiffs in a school desegregation case are not required to prove de jure segregation as to each segregated school or student in the system. As the Court in Keyes explained:

 

Where plaintiffs prove that the school authorities have carried out a systematic program of segregation affecting a substantial portion of the students, schools, teachers, and facilities within the school system, it is only common sense to conclude that there exists a predicate for a finding of the existence of a dual school system.

 413 U.S. at 201.

 In school desegregation cases, courts have imposed liability upon defendants for conduct that entails both affirmative acts and failures to act. Lansing, 559 F.2d at 1046; Oliver, 508 F.2d at 182; Yonkers, 624 F. Supp. at 1379; Berry, 442 F. Supp. at 1293; Bradley v. Milliken, 338 F. Supp. 582, 587-88 (E.D. Mich. 1971). Affirmative acts include segregative techniques such as gerrymandering boundaries, assigning staff on the basis of race and employing intact busing. Acts of omission include, for example, a school board that, with segregative purpose, allows a racially-identifiable white school to operate at overcapacity rather than transfer or reassign white students to a nearby racially-identifiable minority school operating at undercapacity. The Board's failure to act in this instance is hardly benign. See Reed, 455 F. Supp. at 565. As noted by the court in Oliver, "where public issues are framed and questions posed which bear directly on the quality of education, a deliberate negative response from school authorities or a deliberate omission to act, can affect the shape of subsequent circumstances just as materially as can affirmative decisions and action." 368 F. Supp. at 178.

 Similarly, in Keyes, the U.S. Supreme Court established that the proscribed conduct not only includes conduct that causes or brings about segregation, but also includes conduct that maintains segregation. The Keyes Court described the relevant inquiry as determining whether the school district's "policies and practices . . . were . . . taken in effectuation of a policy to create or maintain segregation." 413 U.S. at 213-14.

  The court finds that the Rockford Board of Education is a public body created by the State of Illinois to administer and supervise its public schools within its statutorily-defined area and, under the laws of the State of Illinois, may sue and be sued. The court further finds that the current racial segregation of students in the public schools in Rockford was caused, in substantial part, by the acts and omissions of Defendant. Specific practices of Defendant that unlawfully segregated students on the basis of race and ethnic origin include, but are not limited to:

 

(1) The tracking of students by race into various educational programs offered by the RSD;

 

(2) The drawing and alteration of school attendance area boundaries in such a way as to create, maintain or increase racial or ethnic segregation of students;

 

(3) The maintenance of racially and ethically segregated branches of schools;

 

(4) The assignment of teachers and staff to schools in such a way as to match the race of the faculty and staff with the race of the students attending the schools;

 

(5) The failure to design and implement an effective desegregation plan even when ordered to do so by a Federal Court and by the ISBE;

 

(6) The provision of inequitable transportation and access to transportation to students based upon their race and ethnic origin;

 

(7) The disproportionate placing of the burdens of desegregation on minority students;

 

(8) The disparate placement of facilities and equipment so as to burden minority students and not provide them with an equal educational opportunity; and

  

(9) The perpetuation of discriminatory conditions in the make-up of the Rockford Board of Education.

  These practices, among others discussed in this order, occurred over a substantial period of time and in a substantial portion of the Rockford public schools and constituted a system-wide attempt to separate the races.

  Intent - The Second Keyes Factor

  The second principle established by Keyes is that there must be "a finding of intentionally segregative school board actions in a meaningful portion of a school system." 413 U.S. at 208. Justice Brennan's opinion defined purposeful segregation as the equivalent of de jure segregation. "We emphasize that the differentiating factor between de jure segregation and so-called de facto segregation . . . is purpose or intent to segregate." Id. at 208. However, the Keyes Court did not fully explain the concept of "segregative intent." *fn36" The question of who must harbor the requisite intent, individual school officials or the institution of the school board, and whether the standard of proof is subjective or objective, remained unanswered.

  During the time period immediately following the Court's decision in Keyes, lower courts interpreted the segregative intent of school officials in a variety of ways. Those courts decided cases based on the subjective segregative intent of: assistant superintendents, United States v. School Dist. of Omaha, 521 F.2d 530, 540 n.20, 544 n.30 (8th Cir.) cert. denied, 423 U.S. 946, 46 L. Ed. 2d 280, 96 S. Ct. 361 (1975), superintendents, Amos v. Board of School Directors, 408 F. Supp. 765, 809 (E.D. Wis. 1976), school board members, Soria v. Oxnard School Dist. Bd. of Trustees, 386 F. Supp. 539, 540-42 (C.D. Cal. 1974), parents, Morgan v. Hennigan, 379 F. Supp. 410, 427, 438 (D. Mass.), aff'd sub nom., Morgan v. Kerrigan, 509 F.2d 580 (1st Cir. 1974), cert. denied, 421 U.S. 963, 44 L. Ed. 2d 449, 95 S. Ct. 1950 (1975) and voters, United States v. Missouri, 515 F.2d 1365, 1370 (8th Cir.), cert. denied, 423 U.S. 951 (1975). Other courts interpreted Keyes as requiring institutional, rather than individual, intent. Oliver v. Michigan State Board of Education, 508 F.2d 178, 182 (6th Cir. 1974), cert. denied, 421 U.S. 963, 44 L. Ed. 2d 449, 95 S. Ct. 1950 (1975); Hart v. Community School Board of Education, 512 F.2d 37, 50 (2nd Cir. 1975); Arthur v. Nyquist, 573 F.2d 134 (2nd Cir.), cert. denied, 439 U.S. 860c (1978).

  Some of the language in the Keyes majority opinion appears to endorse the interpretation that segregative intent refers to the subjective motivation of individual school officials. See, Keyes, 413 U.S. at 233 (1973) (Powell, J., concurring in part and dissenting in part) (interpreting majority as referring to subjective intent of school authorities). However, the Court presumed that intent continued among successive boards, despite changes in the identity of individual members. The Court asserted that evidence of the illicit motivations of prior school board officials was relevant to the issue of their successors' decisions "where, as here, the case involves one school board." 413 U.S. at 207. Further, the reference to the "board's intent" as opposed to the intent of the members of the board indicate that the Court may have conceived of segregative intent as being institutional rather than individual. See id.

  The institutional concept of segregative intent was furthered by the Court's decision in Washington v. Davis, 426 U.S. 229, 48 L. Ed. 2d 597, 96 S. Ct. 2040 (1976). The Washington Court, citing Keyes, held that strict scrutiny would be applied only where a discriminatory impact on a suspect class was accompanied by a showing of invidious purpose. Id. at 242. The adoption of the Keyes segregative purpose requirement forced the Court to reconsider its earlier decision in Palmer v. Thompson, 403 U.S. 217, 29 L. Ed. 2d 438, 91 S. Ct. 1940 (1971), which rejected motivation as an element of equal protection analysis. In Palmer, the Court held that the segregative purposes of the Jackson, Mississippi, city councilmen could not invalidate an ordinance closing municipal swimming pools in the face of a desegregation order. Washington reconciled its adoption of the "discriminatory purpose" requirement with the holding in Palmer v. Thompson by interpreting Palmer as holding "that the legitimate purposes of the ordinance . . . were not open to impeachment by evidence that the councilmen were actually motivated by racial considerations." Washington 426 U.S. at 242. The Washington Court's reading of Keyes suggests that segregative purpose or intent refers to the subjective motivation of the school board as an institution. This interpretation was fostered by the Court in Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Corp., 429 U.S. 252, 50 L. Ed. 2d 450, 97 S. Ct. 555 (1977):

  

Rarely can it be said that a legislature or administrative body operating under a broad mandate made a decision motivated solely by a single concern, or even that a particular purpose was the "dominant" or "primary" one. In fact, it is because legislators and administrators are properly concerned with balancing numerous competing considerations that courts refrain from reviewing the merits of their decisions, absent a showing of arbitrariness or irrationality.

  Id. at 266. The court holds that the Rockford School Board, as an institution, must be shown to have the requisite segregative intent for the Plaintiffs to prevail.

  The court now turns to the question of which standard, objective or subjective, is to be used in order to find the requisite intent. The objective theory focuses on the natural and probable consequences of the actor's conduct, while the subjective theory focuses upon what the actor actually intended.

  The post-hoc determination of why various acts and policies were undertaken in the past is often difficult and the subjective intent of a school board is, at best, a nebulous concept. Thus, some courts have found the institutional theory of intent problematic because they have looked to the motives of individuals in order to discern the purposes behind the public acts of a deliberative body.

  

When we consider the motivation of people constituting a school board . . . we are dealing with a collective will. It is difficult enough to find the collective mind of a group of legislators. . . . It is even harder to find the motivation of local citizens, many of whom would be as reluctant to admit that they have racial prejudice as to admit that they have no sense of humor.

  Hart v. Community School Bd. of Educ., 512 F.2d 37, 50 (2nd Cir. 1975); See also, Washington v. Davis, 426 U.S. 229, 48 L. Ed. 2d 597, 96 S. Ct. 2040 (1976) (Stevens, J., concurring). In Arthur v. Nyquist, 573 F.2d 134, (2nd Cir. 1978), the Second Circuit explained their earlier decision to reject the subjective standard.

  

In Hart, we rejected a purely subjective standard of proof because we were unable to make good sense of the notion of a "collective will" which "intends" a certain outcome, and because of the "injustice of ascribing a collective will to articulate remarks of particular bigots. . . . We steered a course between objective and subjective theories of segregative intent by holding that foreseeable consequences, while not specifically identifiable with intention, can provide evidence for its presence.

  Arthur, 573 F.2d at 142 (citation omitted).

  The second circuit approach focused on the actions taken by the board itself and not on the mental processes of a changing group of school board members.

  At least one other court had harbored similar misgivings attempting to determine the collective will by looking at the subjective motivations of individuals. In Oliver v. Michigan State Bd. of Educ., 508 F.2d 178 (6th Cir. 1974), cert. denied, 421 U.S. 963, 44 L. Ed. 2d 449, 95 S. Ct. 1950 (1975), the Sixth Circuit avoided the problem by shifting the focus from what the individual actors intended to the foreseeable results of the school official's actions.

  

A presumption of segregative purpose arises when plaintiffs establish that the natural, probable, and foreseeable result of public officials' action or inaction was an increase or perpetuation of public school segregation. The presumption becomes proof unless defendants affirmatively establish that their action or inaction was a consistent and resolute application of racially neutral policies.

  Id. at 182.

  The Supreme Court subsequently rejected the use of such a presumption as a means of establishing segregative intent or shifting the burden of persuasion on the intent issue to the defendant. Dayton Bd. of Educ. v. Brinkman, 433 U.S. 406, 536 n.9, 97 S. ct. 2766, 53 L. Ed. 2d 851 (1977). Nonetheless, the Court reaffirmed that "proof of foreseeable consequences is one type of quite relevant evidence of racially discriminatory purpose." Id. See also, Columbus Bd. of Educ. v. Penick, 443 U.S. 449, 464-65, 99 S. Ct. 2941, 61 L. Ed. 2d 666 (1979) (foreseeable effect of decision is "one of the several kinds of proofs from which an inference of segregative intent may be properly drawn"); Alexander v. Youngstown Bd. of Educ., 675 F.2d 787, 792-93 (6th Cir. 1982) (court may infer discriminatory intent from acts or policies with foreseeable segregative result; inference is permissible rather than mandatory).

  The court interprets requisite segregative intent be the institutional intent of the Rockford School Board. Therefore, this court has focused upon what the institution, as actor, actually intended. Further, and upon close review of the Keyes, Washington and Arlington Heights opinions, this court interprets the Supreme Court as requiring the subjective theory of proof regarding segregatory intent. The relevant standard of proof for intent in this case is: Plaintiff must prove that a motivating institutional purpose of the Rockford School Board was to keep the races separate.

  The court draws an analogy between the school board's institutional intent and the concept of legislative intent. "Legislative intent" is not usually reduced to the subjective intents or motives of individual legislators, but rather is conceived as a characteristic of the actions of legislatures as institutions. See, e.g., MacCallum, Legislative Intent, 75 Yale L.J. 754 (1966); See also, Fletcher v. Peck, 10 U.S. 87, 130-31, 3 L. Ed. 162 (1810). Thus, given any specific school board policy or decision, the individual board member's subjective intent, and what subsequently becomes the school board's subjective institutional intent, may or may not be one in the same. "Legislation is frequently multipurposed: the removal of even a "subordinate purpose" may shift altogether the consensus of legislative judgment supporting the statute." Arlington Heights, 429 U.S. at 266 n.11 (citing McGinnis v. Royster, 410 U.S. 263, 276-77, 35 L. Ed. 2d 282, 93 S. Ct. 1055 (1973)).

  Further proof of discriminatory intent must not be confused with proof of evil motive, racial hostility or a subjective desire to harm minority children. Omaha, 521 F.2d at 535; Higgins, 508 F.2d at 793; Armstrong, 451 F. Supp. at 7; Morgan, 379 F. Supp. at 478. As noted in Oliver, "when constitutional right are involved, the issue is seldom whether public officials have acted with evil motives or whether they have consciously plotted with bigotry in their hearts to deprive citizens of the equal protection laws." 508 F.2d at 182. The required intent in relation to segregation is simply the intent to keep the races separate. Omaha, 521 F.2d at 535; Armstrong, 451 F. Supp. at 866. Such intent may be shown even when there is no desire to inflict educational harm upon any racial group. Id.

  The issue of the presence or absence of unlawful intent is one of fact. Armstrong v. O'Connell, 451 F. Supp. at 822. The ultimate determination of segregative intent rests upon examination of the record as a whole, including the multiplicity and cumulative effect of the defendant's policies and practices. Morgan, 379 F. Supp. at 479. A plaintiff may prove intent by direct, indirect or circumstantial evidence. Armstrong, 451 F. Supp. at 826; Berry, 442 F. Supp. at 1291; Lansing, 429 F. Supp. at 590. Since direct evidence is difficult to obtain, ordinarily only circumstantial evidence is available to establish segregative intent. Diaz, 733 F.2d at 662.

  In the context of school desegregation cases, courts have cited a myriad of factors that by themselves or in combination with other facts support an inference of discriminatory intent. Evidence of the foreseeable segregative impact of decisions is one type of circumstantial evidence supporting an inference of segregative intent. See Arlington Heights, 429 U.S. at 266. Arlington Heights identifies several other types of evidence this court has used that supports the inference of intent:

  

1) "The historical background of the decision . . ., particularly if it reveals a series of official actions taken for invidious purposes;"

  

2) "the specific sequence of events leading up to the challenged decision;"

  

3) "contemporary statements by members of the decision making body, minutes of its meetings or reports;"

  

4) "departures from the normal procedural sequence;"

  

5) "substantive departures [from prior policies] . . . particularly if the factors usually considered important by the decision maker strongly favor a decision contrary to the one reached;" and

  

6) "the legislative or administrative history . . . especially where there are contemporary statements by members of the decision making body, minutes of its meetings, or reports."

  Arlington Heights, 429 U.S. at 266-69. The Supreme Court explicitly recognized this list as being non-exhaustive of the potential factors probative of intent. Id. at 268.

  Of particular significance in assessing whether segregation is the result of intentional acts is whether there is evidence of "classic" segregative techniques, including: intact busing; busing minorities to racially identifiable minority schools that are further away than majority schools with extra capacity; use of optional or multiple attendance zones; the existence of disparities between the physical quality of minority and majority schools; gerrymandering of attendance zones; and discriminatory use of transfer policies. Higgins, 508 F.2d at 787. In the present case, as the foregoing sections have shown, the RSD has engaged in all of these segregative practices.

  In evaluating the cause of segregated conditions, a court must be sensitive to meaningful patterns of behavior by government agencies. Parent Ass'n of Andrew Jackson High v. Ambach, 598 F.2d 705, 713 (2d Cir. 1979); Oliver, 368 F. Supp. at 163. Although each school board decision taken alone might not compel the conclusion that the school board intended to foster segregation, the decisions taken together may lead to the conclusion that a purposeful pattern of racial discrimination existed. Board of School Commissioners of Indianapolis, 474 F.2d at 84; Oliver, 368 F. Supp. at 163. This rule is derived from the evidentiary rule that if actions having a particular effect are repeated, the inference is stronger that the effect of the actions was intended. See, Yonkers, 624 F. Supp. at 1294; 2 Wigmore, Evidence, § 312 (3d Ed. 1940).

  Based upon an examination of the record as a whole, including the multiplicity and cumulative effect of the RSD's policies and practices, the court concludes that the RSD's conduct in eleven of the twelve areas covered by the foregoing findings *fn37" was undertaken with unlawful intent.

  The Scope of Liability - Once the Keyes Factors Have Been Established

  When intent and causation are established, the Keyes court advanced two presumptions to aid a trial court in determining the scope of liability. The first Keyes presumption is that:

  

Common sense dictates the conclusion that racially inspired school board actions have an impact beyond the particular schools that are the subjects of those actions. This is not to say, of course, that there can never be a case in which the geographical structure of, or the natural boundaries within, a school district may have the effect of dividing the district into separate, identifiable and unrelated units. Such a determination is essentially a question of fact to be resolved by the trial court in the first instance, but such cases must be rare. In the absence of such a determination, proof of state-imposed segregation in a substantial portion of the district will suffice to support a finding by the trial court of the existence of a dual system.

  413 U.S. at 203 (emphasis added).

  The second presumption established in Keyes is that:

  

[A] finding of intentionally segregative school board actions in a meaningful portion of a school system . . . creates a presumption that other segregated schooling within the system is not adventitious. It establishes, in other words, a prima facie case of unlawful segregative design on the part of school authorities, and shifts to those authorities the burden of proving that other segregated schools within the system are not also the result of intentionally segregative actions.

  

. . . .

  

. . . It is not enough, of course, that the school authorities rely upon some allegedly logical, racially neutral explanation for their actions. Their burden is to adduce proof sufficient to support a finding that segregative intent was not among the factors that motivated their actions.

  413 U.S. at 208, 210.

  On the factual record established in this case, both principles are operative. First, since Plaintiffs have proven state-imposed segregation in a substantial portion of the RSD, a finding that the RSD has operated as a dual system is warranted. Second, inasmuch as Plaintiffs have proven intentionally segregative conduct by the RSD in a meaningful portion of the school system, a presumption arises that other segregated conditions and discriminatory conduct in the system were not adventitious. This shifts the burden to the RSD to establish that these other conditions and conduct were not intentional. The RSD has completely failed to meet this burden. The court will discuss the actual and implied defenses offered by the RSD.

  Liability For The Conduct Of Agents And Employees

  Defendants have argued that they should not be held accountable for conduct of individual employees because the conduct was not taken pursuant to official policy of the Board. This argument has been made by other defendants. See Yonkers, 624 F. Supp. at 1447 n.112; Armstrong, 451 F. Supp. at 847. The reason that this argument is incorrect is because the liability of a school board in a school desegregation case is not predicated on a theory of respondeat superior. Yonkers, 624 F. Supp. at 1447 n.112.

   In Yonkers, the court explicitly rejected the school board's argument that it could not be held liable for the individual acts of employees (principals, guidance counselors and teachers) because the acts were not pursuant to official board policy. Id. The district court held that the defendant's liability was "not predicated on an isolated instance of unauthorized discriminatory conduct against an individual victim but on the Board's conduct in the face of a pattern of discriminatory acts and omissions over time." Id. ; see also, Turpin v. Mailet, 619 F.2d 196 (2nd Cir.), cert. denied, 449 U.S. 1016, 101 S. Ct. 577, 66 L. Ed. 2d 475 (1980); Owens v. Haas, 601 F.2d 1242 (2nd Cir.), cert. denied, 445 U.S. 980 (1979). Imposing liability in these circumstances comports with the general rule that a municipality may be held liable for the unconstitutional acts of its employees in circumstances where there was a continued widespread pattern of such conduct. See, e.g., Brown v. City of Ft. Lauderdale, 923 F.2d 1474, 1480-81 (11th Cir. 1991); Spell v. McDaniel, 824 F.2d 1380, 1387 (4th Cir. 1987), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 1027, 108 S. Ct. 752, 98 L. Ed. 2d 765 (1988). In Yonkers, the fact that the school board's conduct, in the face of a pattern of discriminatory acts and omissions over time, was consistent with its own segregative practices, strengthened the basis for holding the school board legally responsible for the discriminatory conduct of its employees. Yonkers, 624 F. Supp. at 1447, n.112.

  An additional reason for rejecting this defense was noted in Armstrong. In that case, the defendant school board argued that it should not be held liable for the decision by individual school principals to have segregated recesses. 451 F. Supp. at 847. Despite the fact that the school board never had a policy requiring separate recesses, the district court held the school board accountable for the actions of the principals stating: "The requirements of the Constitution cannot be avoided by a fragmentation of authority among various government agents." Id.

  Natural Residential Segregation/Neighborhood Schools Defense

  Defendant's response to the overwhelming evidence brought forth by Plaintiffs was minimal at best. Defendant suggested that its actions over the past thirty years were, for the most part, motivated by the racially benign policy of neighborhood schools. Defendants argued that it should not be held liable because the segregated conditions in its schools arose from a combination of residential segregation, including the impact of public housing, and the neighborhood school policy, rather than Defendant's intentional segregative conduct. Defendant's defense is completely unavailing in this action.

  The interrelationship between racial segregation in the schools and residential segregation has been recognized in many school desegregation cases. See Freeman v. Pitts, 118 L. Ed. 2d 108, 112 S. Ct. 1430 (1992); Columbus Bd. of Educ. v. Penick, 443 U.S. at 465 n.13; Keyes, 413 U.S. at 202; United States v. Bd. of School Commissioners of Indianapolis, 573 F.2d at 408-09 n.20; Lansing, 559 F.2d at 1049 n.9; Armstrong v. O'Connell, 463 F. Supp. at 1307; Hart, 383 F. Supp. at 706. These cases observe that "housing and school patterns feed on each other." Hart, 383 F. Supp. at 706.

  As a general matter, assigning children to schools in their neighborhoods does not offend the Constitution. See, e.g., Lansing, 559 F.2d at 1049; Higgins, 508 F.2d at 790. The application of a neighborhood school policy is supported by a variety of nondiscriminatory considerations and therefore may generally be considered a permissive form of action. See Keyes, 413 U.S. at 245-48 (Powell, J., concurring in part and dissenting in part); United States v. Texas Education Agency, 564 F.2d at 168-69 & n.9; Lansing, 559 F.2d at 1049; Deal, 369 F.2d at 60.

  First, as long recognized in this Circuit, a valid neighborhood school doctrine presupposes "innocently arrived at" de facto segregation with "no intention or purpose" of segregating minority students. United States v. School District No. 151 of Cook County, 404 F.2d 1125, 1130 (7th Cir. 1969), cert. denied, 402 U.S. 943, 29 L. Ed. 2d 111, 91 S. Ct. 1610 (1971). If, on the other hand, the school board made discriminatory decisions and followed discriminatory practices that contributed to the racial identifiability of the schools, the neighborhood school policy offers no defense. School Board of Indianapolis, 474 F.2d at 84. In fact, maintenance of a neighborhood school policy in such circumstances provides additional grounds for inferring segregative intent. Keyes, 413 U.S. at 208; Yonkers, 837 F.2d at 1229; Morgan, 379 F. Supp. at 473-74. As noted by Judge Bauer in the QUEFAC litigation: "All things being equal, it might well be desirable to assign pupils to schools nearest their homes. But all things are not equal in a system that has been deliberately constructed and maintained to enforce racial segregation." Quality Education For All Children, Inc. v. School Bd. of School Dist. No. 205 of Winnebago County, Illinois, 385 F. Supp. 803, 809 (N.D. Ill. 1974). The litany of segregative conduct for which Defendant is guilty precludes a valid neighborhood school/residential segregation defense. *fn38"

  Second, the neighborhood school defense is available only if the neighborhood school policy is a genuine one and is applied in a consistent manner. Yonkers, 624 F. Supp. at 1381. If a defendant's adherence to a neighborhood school policy is selective, and there is a pattern of deviations or manipulations which exacerbate the racial identifiability of the schools, the court should infer segregative intent. Yonkers, 837 F.2d at 1229. In the present case, the RSD had no coherent or consistent "neighborhood school" policy. For example, the RSD considered the gargantuan 1989 mega-school boundary extending from the Rock River on the east to Meridian Road on the west, and from Montague Street on the south to north of Auburn Street, a "neighborhood school." Similarly, the RSD's purported "neighborhood school" policy was no impediment to satellite attendance zones, the one-way busing of minority students (such as the Muldoon-Ellis students) or the intact busing of minority bilingual education students.

  Third, the RSD made segregative student assignment and school construction decisions were less segregative alternatives were available and could have been implemented without violating a neighborhood school policy. Diaz, 733 F.2d at 665; Reed, 455 F. Supp. at 556; Lansing, 429 F. Supp. at 624. This consideration recognizes the distinction between a policy requiring students to attend schools within neighborhood attendance areas and the decisions relating to the siting of schools and drawing of attendance zones. While a school district may insist that it follows a neighborhood school policy, "it must be emphasized that generally the Board defines the "neighborhood" when it draws the boundaries." Diaz, 733 F.2d at 665; Lansing, 429 F. Supp. at 624. In the present case, the RSD's pattern of segregative school construction and attendance zone decisions were inconsistent with a viable neighborhood school defense.

  Finally, the RSD's neighborhood school defense was unsupported by evidence in the record and was actually at odds with the demographic evidence submitted at the liability hearing. Dr. Lichtman's testimony indicates that residential segregation in Rockford decreased during the 1970's and 1980's. (Lichtman Dep. Ex. 2; see also, Walhout Test., Tr. at 482) During the 1980's, however, segregation in RSD schools increased (whereas in 1980-1981, 46.14% of minority elementary students attended schools with minority enrollments 15% greater than the district average, in 1988-89, 56.66% of minority elementary students attended such schools). Under these circumstances, it is hardly tenable for the RSD to blame the increasingly segregated conditions in the schools on decreasingly segregated residential housing. The direct and clearly predominant cause of segregation in RSD schools was the pervasive pattern of affirmative segregative conduct by the RSD, and not residential segregation.

   Incremental Segregative Effect

  In school desegregation cases where only a few discrete and isolated incidents of discrimination are established, a court must determine how much incremental segregative effect the violations had on the racial distribution compared to what would have occurred in the absence of the violations. Dayton Bd. of Educ. v. Brinkman, 433 U.S. 406, 420, 53 L. Ed. 2d 851, 97 S. Ct. 2766 (1977). However, when the violations proven are widespread, as in this case, a plaintiff need not "prove with respect to each individual act of discrimination precisely what effect it has had on current patterns of segregation." Dayton Bd. of Educ. v. Brinkman, 443 U.S. 526, 540, 61 L. Ed. 2d 720, 99 S. Ct. 2971 (1979) ("Dayton II"); United States v. Board of School Commissioners, 637 F.2d 1101, 1113 (7th Cir.), cert. denied, 449 U.S. 838 (1980). Moreover, the policies of systemwide application in this case necessarily had systemwide impact. Penick, 443 U.S. at 466-67. Thus, Plaintiffs need not show the incremental segregative effect of violations in this action.

  Equitable Relief Is Appropriate

  To be entitled to permanent injunctive relief, a plaintiff not only must prevail on the merits of its claim but also must carry the burden of what is referred to as "balancing the equities" or as drawing the "balance of convenience". 7 Moore's P 65.18[3], at 65-136. As the Supreme Court put it in Beacon Theatres, Inc. v. Westover, 359 U.S. 500, 506-07, 3 L. Ed. 2d 988, 79 S. Ct. 948 (1959): "The basis of injunctive relief in the federal courts has always been irreparable harm and inadequacy of legal remedies."

  Moore's explicitly (and Beacon Theaters implicitly) suggest that a district court considering a permanent injunction should apply the same criteria our court of appeals has required for preliminary injunctive relief, substituting actual victory on the merits for a mere reasonable likelihood of success. See, e.g., United States v. Rural Electric Convenience Co-Op. Co., 922 F.2d 429, 432 (7th Cir. 1991).

  Applying these principles to the present case, Plaintiffs meet the burden with regard to each of the criteria:

  

1. Plaintiffs have prevailed on the merits of their claim and have established that the Defendant has violated the constitutional rights of Plaintiffs;

  

2. Plaintiffs have demonstrated that the balance of equities weighs in favor of the grant of injunctive relief, inasmuch as:

  

a. Plaintiffs have no adequate remedy at law;

  

b. Plaintiffs face irreparable injury in the absence of injunctive relief;

  

c. No undue or unnecessary hardship is placed on Defendant by requiring it to carry out its affirmative duty to remedy the effects of its intentionally segregative and discriminatory acts; and,

  

d. The public interest is best serviced by granting permanent injunctive relief.

  

3. There are no inherent difficulties in shaping injunctive relief that is appropriate, narrowly tailored and adequate to protect Plaintiffs' rights.

  A federal court in a school desegregation case has broad remedial authority and may employ its full equitable powers upon determining that intentional systemwide segregation or discrimination has occurred. Milliken v. Bradley, 433 U.S. 267, 280-81, 53 L. Ed. 2d 745, 97 S. Ct. 2749 (1977). A school desegregation remedy should be tailored to the nature and scope of the constitutional violation and designed to restore the victims to the position they would have occupied had the discrimination not occurred. Id. Within these parameters, however, a district court may order remedial programs even in areas in which intentional discrimination has not existed if it concludes that the remedy is necessary to "treat the condition that offends the Constitution" and that the "constitutional violation caused the condition for which remedial programs are mandated." Id. at 282, 286 n.17, 287. Each action of the school system, even though not unconstitutional in itself or prompted by discriminatory motives, may be examined by a district court and set aside if it interferes with efforts to desegregate the system. Wright v. Council of City of Emporia, 407 U.S. 451, 462, 33 L. Ed. 2d 51, 92 S. Ct. 2196 (1972).

   In recognition of their desire to maintain a stable remedial framework in this case, the parties have concurred and voluntarily consented that all present and future remedial matters in this case, without limitation, shall be referred to the Magistrate Judge under 28 U.S.C. § 636 (c)(1) and (c)(3), and under the Rules of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois.

  CONCLUSION

  

If one factor is uniform in a continuing series of events that are brought to pass through human intervention, the law would have to have the blindness of indifference rather than the blindness of impartiality not to attribute the uniform factor to man's purpose. The purpose may not be of evil intent or in conscious disregard of what is conceived to be a binding duty. Prohibited conduct may result from misconception of what duty requires. *fn39"

  It is the Report and Recommendation of the Magistrate Judge that an appropriate Injunction and Declaratory Order be entered by the District Court. Further, the Magistrate Judge recommends that, pursuant to the consent of the parties and Order of this court, this matter be referred to the Magistrate Judge for a remedial hearing in the near future.

  ENTER:

  P. MICHAEL MAHONEY, MAGISTRATE JUDGE

  UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT

  DATE: November 3, 1993

  DEFINITIONS

  The court hereby finds and does employ the following definitions throughout this opinion:

  

1) "The Academy ": Gifted program at Auburn High School.

  

2) "The Board ": Rockford Board of Education, School District #205.

  

3) "CAPA ": Creative And Performing Arts alternative program.

  

4) "CASS ": Career Awareness and Survival Skills alternative remedial program.

  

5) "CDB " and/or "CDB Capacity ": Capital Development Board capacities for schools as indicated in the Final Report Facility Utilization Study, Rockford School District #205, dated November, 1980.

  

6) "CDC ": The Community Desegregation Committee formed by the Rockford Board of Education in 1973 to develop desegregation plans.

  

7) "Desegregated School " or "Integrated School ": Having a school minority population of not more than 15% above and not less than 50% of the district-wide minority population percentage for that category or level of school in a given year.

  

8) "The District ": Rockford School District #205.

  

9) District Quadrants : The terms "Northeast quadrant", "Northwest Quadrant", "Southeast Quadrant" and "Southwest Quadrant" have been employed by the Rockford School District in describing the areas of the District and are adopted by the court. The east/west boundary of the Quadrants is the Rock River; the north/south boundary west of the Rock River is Auburn Street; the north/south boundary east of the Rock River is State Street to Charles Street, then southeast on Charles Street to Alpine Road, then north to State Street.

  

10) "GIT ": Get It Together alternative remedial program.

  

11) "ISBE ": The Illinois State Board of Education. On January 13, 1975, the former Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction transferred its powers and duties to the Illinois State Board of Education. Therefore, the use of the term "ISBE" refers to the current State Board of Education as well as its predecessor, the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction.

  

12) "Minority ": African-Americans, Hispanics, Asian-Americans and Native Americans either individually or collectively as specified within the opinion.

  

13) "PPC ": Pupil Placement Committee of the Rockford Board of Education, District #205.

  

14) "Racially Identifiable Minority School " and/or "Minority School ": Having a school minority population of more than 15% above the district-wide minority population percentage for that category or level of school in a given year.

  

15) "Racially Identifiable White School " and/or "White School ": Having a minority school population of less than 50% of the district-wide minority population percentage for that category or level of school in a given year.

  

16) "RAES ": Rockford Alternative Elementary School alternative magnet program.

  

17) "RAMS ": Rockford Alternative Middle School alternative magnet program.

  

18) "RBE ": Rockford Board of Education, School District #205.

  

19) "REA ": Rockford Education Association.

  

20) "RSD ": Rockford School District #205.

  

21) "SCSE ": Self-Contained Special Education programs.

  

22) "Segregation ": The separation of students by race or ethnicity regardless of the intent or motivation for doing so.

  

23) "TDC ": Teacher Development Center formerly located at Welsh School in the Rockford School District #205.

  

24) "Title I : or "Chapter I ": Refers to Federal grant monies and programs to be used to meet the special educational needs of disadvantaged children pursuant to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended, 20 U.S.C. §§ 2701 et seq.

  REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION ADDENDUM

  ADDENDUM: SCHOOL HISTORIES

  ALPINE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Alpine Elementary School is a northeast quadrant school that was annexed to the Rockford School District #205 in 1960. It was all-white in 1960, was 99% white in 1967 and was a racially identifiable white school before 1976-77. The RBE in July, 1969 assigned all 6th grade students in the Alpine and adjoining Gregory School Districts to attend 7th grade at Gregory School because of an addition to that school. Gregory School was racially identifiably white in 1976-77. Alpine was closed after 1976-77 and its students were sent to nearby Gregory and Johnson Schools. From 1976-77 to 1977-78 the percentage of white students at Gregory, a racially identifiable white school, and at Johnson, a desegregated school, was 96% to 91% and 88% to 85% respectively.

  Alpine Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Alpine Alpine Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other NatAm Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 201 0 2 0 0 203 1971-72 181 0 2 0 0 183 1972-73 162 1 0 163 1973-74 180 1 1 3 0 185 1974-75 192 0 0 192 1975-76 151 0 0 151 1976-77 126 2 0 128 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afrḫ 1970-71 99.01% .99% 0.00% .99% 1971-72 98.91% 1.09% 0.00% 1.09% 1972-73 99.39% .61% 0.00% .61% 1973-74 97.30% .54% 0.00% .54% 1974-75 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1975-76 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1976-77 98.44% 1.56% 0.00% 1.56% 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  ARGYLE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Argyle Elementary School, a far northeast quadrant school, was built in 1967 and an addition to the school was added in 1969. It had a CDB capacity of 110 and was all white or racially identifiably white every year it was open. It never had more than two African-American students in any year, and never had any prior to 1975. Argyle School was closed after 1970-71. After considering a motion to assign Argyle students to Carlson, the RBE approved a motion assigning Argyle students to Bell School and that Bell School should remain open. From 1970-71 to 1971-72 the percentage of white students at Carlson and Bell Schools remained the same, 98% and 100% respectively. Argyle School was reopened in 1975-76 to relieve the crowding in far northeast 100% white Bell School. From 1975-76 until it was closed again after 1980-81 Argyle had from 94% to 100% white students. When Argyle was closed after 1980-81 its students were sent to Spring Creek and White Swan Schools along with students from Bell, another racially identifiable white school. At the same time, African-American students from the west side of the Haskell attendance area who had been assigned to White Swan in 1980-81 were pulled out of White Swan and reassigned to Brookview to make room for white students from Argyle and Bell. In 1980-81 Spring Creek and White Swan Schools were both desegregated schools with 13 and 22% African-American students respectively. In 1981-82 Spring Creek and White Swan had been re-segregated and were once again racially identifiable white schools with 9% and 0% African-American students respectively.

  Argyle Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Argyle Argyle Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 105 0 0 0 0 105 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 73 1 0 74 1976-77 90 1 0 91 1977-78 81 2 0 83 1978-79 56 0 1 0 0 57 1979-80 73 0 1 0 0 74 1980-81 96 0 2 0 0 98 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afrḫ 1970-71 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 98.65% 1.35% 0.00% 1.35% 1976-77 98.90% 1.10% 0.00% 1.10% 1977-78 97.59% 2.41% 0.00% 2.41% 1978-79 98.25% 1.75% 0.00% 1.75% 1979-80 98.65% 1.35% 0.00% 1.35% 1980-81 97.96% 2.04% 0.00% 2.04% 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  BARBOUR SCHOOL

  Barbour Elementary School is located in the southwest quadrant of Rockford. It was built in 1917 and an addition to the school was added in 1955. The CDB capacity of Barbour is 507 students. Barbour has, at least since the late 50's, been a racially identifiable African-American school. According to the PPC Report, in 1957 - 58 (1st and 4th grades), 1960 and 1967, Barbour was 24%, 24% and 47% African-American respectively. In 1968, the PPC also found that Barbour School was an academically underachieving school in the RSD, a characteristic that remained with Barbour through the 1970's. In 1967, a Headstart Program was located at Barbour.

  In 1970, along with King Elementary and Lathrop, also southwest schools, the students in the Barbour attendance area were mandatorily reassigned to East High School, east of the Rock River, in order to help integrate East.

  On September 12, 1972, the RBE was informed by the ISBE that Barbour School was out of compliance with the Rules Establishing Requirements and Procedures for the Elimination and Prevention of Racial Segregation in Schools ("ISBE Rules"). In 1971-72, Barbour was 64% African-American. The next year, Barbour's African-American student population increased to 65% and increased again the following year to 68%.

  In the 1974-75 school year, the bilingual program was added at Barbour. That program remained at Barbour for three years before it was moved to Whitehead school. During those three years, although Barbour's African-American student population decreased from 68% to 60%, its white student population also decreased from 15% to 14% and its Hispanic student population increased from 18% to 26%. The net result of the bilingual program being added to Barbour was that Barbour's combined African-American and Hispanic minority student population increased from 78% in 1973-74 to 86% in 1976-77. When the bilingual program was removed from Barbour, its African-American student population percentage went from 60% (1976-77) to 79% (1977-78), while Barbour only received 7 new African-American students in that time period. In June of 1976, one year before the removal of the bilingual program, the RBE had resolved that by 1977, all schools in the RSD would have 50% or less minority enrollment with the exception of Barbour and King, both of which housed the bilingual programs, and Washington which was projected to be integrated upon the opening of the new high school. But, as explained, Barbour remained a racially isolated African-American school even after the removal of the bilingual program. In fact, there was never a single year that Barbour's African-American student population fell below 50%.

  In May of 1977, the RBE submitted a desegregation plan to the ISBE that provided for the shifting of Barbour 6th grade students to Washington Middle School. Then in September of 1977, the RBE voted to establish a remedial alternative program (G.I.T. - "Get It Together") at Barbour. In the 1978-79 school year, the G.I.T. program was for 6th grade students only (while regular Barbour 6th graders attended Washington Middle School). The introduction of this program reduced the African-American student population at Barbour from 79% African-American in 1977-78 to 61% African-American the next year. In April of 1979, the RBE decided to expand the G.I.T. program already at Barbour to grades 4 and 5 in addition to 6. As a result of this expansion, regular 4-6 grades were eliminated at Barbour. Children whose regular attendance area was Barbour were then mandatorily reassigned to Whitehead, Rolling Green, Hillman, and Vandercook - all on the east side of Rockford. In 1985-86, minority students from Barbour were being mandatorily bused to Hillman, Nashold, Rolling Green and Vandercook. Although the expansion of the G.I.T. program at Barbour meant that Barbour's African-American student enrollment was reduced to 50%, the reduction came at the expense of the 4-6th grade students from the Barbour neighborhood who no longer had a neighborhood school to attend.

  Barbour Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Barbour Barbour Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 195 1 242 0 29 467 1971-72 141 0 324 0 41 506 1972-73 114 281 36 431 1973-74 91 0 280 0 41 412 1974-75 72 311 85 468 1975-76 79 297 125 501 1976-77 72 299 131 502 1977-78 63 0 306 0 18 387 1978-79 152 0 250 0 5 407 1979-80 147 1 224 1 9 382 1980-81 156 2 182 0 12 352 1981-82 127 3 152 1 20 303 1982-83 115 1 151 1 17 285 1983-84 77 0 146 0 21 244 1984-85 64 0 131 0 17 212 1985-86 57 0 160 3 19 239 1986-87 138 0 174 4 27 343 1987-88 166 0 166 2 23 357 1988-89 133 0 180 2 22 337 1989-90 95 0 239 0 35 369 1990-91 84 0 262 1 33 380 1991-92 80 0 233 0 39 352 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afrḫ 1970-71 41.76% 51.82% 6.21% 58.03% 1971-72 27.87% 64.03% 8.10% 72.13% 1972-73 26.45% 65.20% 8.35% 73.55% 1973-74 22.09% 67.96% 9.95% 77.91% 1974-75 15.38% 66.45% 18.16% 84.62% 1975-76 15.77% 59.28% 24.95% 84.23% 1976-77 14.34% 59.56% 26.10% 85.66% 1977-78 16.28% 79.07% 4.65% 83.72% 1978-79 37.35% 61.43% 1.23% 62.65% 1979-80 38.48% 58.64% 2.36% 60.99% 1980-81 44.32% 51.70% 3.41% 55.11% 1981-82 41.91% 50.17% 6.60% 56.77% 1982-83 40.35% 52.98% 5.96% 58.95% 1983-84 31.56% 59.84% 8.61% 68.44% 1984-85 30.19% 61.79% 8.02% 69.81% 1985-86 23.85% 66.95% 7.95% 74.90% 1986-87 40.23% 50.73% 7.87% 58.60% 1987-88 46.50% 46.50% 6.44% 52.94% 1988-89 39.47% 53.41% 6.53% 59.94% 1989-90 25.75% 64.77% 9.49% 74.25% 1990-91 22.11% 68.95% 8.68% 77.63% 1991-92 22.73% 66.19% 11.08% 77.27%

  BELL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Bell Elementary School, a far northeast quadrant school, was built in 1960 and an addition to the school was added in 1968. Its CDB capacity was 145. From 1971-72 to 1978-79 Bell operated at or greater than 119% capacity. In 1960 and 1967 and from 1970-71 to 1973-74 the school had no minority students whatsoever. From 1974-75 to 1975-76 the school had one African-American student. In 1976-77 the school once again had no minority students. From 1977-78 to 1978-79 the school had one minority student (one American Indian). In 1979-80 the school had three minority students (one African-American, one American Indian and one Hispanic) and the capacity dropped to 112%. In 1980-81 the school had seven African-Americans and two Asians, and the capacity dropped to 105%. The school was closed after 1980-81. When the school closed it was still operating over capacity (105%).

  On July 23, 1973, the RBE approved a motion to move portable classrooms to all-white Bell to solve overcrowding. After 1970-71 all-white Argyle School was closed and its students were sent to Bell. In 1975-76 Argyle School was reopened to relieve overcrowding at virtually all-white Bell (which had only one African-American student in 1974-75 and in 1975-76). Argyle School had only one minority student in 1975-76. Bell School was closed after 1980-81 and the students assigned to Bell (98% white) were transferred into Spring Creek and White Swan Schools along with students from 94% white Argyle School. At the same time, students from the western part of the Haskell (African-American, southwest quadrant) attendance area who had been mandatorily assigned to integrate White Swan in 1980-81 were pulled out of White Swan and reassigned to Brookview, another northeast quadrant school. In 1980-81 Spring Creek and White Swan Schools were both desegregated schools with 13% and 22% African-American students respectively. In 1981-82 Spring Creek and White Swan were, with the receipt of white students from Bell and the loss of African-American students from Haskell, once again racially identifiable white schools with 9% and 0% African-American students respectively.

  Bell Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Bell Bell Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 121 0 0 0 0 121 1971-72 186 0 0 0 0 186 1972-73 212 0 0 0 0 212 1973-74 202 0 0 0 0 202 1974-75 226 1 0 227 1975-76 177 1 0 178 1976-77 192 0 0 192 1977-78 176 1 0 0 0 177 1978-79 184 1 0 0 0 185 1979-80 160 1 1 0 1 163 1980-81 143 0 7 2 0 152 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afrḫ 1970-71 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1973-74 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1974-75 99.56% .44% 0.00% .44% 1975-76 99.44% .56% 0.00% .56% 1976-77 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1977-78 99.44% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1978-79 99.46% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1979-80 98.16% .61% .61% 1.23% 1980-81 94.08% 4.61% 0.00% 4.61% 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  BEYER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Beyer Elementary School is located in the southeast quadrant of Rockford, just east of the Rock River. It was built in 1968 (opened the next year), and has a CDB capacity of 578. Before Beyer was built, the Beyer attendance area was serviced by Kishwaukee Elementary School as Beyer was the area immediately to the north. In the 1970-71 school year, Beyer's African-American student population was 14%.

  After Montague School (69% African-American), just across the Rock River to the west of the Beyer School district, closed in 1971, its students were given the option of transferring to Beyer, Barbour, Kishwaukee or Page Park. As a result of this, Beyer received Montague students. Additionally, after the 1970-71 school year, Morris Kennedy Elementary School was closed and converted to a junior high school and its elementary students were reassigned. Although Peterson Elementary and Riverdahl Elementary were closer to Morris Kennedy than Beyer, some of Morris Kennedy's African-American students were assigned to Beyer. As a result of the Montague and Morris Kennedy student additions, Beyer became a racially identifiable African-American school as its African-American student population increased from 14% in 1970-71 to 33% in 1971-72. For the next decade, Beyer had 15% more than the district-wide average of African-American students in the RSD.

  In 1977-78, Beyer's African-American student population dropped almost 5%. In 1977-78, the Blackhawk Day Care program was transferred to Wight Elementary School.

  Beginning with the 1981-82 school year, Beyer's minority enrollment began to drop. First, the Preschool Gifted Program at Beyer was expanded, and the Gifted Program was expanded to Beyer, preschool and 1st grades. As a result of these actions, Beyer's African-American student population was reduced to 31% by the 1981-82 school year and it again became a desegregated school.

  Beyer Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Beyer Beyer Elementary School --Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 410 0 67 0 1 478 1971-72 245 0 127 0 8 380 1972-73 218 137 0 355 1973-74 228 0 136 0 4 368 1974-75 185 155 9 349 1975-76 204 164 11 379 1976-77 165 172 5 342 1977-78 159 1 144 4 8 316 1978-79 160 0 140 5 11 316 1979-80 145 0 117 5 12 279 1980-81 147 1 114 6 13 281 1981-82 294 1 145 10 11 461 1982-83 292 1 137 13 20 463 1983-84 336 4 123 14 17 494 1984-85 353 3 127 11 12 506 1985-86 390 2 102 11 19 524 1986-87 333 2 95 18 22 470 1987-88 340 1 114 10 21 486 1988-89 324 0 105 18 19 466 1989-90 256 0 141 38 30 465 1990-91 238 0 131 51 19 439 1991-92 242 0 137 13 18 410 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 85.77% 14.02% .21% 14.23% 1971-72 64.47% 33.42% 2.11% 35.53% 1972-73 61.41% 38.59% 0.00% 38.59% 1973-74 61.96% 36.96% 1.09% 38.04% 1974-75 53.01% 44.41% 2.58% 46.99% 1975-76 53.83% 43.27% 2.90% 46.17% 1976-77 48.25% 50.29% 1.46% 51.75% 1977-78 50.32% 45.57% 2.53% 48.10% 1978-79 50.63% 44.30% 3.48% 47.78% 1979-80 51.97% 41.94% 4.30% 46.24% 1980-81 52.31% 40.57% 4.63% 45.20% 1981-82 63.77% 31.45% 2.39% 33.84% 1982-83 63.07% 29.59% 4.32% 33.91% 1983-84 68.02% 24.90% 3.44% 28.34% 1984-85 69.76% 25.10% 2.37% 27.47% 1985-86 74.43% 19.47% 3.63% 23.09% 1986-87 70.85% 20.21% 4.68% 24.89% 1987-88 69.96% 23.46% 4.32% 27.78% 1988-89 69.53% 22.53% 4.08% 26.61% 1989-90 55.05% 30.32% 6.45% 36.77% 1990-91 54.21% 29.84% 4.33% 34.17% 1991-92 59.02% 33.41% 4.39% 37.80%

  BLOOM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Bloom Elementary School is a near northeast quadrant school with an attendance area that borders on the Rock River. It was built in 1951 with additions to the school added in 1954 and 1959. It has a CDB capacity of 611 and operated well under capacity for every year from 1970-71 to 1991-92.

  Bloom was an all-white school (100%) in 1960 and 1967 and from 1970-71 to 1973-74. Students from the Muldoon closing (grades 4-5-6) were sent to Bloom after 1972-73. In 1973-74 Bloom was a racially identifiable white school, and the percentage of African-American students was 6%. From 1974-75 to 1981-82 Bloom became a desegregated school. A Focus Center was started in 1977-78. In 1978-79 some of the students from the Marsh School closing were transferred to Bloom. In 1977-78 Marsh School was a racially identifiable white school (94% white). In 1979-80 African-American and white students were bused into Bloom for the Alternative Program. In 1981-82 white students from the Highland School closing were transferred to Bloom. Highland had always been a racially identifiable white school through 1976-77. After Highland students were reassigned to Bloom the percentage of African-American students dropped from 15% to 14% from 1980-81 to 1981-82. In 1982-83 the RBE discontinued busing to the Alternative Program at Bloom. In 1982-83, the percentage of African-American students dropped to 9%, changing Bloom from a desegregated to a racially identifiable white school. In 1983-84 desegregation students from the Guilford Center closing, who were Muldoon closing students, were sent to Bloom. In 1983-84, Bloom once again became a desegregated school (13% African-American) but only for one year. In 1984-85 Bloom was once again a racially identifiable white school, and it remained racially identifiably white until becoming desegregated again in 1991-92. In 1985-86 minority students from Ellis grades 4-5-6 were being mandatorily bused to Bloom.

  Bloom Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Bloom Bloom Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 574 0 0 0 0 574 1971-72 462 0 0 0 0 462 1972-73 425 0 0 0 0 425 1973-74 391 2 26 3 2 424 1974-75 340 65 5 410 1975-76 345 58 1 404 1976-77 326 38 1 365 1977-78 306 3 48 4 0 361 1978-79 378 0 71 3 4 456 1979-80 407 1 92 2 0 502 1980-81 439 1 78 2 0 520 1981-82 474 1 75 2 1 553 1982-83 484 0 50 3 1 538 1983-84 475 0 73 4 0 552 1984-85 484 0 55 3 0 542 1985-86 514 0 47 6 1 568 1986-87 500 0 31 11 1 543 1987-88 502 0 22 4 0 528 1988-89 488 1 17 10 1 517 1989-90 525 0 15 9 3 552 1990-91 496 0 21 27 13 557 1991-92 429 7 50 41 17 544 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1973-74 92.22% 6.13% .47% 6.60% 1974-75 82.93% 15.85% 1.22% 17.07% 1975-76 85.40% 14.36% .25% 14.60% 1976-77 89.32% 10.41% .27% 10.68% 1977-78 84.76% 13.30% 0.00% 13.30% 1978-79 82.89% 15.57% .88% 16.45% 1979-80 81.08% 18.33% 0.00% 18.33% 1980-81 84.42% 15.00% 0.00% 15.00% 1981-82 85.71% 13.56% .18% 13.74% 1982-83 89.96% 9.29% .19% 9.48% 1983-84 86.05% 13.22% 0.00% 13.22% 1984-85 89.30% 10.15% 0.00% 10.15% 1985-86 90.49% 8.27% .18% 8.45% 1986-87 92.08% 5.71% .18% 5.89% 1987-88 95.08% 4.17% 0.00% 4.17% 1988-89 94.39% 3.29% .19% 3.48% 1989-90 95.11% 2.72% .54% 3.26% 1990-91 89.05% 3.77% 2.33% 6.10% 1991-92 78.86% 9.19% 3.12% 12.32%

  BROOKVIEW ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Brookview Elementary School is a northeast quadrant school built in 1966 with additions to the school added in 1968 and 1969. It has a CDB capacity of 558, and it has operated under capacity for every year from 1970-71 to 1991-92. It was an all-white school in 1960 and 1967, a racially identifiable white school from 1970-71 through 1974-75 and a desegregated school from 1975-1976 to 1991-92 except for 1979-80, 1980-81 and 1989-90 when it was again a racially identifiable white school.

  In 1981-82, African-American students from the west part of the Haskell area were bused to Brookview. This assignment remained in effect until the 1989 reorganization plan. From 1980-81 to 1981-82, Brookview's African-American percentage increased from 10% to 24%. The previous year (1980-81), Haskell students were mandatorily reassigned to White Swan (90% white in 1979-80) for one year. In 1981-82, when Argyle and Bell schools were closed and after the parents of White Swan school had complained, white students from Argyle and Bell Schools were reassigned to White Swan and Spring Creek and the African-American Haskell students were removed from White Swan and sent to Brookview.

  In 1983-84, Brookview received students from the Guilford Center closing. Since 1973-74, Guilford Center had been a desegregated school, having received some minority students from the Muldoon closing. Although Brookview remained a desegregated school in 1982-83, the enrollment of African-American students began to drop and the enrollment of white students increased. Brookview became a racially identifiable white school in 1989-90 (88% white).

  Brookview Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Brookview Brookview Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 466 0 3 0 0 469 1971-72 525 0 3 0 0 528 1972-73 483 2 0 485 1973-74 418 0 1 0 0 419 1974-75 407 2 3 412 1975-76 383 34 1 418 1976-77 362 48 2 412 1977-78 339 1 42 9 6 397 1978-79 314 0 39 8 1 362 1979-80 315 0 35 5 3 358 1980-81 289 0 31 4 2 326 1981-82 287 1 93 6 1 388 1982-83 280 1 80 8 2 371 1983-84 344 0 69 2 10 425 1984-85 335 0 65 5 3 408 1985-86 351 1 61 4 1 418 1986-87 333 0 53 10 2 398 1987-88 360 0 46 7 2 415 1988-89 395 2 59 7 2 465 1989-90 424 2 47 8 3 484 1990-91 428 3 64 6 7 508 1991-92 399 1 82 9 3 494 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 99.36% .64% 0.00% .64% 1971-72 99.43% .57% 0.00% .57% 1972-73 99.59% .41% 0.00% .41% 1973-74 99.76% .24% 0.00% .24% 1974-75 98.79% .49% .73% 1.21% 1975-76 91.63% 8.13% .24% 8.37% 1976-77 87.86% 11.65% .49% 12.14% 1977-78 85.39% 10.58% 1.51% 12.09% 1978-79 86.74% 10.77% .28% 11.05% 1979-80 87.99% 9.78% .84% 10.61% 1980-81 88.65% 9.51% .61% 10.12% 1981-82 73.97% 23.97% .26% 24.23% 1982-83 75.47% 21.56% .54% 22.10% 1983-84 80.94% 16.24% 2.35% 18.59% 1984-85 82.11% 15.93% .74% 16.67% 1985-86 83.97% 14.59% .24% 14.83% 1986-87 83.67% 13.32% .50% 13.82% 1987-88 86.75% 11.08% .48% 11.57% 1988-89 84.95% 12.69% .43% 13.12% 1989-90 87.60% 9.71% .62% 10.33% 1990-91 84.25% 12.60% 1.38% 13.98% 1991-92 80.77% 16.60% .61% 17.21%

  CARLSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Carlson Elementary School, located in the northeast quadrant, was built in 1970 and has a CDB capacity of 446. It operated under capacity except for the years from 1972-73 to 1977-78 and from 1990-91 to 1991-92. Carlson was all-white in 1960 and 1967, was a racially identifiable white school before 1977-78 and was a desegregated school from 1977-78 to 1991-92.

  On July 10, 1969, the RBE decided to mandatorily assign and bus about 100 students from the Jane Adams Village public housing development in the southeast quadrant (in the Kishwaukee Elementary School area) to the newly -- constructed Carlson. Less than one year later, on June 22, 1970 the Board unanimously voted to discontinue the busing program to Carlson and to return the children to their neighborhood schools for the 1970-71 school year. The Jane Adams children were returned to Kishwaukee, which had been built in 1921 and had never had any additions built on the school. In 1970-71 it had 25% African-American students, more African-American students than any year thereafter and it operated at 147% of CDB capacity in 1970-71. In 1970-71 Carlson was 98% white and operated at only 91% of its CDB capacity. In a special meeting of the Board on March 13, 1974, Rev. David Haumann told the Board that it had rescinded the pilot desegregation program at Carlson against the admonitions and pleadings of the teachers and administrators involved. The Board was also told by Rev. Haumann that the pilot desegregation program at Carlson had only functioned for 76 days.

  On March 8, 1971 the RBE agreed to transport Montague children to Page Park School for the remainder of the school year. They are also given the option of transporting their children themselves to Barbour (52% African-American), Beyer (14% African-American) or Kishwaukee (25% African-American) schools. Carlson School, continued to operate as racially identifiable (98% white) and well under capacity. In 1985-86 minority students from Ellis grades 4-5-6 were being mandatorily bused to Carlson.

  Carlson Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Carlson Carlson Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 398 0 6 2 0 406 1971-72 387 0 5 1 0 393 1972-73 445 6 1 452 1973-74 479 0 17 0 2 498 1974-75 548 23 1 572 1975-76 523 29 3 555 1976-77 493 21 3 517 1977-78 426 0 35 5 3 469 1978-79 368 0 27 13 1 409 1979-80 368 0 34 10 2 414 1980-81 334 2 33 11 2 382 1981-82 336 0 59 20 1 416 1982-83 311 0 64 18 4 397 1983-84 306 0 64 22 6 398 1984-85 310 0 75 20 4 409 1985-86 279 0 65 16 5 365 1986-87 292 0 73 15 2 382 1987-88 299 3 55 14 1 372 1988-89 283 0 59 10 2 354 1989-90 350 0 62 11 3 426 1990-91 388 0 64 10 4 466 1991-92 401 0 64 10 4 479 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr-His 1970-71 98.03% 1.48% 0.00% 1.48% 1971-72 98.47% 1.27% 0.00% 1.27% 1972-73 98.45% 1.33% .22% 1.55% 1973-74 96.18% 3.41% .40% 3.82% 1974-75 95.80% 4.02% .17% 4.20% 1975-76 94.23% 5.23% .54% 5.77% 1976-77 95.36% 4.06% .58% 4.64% 1977-78 90.83% 7.46% .64% 8.10% 1978-79 89.98% 6.60% .24% 6.85% 1979-80 88.89% 8.21% .48% 8.70% 1980-81 87.43% 8.64% .52% 9.16% 1981-82 80.77% 14.18% .24% 14.42% 1982-83 78.34% 16.12% 1.01% 17.13% 1983-84 76.88% 16.08% 1.51% 17.59% 1984-85 75.79% 18.34% .98% 19.32% 1985-86 76.44% 17.81% 1.37% 19.18% 1986-87 76.44% 19.11% .52% 19.63% 1987-88 80.38% 14.78% .27% 15.05% 1988-89 79.94% 16.67% .56% 17.23% 1989-90 82.16% 14.55% .70% 15.26% 1990-91 83.26% 13.73% .86% 14.59% 1991-92 83.72% 13.36% .84% 14.20%

  CHERRY VALLEY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Cherry Valley Elementary School, a far east southeast quadrant school, was built in 1937 and had additions added on to the school in 1954, 1961 and 1962. It had no African-American students in 1960 and 1967, has been an all-white or racially identifiable white school every year from 1970-71 to 1991-92 and has never had more than 3% (in 1989-90) African-American students. Cherry Valley operated over capacity from 1970-71 through 1971-72, from 1974-75 to 1980-81 and in 1989-90. Until the 1978-79 school year, the attendance area of Guilford High School, a racially identifiable white school, wrapped around the far east and southeast portion of Rockford, to include the racially identifiable white southeast quadrant elementary districts of Cherry Valley, White Swan, Vandercook and Sky View. Cherry Valley and the other southeast quadrant schools were much closer to Jefferson and East, both of which had larger proportions of African-American students than Guilford High School.

  Cherry Valley had a boundary change with Sky View, the farthest south school in the southeast quadrant, in 1978-79. Skyview was always an all-white or racially identifiable school and operated under capacity until it closed in 1982-83. In 1978-79 100 former Cherry Valley students were sent to Sky View, but Cherry Valley continued to operate over the CDB capacity from 1977-78 to 1978-79. Cherry Valley had another boundary change with Sky View school in 1981-82. The capacity at Cherry Valley dropped from 128% of CDB capacity in 1980-81 to 78% of CDB capacity in 1981-82.

  Cherry Valley Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Cherry Valley Cherry Valley Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 382 0 0 0 0 382 1971-72 280 0 0 0 0 280 1972-73 249 0 0 249 1973-74 242 0 0 0 0 242 1974-75 322 0 2 324 1975-76 341 0 3 344 1976-77 389 0 2 391 1977-78 396 0 0 0 2 398 1978-79 340 0 2 0 2 344 1979-80 345 0 1 0 1 347 1980-81 320 0 1 4 1 326 1981-82 195 0 1 3 0 199 1982-83 176 0 1 1 0 178 1983-84 174 0 1 1 0 176 1984-85 177 0 3 0 2 182 1985-86 183 0 3 2 1 189 1986-87 186 0 3 5 0 194 1987-88 217 0 3 5 0 225 1988-89 242 0 3 4 0 249 1989-90 250 0 7 6 7 270 1990-91 252 0 5 5 6 268 1991-92 190 0 6 9 3 208 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr-His 1970-71 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1973-74 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1974-75 99.38% 0.00% .62% .62% 1975-76 99.13% 0.00% .87% .87% 1976-77 99.49% 0.00% .51% .51% 1977-78 99.50% 0.00% .50% .50% 1978-79 98.84% .58% .58% 1.16% 1979-80 99.42% .29% .29% .58% 1980-81 98.16% .31% .31% .61% 1981-82 97.99% .50% 0.00% .50% 1982-83 98.88% .56% 0.00% .56% 1983-84 98.86% .57% 0.00% .57% 1984-85 97.25% 1.65% 1.10% 2.75% 1985-86 96.83% 1.59% .53% 2.12% 1986-87 95.88% 1.55% 0.00% 1.55% 1987-88 96.44% 1.33% 0.00% 1.33% 1988-89 97.19% 1.20% 0.00% 1.20% 1989-90 92.59% 2.59% 2.59% 5.19% 1990-91 94.03% 1.87% 2.24% 4.10% 1991-92 91.35% 2.88% 1.44% 4.33%

  CHURCH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Church Elementary School is located in the southwest quadrant of Rockford. It was built in 1894, with additions added in 1914 and 1936. Its CDB capacity is 401.

  In the late 1950's, a growing number of African-American persons resided in the area adjacent to the eastern boundary of Church School, an all-white school. In 1959, the RSD built Haskell Elementary School to the east of Church and drew boundary lines so that the African-Americans were included in Haskell and Church School remained all white. According to the PPC Report, in 1960 and 1967 Church was 100% white.

  Church got its first African-American students in 1968-69, when the first African-American family (the Alfred Brewington family) moved into one of the first completed units of what was to become the Fairgrounds Valley Public Housing Development. The Fairgrounds Valley housing was built on both sides of Kent Creek, which was then the border between the Church and Haskell attendance areas. Church School was 4% African-American in 1968-69.

  On July 10, 1969, the RBE approved boundary changes for RSD schools. The result of one of these changes was that the Church School population percentage of African-American students increased. The boundaries of McIntosh School was moved three blocks east, which transferred about 70 elementary school children from Church to McIntosh, creating more space in Church School to accommodate Fairgrounds Valley Housing Development Children. From the 1968-69 school year to the 1970-71 school year, Church School went from 4% African-American to 17% African-American, making Church a desegregated elementary school. By 1974-75, Church School had a African-American student population of 33%. Church Elementary School continued to get increasingly racially isolated. From 1988-89 to 1989-90 the percentage of Hispanic-American students at Church School increased from 7% to 12%.

  Church Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Church Church Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 387 0 84 1 14 486 1971-72 327 0 98 2 11 438 1972-73 326 83 13 422 1973-74 259 1 108 2 14 384 1974-75 244 128 16 388 1975-76 214 168 9 391 1976-77 236 137 8 381 1977-78 182 4 142 0 4 332 1978-79 205 2 163 0 12 382 1979-80 178 2 148 5 16 349 1980-81 166 2 172 4 21 365 1981-82 154 2 210 0 21 387 1982-83 151 4 214 0 21 390 1983-84 129 2 226 0 28 385 1984-85 103 1 255 0 16 375 1985-86 106 1 248 3 26 384 1986-87 87 0 262 5 15 369 1987-88 83 0 249 6 13 351 1988-89 47 0 216 2 20 285 1989-90 57 0 209 0 36 302 1990-91 63 0 182 0 20 265 1991-92 51 0 189 0 24 264 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr-His 1970-71 79.63% 17.28% 2.88% 20.16% 1971-72 74.66% 22.37% 2.51% 24.89% 1972-73 77.25% 19.67% 3.08% 22.75% 1973-74 67.45% 28.12% 3.65% 31.77% 1974-75 62.89% 32.99% 4.12% 37.11% 1975-76 54.73% 42.97% 2.30% 45.27% 1976-77 61.94% 35.96% 2.10% 38.06% 1977-78 54.82% 42.77% 1.20% 43.98% 1978-79 53.66% 42.67% 3.14% 45.81% 1979-80 51.00% 42.41% 4.58% 46.99% 1980-81 45.48% 47.12% 5.75% 52.88% 1981-82 39.79% 54.26% 5.43% 59.69% 1982-83 38.72% 54.87% 5.38% 60.26% 1983-84 33.51% 58.70% 7.27% 65.97% 1984-85 27.47% 68.00% 4.27% 72.27% 1985-86 27.60% 64.58% 6.77% 71.35% 1986-87 23.58% 71.00% 4.07% 75.07% 1987-88 23.65% 70.94% 3.70% 74.64% 1988-89 16.49% 75.79% 7.02% 82.81% 1989-90 18.87% 69.21% 11.92% 81.13% 1990-91 23.77% 68.68% 7.55% 76.23% 1991-92 19.32% 71.59% 9.09% 80.68%

  CONKLIN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Conklin Elementary School, located in the northwest quadrant, was built in 1958 and has never had any additions to the building. It has a CDB capacity of 573 and has operated under capacity from 1970-71 to 1991-92. Conklin was all-white in 1960 and 1967, and remained a racially identifiable white school through 1975-76.

  In 1976-77 a Focus Center opened at Conklin and the school became desegregated in 1978-79. From 1978-79 to 1979-80 the white enrollment at Conklin dropped from 300 to 288 and the African-American enrollment dropped from 74 to 62. In 1981-82 Conklin received African-American desegregation (open enrollment) students from the Highland School closing. In that year, when Whig Hill closed Conklin also received some African-American students from the southwest side satellite attendance zone that had been attending Whig Hill. In 1981-82 Conklin also had a satellite attendance zone from the 1978-79 Whig Hill attendance zone. In 1981-82 its white enrollment increased by 43 students and its African-American enrollment increased by 79 students. Conklin continued to be a desegregated school for three more years, from 1982-83 to 1984-85.

  In 1984-85 Conklin had a boundary change and students in the southwest quadrant satellite zone were returned to their neighborhood school, Dennis, and only a small area around the Lincolnwood Shopping Center remained a satellite zone of Conklin. In 1985-86. Conklin lost white students and gained African-American students to become a racially identifiable African-American school. Conklin remained a racially identifiable African-American school from 1985-86 to 1988-89 as its white enrollment dropped from 262 in 1984-85 to 213 in 1988-89 while its African-American enrollment increased from 163 in 1984-85 to 202 in 1988-89. In 1985-86 minority students from the Dennis satellite zone were again being mandatorily bused to Conklin. Dennis was a racially identifiable African-American school.

  In 1989-90, after the filing of this case, Conklin once again became an desegregated school as its white enrollment increased by 101 students and its African-American enrollment decreased by 95 students (almost half the African-American students).

  Conklin Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Conklin Conklin Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 544 0 0 1 5 550 1971-72 511 1 0 0 1 513 1972-73 476 0 2 478 1973-74 429 0 2 0 0 431 1974-75 361 14 0 375 1975-76 342 32 6 380 1976-77 328 67 7 402 1977-78 298 1 52 5 10 366 1978-79 300 5 74 10 4 393 1979-80 178 2 148 5 16 349 1980-81 272 2 52 3 13 342 1981-82 315 0 131 14 21 481 1982-83 328 0 193 27 17 565 1983-84 270 0 136 11 12 429 1984-85 262 0 163 3 3 431 1985-86 228 0 190 1 3 422 1986-87 222 0 178 3 7 410 1987-88 198 0 198 2 8 406 1988-89 213 0 202 1 4 420 1989-90 314 0 107 7 13 441 1990-91 319 1 114 10 19 463 1991-92 302 1 102 6 17 428 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr-Hi 1970-71 98.91% 0.00% .91% .91% 1971-72 99.61% 0.00% .19% .19% 1972-73 99.58% 0.00% .42% .42% 1973-74 99.54% .46% 0.00% .46% 1974-75 96.27% 3.73% 0.00% 3.73% 1975-76 90.00% 8.42% 1.58% 10.00% 1976-77 81.59% 16.67% 1.74% 18.41% 1977-78 81.42% 14.21% 2.73% 16.94% 1978-79 76.34% 18.83% 1.02% 19.85% 1979-80 51.00% 42.41% 4.58% 46.99% 1980-81 79.53% 15.20% 3.80% 19.01% 1981-82 65.49% 27.23% 4.37% 31.60% 1982-83 58.05% 34.16% 3.01% 37.17% 1983-84 62.94% 31.70% 2.80% 34.50% 1984-85 60.79% 37.82% .70% 38.52% 1985-86 54.03% 45.02% .71% 45.73% 1986-87 54.15% 43.41% 1.71% 45.12% 1987-88 48.77% 48.77% 1.97% 50.74% 1988-89 50.71% 48.10% .95% 49.05% 1989-90 71.20% 24.26% 2.95% 27.21% 1990-91 68.90% 24.62% 4.10% 28.73% 1991-92 70.56% 23.83% 3.97% 27.80%

  DENNIS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Dennis Elementary School, located in the far west part of the southwest quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1954 with an addition to the school constructed in 1962. The CDB capacity of Dennis is 439 students. In 1960 and 1967, Dennis' African-American student population was 78% and 91% respectively. By 1974-75, the African-American student population had increased to 92%. Dennis is approximately one mile away from Stiles Elementary School (also in the southwest quadrant), a school with 16% minority students in 1974-75.

  In the 1975-76 school year, Dennis' African-American student population dropped from 92% to 73% by the addition of 71 additional white students, due to the establishment of a pre-school program for students ages 3 and 4, and the addition of an alternative program at Dennis.

  In the 1977-78 school year the percentage of African-American students dropped to 54% from 87% the year before. This occurred by the establishment of a African-American satellite attendance zone in the Dennis Elementary District. Students who lived nearby Dennis School were bused to Whig Hill Elementary School (northwest quadrant), over 4.5 miles away (approximately). When Whig Hill closed after 1980-81, some Dennis area students were sent farther away to Haight Elementary School (northwest quadrant).

  In 1978-79, the Arts Alternative Program was moved from Haight to Dennis. This program did not appreciably affect the racial percentages of Dennis' student population.

  On May 9, 1977, the RBE sent a desegregation plan to the ISBE that recommended pairing Stiles and Dennis Schools by housing K-3 from both attendance areas in Stiles and 4-6 from both attendance areas in Dennis. On August 8, 1977, Stiles parents protested this recommendation. Thereafter, the RBE changed the plans and Stiles students (Stiles was 13% African-American in 1976-77) were not bused to Dennis, but Dennis (87% African-American in 1976-77) students were bused to Stiles.

  Dennis' African-American student population began increasing in 1981-82 after reaching a low of 30% in 1980-81. When nearby Henrietta Elementary School was closed in 1981, some of its African-American students were sent to Dennis, increasing Dennis' African-American population by 2%. After the 1982-83 school year, the busing of Dennis students to Stiles school was discontinued. In the 1983-84 school year, Dennis experienced a significant jump in its African-American student population from 32% to 57%. The expansion of Dennis' boundaries also contributed to the increase in Dennis' proportion of African-American students. In 1985-86 minority students from the Dennis satellite zone were being bused to Conklin, a formerly racially identifiable white school which by then had been changed into a racially identifiable African-American school. By 1991-92, Dennis African-American student population was back up to 63%.

  Dennis Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Dennis Dennis Elementary School -- Elementary History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 40 0 412 0 5 457 1971-72 37 0 369 0 3 409 1972-73 30 370 0 400 1973-74 26 0 304 0 0 330 1974-75 22 259 0 281 1975-76 93 253 1 347 1976-77 27 181 0 208 1977-78 59 0 74 0 3 136 1978-79 173 0 91 0 8 272 1979-80 179 0 84 2 4 269 1980-81 172 1 75 1 3 252 1981-82 174 2 84 1 2 263 1982-83 191 2 92 0 9 294 1983-84 141 0 187 0 0 328 1984-85 123 1 196 0 3 323 1985-86 116 0 182 0 10 308 1986-87 118 0 150 0 4 272 1987-88 95 0 123 4 3 225 1988-89 105 1 122 3 4 235 1989-90 86 0 113 1 3 203 1990-91 123 0 212 6 5 346 1991-92 97 0 170 0 4 271 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr-Hi 1970-71 8.75% 90.15% 1.09% 91.25% 1971-72 9.05% 90.22% .73% 90.95% 1972-73 7.50% 92.50% 0.00% 92.50% 1973-74 7.88% 92.12% 0.00% 92.12% 1974-75 7.83% 92.17% 0.00% 92.17% 1975-76 26.80% 72.91% .29% 73.20% 1976-77 12.98% 87.02% 0.00% 87.02% 1977-78 43.38% 54.41% 2.21% 56.62% 1978-79 63.60% 33.46% 2.94% 36.40% 1979-80 66.54% 31.23% 1.49% 32.71% 1980-81 68.25% 29.76% 1.19% 30.95% 1981-82 66.16% 31.94% .76% 32.70% 1982-83 64.97% 31.29% 3.06% 34.35% 1983-84 42.99% 57.01% 0.00% 57.01% 1984-85 38.08% 60.68% .93% 61.61% 1985-86 37.66% 59.09% 3.25% 62.34% 1986-87 43.38% 55.15% 1.47% 56.62% 1987-88 42.22% 54.67% 1.33% 56.00% 1988-89 44.68% 51.91% 1.70% 53.62% 1989-90 42.36% 55.67% 1.48% 57.14% 1990-91 35.55% 61.27% 1.45% 62.72% 1991-92 35.79% 62.73% 1.48% 64.21%

  ELLIS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Ellis Elementary School is located in the southwest quadrant of Rockford. The shcool was built in 1906 with additions added in 1924 and 1969. Its CDB capacity is 500 students. In 1960, Ellis' African-American population was 22 %. In 1967 and 1968, Ellis had 50% African-American students. By 1970, its African-American population was up to 65%. Ellis' African-American student population fluctuated between 57% and 92% between 1970 and the present time.

  In 1969, the RBE mandatorily bused students from the Fairgrounds Valley Housing Development that lived in the Ellis attendance zone to Walker School in the northwest quadrant in an effort to aid integration and to reduce overcrowding in Ellis. On January 25, 1971, the RBE determined that at the end of that school year the children from Fairgrounds would be transferred from Walker to Ellis and Muldoon Schools. Muldoon School was purchased by the by the District in 1971, because the RBE had decided to transfer the Fairgrounds Valley Housing Development children from Walker back to Ellis, but Ellis was badly overcrowded. Muldoon was an old, previously closed Catholic girls' school, which had recently been purchased from the Archdiocese. It was in the immediate vicinity of Ellis school. It was open as an RSD school for only one year before it was closed down and its students dispersed to several different schools throughout the RSD. During that year (1971-72), grades 1-3 were located at Ellis and grades 4-6 were located at Muldoon. In the prior year (1970 - 71), Ellis was overcrowded (109% of CDB capacity) and 65% African-American. For the 1971-72 year, with the temporary use of Muldoon School, Ellis operated at 95% of CDB and both Ellis and Muldoon were 69% and 70% African-American respectively. The boundary of the Ellis School District was less than 1 1/12 miles from Walker School at the time.

  In 1976-77 a Gifted program for grades 1-3 was started at Ellis. Then, in 1978-79 the Creative and Performing Arts Program (CAPA) was placed at Ellis. Ellis' African-American student population percentage dropped 13% between 1976-77 and 1979-80. In 1980-81, the African-American student population increased 15% when the CAPA program moved to Washington. Then, that population dropped 15% in the next year when the Rockford Alternative Elementary School was moved to Ellis.

  In 1971, Ellis school housed grades 1-3 and Muldoon School housed grades 4-6. In 1985-86, minority students from Ellis (Muldoon) Grades 4-6 were being mandatorily bused to Bloom, Spring Creek, Carlson, Jackson, Welsh and Westview. Bloom was a racially identifiable white school and Spring Creek, Carlson, Jackson, Welsh and Westview were integrated schools. In 1989, Grades 4-6 were returned to Ellis School. In 1989, Ellis' African-American population went from 59% African-American students to 92% African-American students.

  Ellis Elementary [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Ellis Ellis Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 177 0 357 0 12 546 1971-72 129 0 329 2 15 475 1972-73 94 303 11 408 1973-74 69 0 317 0 12 398 1974-75 80 252 4 336 1975-76 82 245 3 330 1976-77 61 227 1 289 1977-78 71 0 230 0 0 301 1978-79 84 0 219 0 5 308 1979-80 100 0 200 0 8 308 1980-81 46 0 192 0 5 243 1981-82 98 0 177 1 7 283 1982-83 70 2 193 1 10 276 1983-84 120 2 191 1 9 323 1984-85 117 4 175 0 10 306 1985-86 116 4 202 1 7 330 1986-87 120 1 210 1 3 335 1987-88 117 0 209 1 4 331 1988-89 127 0 192 3 3 325 1989-90 17 0 044 0 4 265 1990-91 57 0 280 2 12 351 1991-92 51 0 234 0 15 300 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afri 1970-71 32.42% 65.38% 2.20% 67.58% 1971-72 27.16% 69.26% 3.16% 72.42% 1972-73 23.04% 74.26% 2.70% 76.96% 1973-74 17.34% 79.65% 3.02% 82.66% 1974-75 23.81% 75.00% 1.19% 76.19% 1975-76 24.85% 74.24% .91% 75.15% 1976-77 21.11% 78.55% .35% 78.89% 1977-78 23.59% 76.41% 0.00% 76.41% 1978-79 27.27% 71.10% 1.62% 72.73% 1979-80 32.47% 64.94% 2.60% 67.53% 1980-81 18.93% 79.01% 2.06% 81.07% 1981-82 34.63% 62.54% 2.47% 65.02% 1982-83 25.36% 69.93% 3.62% 73.55% 1983-84 37.15% 59.13% 2.79% 61.92% 1984-85 38.24% 57.19% 3.27% 60.46% 1985-86 35.15% 61.21% 2.12% 63.33% 1986-87 35.82% 62.69% .90% 63.58% 1987-88 35.35% 63.14% 1.21% 64.35% 1988-89 39.08% 59.08% .92% 60.00% 1989-90 6.42% 92.08% 1.51% 93.58% 1990-91 16.24% 79.77% 3.42% 83.19% 1991-92 17.00% 78.00% 5.00% 83.00%

  EVERGREEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Evergreen Elementary School, located far south in the southwest quadrant, was built in 1938 with additions added to the school in 1954, 1957, 1960 and 1964. It was annexed to the Rockford School District #205 in 1966. Evergreen had a CDB capacity of 344 and operated under capacity every year from 1970-71 to 1982-83.

  In 1960 and 1967 Evergreen was all-white and from 1970-71 through 1974-75 was a racially identifiable white school (92% to 99% white). In 1975-76 Evergreen became an desegregated school with the same attendance zone boundaries which it had in 1973-74 when it was a white school. Evergreen was an desegregated school from 1975-76 until it was closed after the 1982-83 school year.

  The 1978-79 School Boundary Map shows that the Evergreen attendance zone boundaries had been changed from the 1975-76 boundaries as follows: 1) a portion from the northern part of the attendance area was added to Lathrop School; 2) a portion of the eastern boundary bordering the Rock River was also added to Lathrop School; and, 3) an area from the former Riverside School attendance zone (to the east of Evergreen's area but still west of the Rock River) was added to Evergreen on its southeastern edge. Lathrop School was a racially identifiable African-American school since at least 1960. Riverside School had been a 100% white school before 1976-77 and was a 99% white (2 Hispanics and no African-Americans) school in 1976-77 just before it closed. Thus the part of the Evergreen area adjacent to an African-American school was added to that school (Lathrop), and territory from an all white school was added, turning Evergreen back into a white school. The 1981-82 School Boundary Map shows the same boundaries for Evergreen as the 1978-79 School Boundary Map.

  After 1982-83 Evergreen School was closed. Evergreen students were transferred to Lathrop (southwest quadrant, 47% African-American) and New Milford (southeast, no African-Americans, 27% Hispanic in 1982-83 because of the bilingual program). In 1982-83, the last year it was open, Evergreen was 87% white. From 1982-83 to 1983-84 Lathrop remained a racially identifiable African-American school. From 1982-83 to 1983-84 New Milford, which also received students from the closing of 97% white Skyview, lost 98 Hispanic students and gained 91 white students increasing its percentage of white students from 73% to 99%.

  Evergreen Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Evergreen Evergreen Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 325 0 0 3 0 328 1971-72 307 0 0 3 0 310 1972-73 284 3 4 291 1973-74 257 4 8 2 7 278 1974-75 260 10 2 272 1975-76 245 31 0 276 1976-77 231 26 4 261 1977-78 178 16 31 2 2 229 1978-79 200 7 27 2 7 243 1979-80 210 8 26 6 4 254 1980-81 188 17 22 7 6 240 1981-82 191 5 23 4 6 229 1982-83 182 1 15 4 7 209 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year %Other %Afr-Am %His-Am %Afr-Hi 1970-71 99.09% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 99.03% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 97.59% 1.03% 1.37% 2.41% 1973-74 92.45% 2.88% 2.52% 5.40% 1974-75 95.59% 3.68% .74% 4.41% 1975-76 88.77% 11.23% 0.00% 11.23% 1976-77 88.51% 9.96% 1.53% 11.49% 1977-78 77.73% 13.54% .87% 14.41% 1978-79 82.30% 11.11% 2.88% 13.99% 1979-80 82.68% 10.24% 1.57% 11.81% 1980-81 78.33% 9.17% 2.50% 11.67% 1981-82 83.41% 10.04% 2.62% 12.66% 1982-83 87.08% 7.18% 3.35% 10.53%

  FAIRVIEW ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Fairview Elementary, located in the southeast quadrant, was built in 1955 and had no additions added to the school. Its CDB capacity was 460, and it operated over capacity before 1972-73, at capacity in 1972-73, and under capacity after 1972-73. It was all-white in 1960 and 1967, was a racially identifiable white school from 1970-71 through 1976-77. It was an desegregated school from 1977-78 to 1982-83. Fairview was closed after 1982-83. Some of its students were transferred to Johnson School, which had been an desegregated school in 1982-83, the year before, but became a racially identifiable white school in 1983-84 when it gained 121 white students and lost 19 African-American students.

  Fairview Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Fairview Fairview Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 526 0 2 0 0 528 1971-72 495 0 3 0 0 498 1972-73 458 2 0 460 1973-74 425 0 2 0 0 427 1974-75 372 2 0 374 1975-76 346 16 0 362 1976-77 335 25 0 360 1977-78 316 2 74 0 1 393 1978-79 313 0 55 0 4 372 1979-80 302 0 49 4 4 359 1980-81 282 0 58 3 3 346 1981-82 245 0 61 2 2 310 1982-83 239 0 48 1 5 293 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 188 1 75 4 3 271 1990-91 174 1 62 1 1 239 1991-92 Year %Other %Afr-Am %His-Am %Afr-Hi 1970-71 99.62% .38% 0.00% .38% 1971-72 99.40% .60% 0.00% .60% 1972-73 99.57% .43% 0.00% .43% 1973-74 99.53% .47% 0.00% .47% 1974-75 99.47% .53% 0.00% .53% 1975-76 95.58% 4.42% 0.00% 4.42% 1976-77 93.06% 6.94% 0.00% 6.94% 1977-78 80.41% 18.83% .25% 19.08% 1978-79 84.14% 14.78% 1.08% 15.86% 1979-80 84.12% 13.65% 1.11% 14.76% 1980-81 81.50% 16.76% .87% 17.63% 1981-82 79.03% 19.68% .65% 20.32% 1982-83 81.57% 16.38% 1.71% 18.09% 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 69.37% 27.68% 1.11% 28.78% 1990-91 72.80% 25.94% .42% 26.36% 1991-92

  FRANKLIN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Franklin School, in the near southwest quadrant of the Rockford School District was built in 1892, with additions added in 1916 and 1951. In 1960, Franklin was 16% African-American. By 1967, Franklin was a racially identifiable African-American school at 41% African-American. Franklin School was closed after the 1970-71 school year, when it was 55% African-American.

  The Franklin attendance area was on the west bank of the Rock River between the Montague (King) and Haskell school districts (downtown Rockford). Immediately across the river to the east were the Kishwaukee and Jackson attendance areas. At the time Franklin was closed, Jackson was operating under capacity and was 98% white. If most, or all, of the Franklin students were transferred to Jackson, Jackson would have become desegregated. Instead, Franklin students were reassigned to two neighboring predominantly African-American schools - Haskell School (62% African-American in 1970-71) and Ellis School (65% African-American in 1970-71). Additionally, Ellis was so overcrowded, that in the same year, it was forced to send half of its students to the recently acquired Muldoon School, which was only open for one year (1971-72). Both Ellis and Haskell experienced an increase in the percentages of African-American students as a result of the addition of the Franklin area students.

  File: Franklin Franklin Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 81 0 109 0 8 198 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am %His-Am %Afr-Hi 1970-71 40.91% 55.05% 4.04% 59.09% 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  FREEMAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Freeman Elementary School was built in 1892, with an addition added in 1951. It was a Special Education facility located in the near southeast quadrant. From 1970-71 to 1973-74 it was a desegregated school. Freeman was closed after 1973-74, and the Rockford Alternative Middle School (RAMS) was housed there from 1974-75 to 1976-77.

  Freeman Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Freeman Freeman Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 95 0 18 0 2 115 1971-72 78 0 23 0 2 103 1972-73 80 0 26 0 2 108 1973-74 80 0 26 0 2 108 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year %Other %Afr-Am %His-Am %Afr-Hi 1970-71 82.61% 15.65% 1.74% 17.39% 1971-72 75.73% 22.33% 1.94% 24.27% 1972-73 74.07% 24.07% 1.85% 25.93% 1973-74 74.07% 24.07% 1.85% 25.93% 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  FROBERG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Froberg Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1966, with an addition added in 1969. Its CDB capacity is 424. Froberg was an all-white school in 1967 and was a racially identifiable white school from 1970-71 to 1978-79.

  In 1978-79, the G.I.T. (remedial) alternative program was added at Froberg, and Froberg's African-American population went up to 16% from 2% in 1977-78. The G.I.T. program was pulled out of Froberg after the 1980-81 school year, and students from the closed Gunsolas School were reassigned to Froberg. As a result, Froberg's African-American population dropped to 3%. When white students from the closed Skyview School were reassigned to Froberg in the 1983-84, Froberg's African-American population dropped to 1%. After this time, Froberg remained a racially identifiable white school.

  Froberg Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Froberg Froberg Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 428 0 2 0 0 430 1971-72 435 0 0 0 0 435 1972-73 379 1 0 380 1973-74 371 0 4 2 0 377 1974-75 363 6 2 371 1975-76 368 8 2 378 1976-77 342 7 4 353 1977-78 303 0 6 2 6 317 1978-79 303 0 58 0 9 370 1979-80 267 1 66 2 5 341 1980-81 248 3 61 2 11 325 1981-82 311 0 10 5 6 332 1982-83 282 0 9 3 4 298 1983-84 371 0 5 4 2 382 1984-85 341 0 10 2 0 353 1985-86 353 1 10 2 0 366 1986-87 372 0 10 0 0 382 1987-88 374 2 10 1 1 388 1988-89 381 2 8 4 3 398 1989-90 425 1 6 5 6 443 1990-91 443 3 8 3 10 467 1991-92 329 3 11 5 7 355 Year %Other %Afr-Am %His-Am %Afr-Hi 1970-71 99.53% .47% 0.00% .47% 1971-72 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 99.74% .26% 0.00% .26% 1973-74 98.41% 1.06% 0.00% 1.06% 1974-75 97.84% 1.62% .54% 2.16% 1975-76 97.35% 2.12% .53% 2.65% 1976-77 96.88% 1.98% 1.13% 3.12% 1977-78 95.58% 1.89% 1.89% 3.79% 1978-79 81.89% 15.68% 2.43% 18.11% 1979-80 78.30% 19.35% 1.47% 20.82% 1980-81 76.31% 18.77% 3.38% 22.15% 1981-82 93.67% 301% 1.81% 4.82% 1982-83 94.63% 3.02% 1.34% 4.36% 1983-84 97.12% 1.31% .52% 1.83% 1984-85 96.60% 2.83% 0.00% 2.83% 1985-86 96.45% 2.73% 0.00% 2.73% 1986-87 97.38% 2.62% 0.00% 2.62% 1987-88 96.39% 2.58% .26% 2.84% 1988-89 95.73% 2.01% .75% 2.76% 1989-90 95.94% 1.35% 1.35% 2.71% 1990-91 94.86% 1.71% 2.14% 3.85% 1991-92 92.68% 3.10% 1.97% 5.07%

  GARRISON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Garrison Elementary School, located in central Rockford was on the west side of the Rock River and was built in 1887. Additions were added to Garrison in 1916, 1928, and 1969. Garrison's CDB capacity was 442.

  By the late 1950's, the number of African-American persons residing in the Garrison school attendance area increased, as well as in the areas of Franklin School (to the south) and Summerdale School (to the north). In 1959, the RSD built Haskell School in this part of town and drew attendance boundary lines which resulted in Haskell opening as a racially identifiable African-American school with a 23% African-American population (in 1960, when the total RSD elementary enrollment was 8% African-American) and which kept Garrison predominantly white with 3% African-American and Haskell with 23% African-Americans. In 1960, Garrison was 3% African-American. In 1966, Haskell boundaries were expanded which resulted in Garrison School's African-American population decreasing to 1%.

  Then, in 1970, the Garrison School attendance area was expanded to include four blocks which were formerly part of the Haskell District. This resulted in Garrison's African-American population to increase to 11%. The African-American population increased steadily by small increments until 1982 when the African-American population at Garrison reached 29%.

  After the 1982-83 school year, the old wing of Garrison was closed and Garrison lost approximately 160 students. These students were reassigned to Walker and Haskell. As a result, Walker's African-American population dropped from 13% to 7% and Haskell's African-American population rose from 57% to 63%, and Garrison's African-American population dropped from 27% to 18%. From 1982-83 to 1983-84 the percentage of Hispanic-American students increased to 14%, the highest percentage ever. This occurred even though the number of Hispanic-American students enrolled dropped from 23 to 17, because the enrollment of white students dropped from 166 to 78 and the total school enrollment dropped from 284 to 121. Garrison School was finally closed after the 1988-89 school year.

  Garrison Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Garrison Garrison Elementary Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Air-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 392 2 47 1 5 447 1971-72 346 2 47 1 8 404 1972-73 318 55 15 388 1973-74 277 2 51 1 15 346 1974-75 245 60 13 318 1975-76 238 64 8 310 1976-77 238 64 8 310 1977-78 176 7 64 0 8 255 1978-79 215 1 68 8 9 301 1979-80 201 2 66 1 14 284 1980-81 217 2 82 8 16 325 1981-82 162 1 73 8 11 255 1982-83 166 3 78 14 23 284 1983-84 78 1 22 3 17 121 1984-85 81 2 33 4 13 133 1985-86 92 0 26 3 13 134 1986-87 88 0 34 5 12 139 1987-88 90 0 27 4 17 138 1988-89 105 0 36 0 11 152 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % Him-Am % Afr 1970-71 87.70% 10.51% 1.12% 11.63% 1971-72 85.65% 11.63% 1.98% 13.61% 1972-73 81.96% 14.18% 3.87% 18.04% 1973-74 80.06% 14.74% 4.34% 19.08% 1974-75 77.04% 18.87% 4.09% 22.96% 1975-76 76.77% 20.65% 2.58% 23.23% 1976-77 76.77% 20.65% 2.58% 23.23% 1977-78 69.02% 25.10% 3.14% 28.24% 1975-79 71.43% 22.59% 2.99% 25.58% 1979-80 70.77% 23.24% 4.93% 28.17% 1980-81 66.77% 25.23% 4.92% 30.15% 1981-82 63.53% 28.63% 4.31% 32.94% 1982-83 58.45% 27.46% 8.10% 35.56% 1983-84 64.46% 18.18% 14.05% 32.23% 1984-85 60.90% 24.81% 9.77% 34.59% 1985-86 68.66% 19.40% 9.70% 29.10% 1986-87 63.31% 24.46% 8.63% 33.09% 1987-88 65.22% 19.57% 12.32% 31.88% 1988-89 69.08% 23.68% 7.24% 30.92% 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  GREGORY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Gregory Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant of Rockford was built in 1958, with an addition added in 1969. Gregory's CDB capacity was 388 students. In 1960 and 1967, Gregory was 100% white. In 1979-80, the bi-lingual program was added at Gregory but was removed by 1981-82. In 1979-80, Gregory had 61 Hispanic students and was 78% white. Throughout the 1970's and 1980's, the African-American population grew by small increments to reach a African-American student population high of 9% in 1984-85. After the filing of this case, the African-American population began to rise, and was at 15% in 1991-92.

  Gregory Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Gregory Gregory Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 400 0 2 0 0 402 1971-72 388 0 4 0 0 392 1972-73 371 5 0 376 1973-74 394 0 4 2 5 405 1974-75 396 6 6 408 1975-76 390 8 8 406 1976-77 382 7 9 398 1977-78 363 0 18 4 16 401 1978-79 330 0 20 5 33 388 1979-80 324 0 24 9 61 418 1980-81 311 2 14 11 51 389 1981-82 287 2 15 16 25 345 1982-83 275 3 14 13 7 312 1983-84 324 4 31 36 7 402 1984-85 307 4 32 30 3 376 1985-86 283 3 26 31 2 345 1986-87 280 3 14 8 9 314 1987-88 308 2 15 14 5 344 1988-89 298 2 19 12 5 336 1989-90 316 2 30 15 8 371 1990-91 283 1 49 16 3 352 1991-92 258 0 48 13 8 327 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr-Hi 1970-71 99.50% .50% 0.00% .50% 1971-72 98.98% 1.02% 0.00% 1.02% 1972-73 98.67% 1.33% 0.00% 1.33% 1973-74 97.28% .99% 1.23% 2.22% 1974-75 97.06% 1.47% 1.47% 2.94% 1975-76 96.06% 1.97% 1.97% 3.94% 1976-77 95.98% 1.76% 2.26% 4.02% 1977-78 90.52% 4.49% 3.99% 8.48% 1978-79 85.05% 5.15% 8.51% 13.66% 1979-80 77.51% 5.74% 14.59% 20.33% 1980-81 79.95% 3.60% 13.11% 16.71% 1981-82 83.19% 4.35% 7.25% 11.59% 1982-83 88.14% 4.49% 2.24% 6.73% 1983-84 80.60% 7.71% 1.74% 9.45% 1984-85 81.65% 8.51% .80% 9.31% 1985-86 82.03% 7.54% .58% 8.12%% 1986-87 89.17% 4.46% 2.87% 7.32% 1987-88 89.53% 4.36% 1.45% 5.81% 1988-89 88.69% 5.65% 1.49% 7.14% 1989-90 85.18% 8.09% 2.16% 10.24% 1990-91 80.40% 13.92% .85% 14.77% 1991-92 78.90% 14.68% 2.45% 17.13%

  GUILFORD CENTER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Guilford Center Elementary School, located in the northeast quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1954. Additions were added in 1956, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1965, and 1967. Guilford's CDB capacity was 478. Guilford Center, in 1960, 1967 and 1970-71 was an all-white school.

  The RBE made it one of four northeast quadrant schools to receive Muldoon closing students bused from the west side. In that school year, Guilford Center had a 14% African-American student population. That population increased to 21% the following year when an increased number of Muldoon students were assigned to Guilford. As a result of this increased African-American student population at Guilford Center, the RBE reassigned some of the minority students attending Guilford to Brookview and Fairview schools. As a result of this, Guilford's African-American student population dropped to 18% in the 1975-76 school year. The African-American student population remained at the 18-21% range until Guilford was closed after the 1982-83 school year.

  Guilford Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Guilford Center Guilford Center Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 570 0 4 0 0 574 1971-72 349 0 8 2 3 362 1972-73 364 14 3 381 1973-74 380 2 64 0 4 450 1974-75 383 103 10 496 1975-76 363 80 5 448 1976-77 348 79 4 431 1977-78 282 1 76 9 -8 376 1978-79 318 0 90 14 5 427 1979-80 303 0 74 8 3 388 1980-81 275 1 72 17 4 369 1981-82 228 2 68 27 7 332 1982-83 201 3 57 25 4 290 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year %Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr-Hi 1970-71 99.30% .70% 0.00% .70% 1971-72 96.41% 2.21% .83% 3.04% 1972-73 95.54% 3.67% .79% 4.46% 1973-74 84.44% 14.22% .89% 15.11% 1974-75 77.22% 20.77% 2.02% 22.78% 1975-76 81.03% 17.86% 1.12% 18.97% 1976-77 80.74% 18.33% .93% 19.26% 1977-78 75.00% 20.21% 2.13% 22.34% 1978-79 74.47% 21.08% 1.17% 22.25% 1979-80 78.09% 19.07% .77% 19.85% 1980-81 74.58% 19.51% 1.08% 20.60% 1981-82 68.67% 20.48% 2.11% 22.59% 1982-83 69.31% 19.66% 1.38% 21.03% 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  GUNSOLAS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Gunsolas School, located in the southeast quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1928, with additions added in 1961 and 1969. It had a CDB capacity of 200. Gunsolas was an all-white school in 1960 and 1967 and was a racially identifiable white school from 1970-71 until it was closed after the 1980-81 school year. The largest number of African-American students that attended Gunsolas in an given year was 2 (out of a 1980-81 student population of 218). When Gunsolas was closed in 1981, its students were transferred to nearby racially identifiable white or desegregated schools.

  Gunsolas Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Gunsolas Gunsolas Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-AmTotal 1970-71 180 0 0 0 0180 1971-72 131 0 0 0 0131 1972-73 157 0 0157 1973-74 188 0 0 0 0188 1974-75 209 0 0209 1975-76 223 0 0223 1976-77 251 0 0 251 1977-78 247 2 0 3 0252 1978-79 217 3 1 5 0226 1979-80 206 6 1 3 0216 1980-81 203 5 2 5 3218 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 100.00% 0.00% 0.00 0.00% 1971-72 100.0% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 100.0% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1973-74 100.0% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1974-75 100.0% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1975-76 100.0% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1976-77 100.0% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1977-78 98.02% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1978-79 96.02% .44% 0.00% .44% 1979-80 95.37% .46% 0.00% .46% 1980-81 93.12% .92% 1.38% 2.29% 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  HAIGHT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Haight Elementary School was located in the far north part of the northwest quadrant of Rockford. It was built in 1970 and had a CDB capacity of 534. When Haight was opened, and for the next two school years, Haight's student population was 98% white.

  In June of 1973, the RBE approved the development of the Arts Alternative School at Haight and in the 1973-74 school year, Haight's school year, Haight's African-American population rose to 5%. The program was expanded to accommodate 150 students and by 1974-75 the African-American student population at Haight was up to 15%.

  When Whig Hill was closed after the 1980-81 school year, its students from the southwest quadrant satellite attendance zone were assigned and bused 4 - 5 miles to Haight School. Henrietta School (southwest quadrant, 69% African-American) closed after the 1980-81 school year and some of its students were reassigned to Haight. As a result of these two closings and African-American southwest quadrant student reassignments, Haight School went from being a desegregated school in 1980-81 (16% African-American) to a racially identifiable African-American school in 1981-82 (42% African-American). Haight School was closed after 1989 when it was still racially identifiable with a African-American student population of 46%.

  Haight Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Haight Haight Elementary School- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-M Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 1971-72 323 0 2 1 5 331 1972-73 348 3 5 356 1973-74 296 0 15 1 6 318 1974-75 293 52 2 347 1975-76 283 46 4 333 1976-77 279 58 0 337 1977-78 252 0 54 2 0 308 1978-79 286 0 80 2 1 369 1979-80 282 0 81 1 2 366 1980-81 262 0 49 0 0 311 1981-82 313 0 230 2 2 547 1982-83 251 0 208 2 1 462 1983-84 242 1 214 2 5 464 1984-85 202 0 201 5 3 411 1985-86 175 1 175 4 7 362 1986-87 249 0 167 6 2 424 1987-88 231 1 170 1 2 405 1988-89 212 1 188 5 5 411 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr-Hi 1970-71 1971-72 97.58% .60% 1.51% 2.11% 1972-73 97.75% .84% 1.40% 2.25% 1973-74 93.08% 4.72% 1.89% 6.60% 1974-75 84.44% 14.99% .58% 15.56% 1975-76 84.98% 13.81% 1.20% 15.02% 1976-77 82.79% 17.21% 0.00% 17.21% 1977-78 81.82% 17.53% 0.00% 17.53% 1978-79 77.51% 21.68% .27% 21.95% 1979-80 77.05% 22.13% .55% 22.68% 1980-81 84.24% 15.76% 0.00% 15.76% 1981-82 57.22% 42.05% .37% 42.41 1982-83 54.33% 45.02% .37% 42.41% 1983-84 52.16% 46.12% 1.08% 47.20% 1984-85 49.15% 48.91% .73% 49.64% 1985-86 48.34% 48.34% 1.93% 50.28% 1986-87 58.73% 39.39% .47% 39.86% 1987-88 57.04% 41.98% .49% 42.47% 1988-89 51.58% 45.74% 1.22% 46.96% 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  HALL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  The Hall Elementary School attendance area was located in downtown Rockford, on the east side of the Rock River. In the 1960's, Hall was desegregated. In 1960, the African-American studen population at Hall was 10% and by 1967 it was 22%. Hall School was closed in 1970. Immediately to the east of Hall was Jackson School, which was under capacity with 459 students, and was 98% white in 1967. To the south of Hall was Kishwaukee School. Kishwaukee was an overcrowded school with 11% African-American students in 1967. In 1970, when Hall was closed, RSD Attendance Director Betty Thro recommended putting all of its K-5 students in Jackson School and its 6th graders in Nelson (a 0-1% African-American school, to the south of Jackson). Instead, all of the Hall School area except for the 16 blocks on the south end, which were nearest the Kishwaukee District and the predominately African-American Jane Adams Village Housing Development in the Kishwaukee District, was incorporated into the Jackson District. The African-Americans in the old Hall School attendance area lived on the south end, in the area of Jane Adams Village. That is the portion that was placed into the Kishwaukee District. As a result of only receiving the white portion of the Hall District, Jackson, in 1970-71 remained 98% white.

  HALLSTROM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Hallstrom School, built in 1924, was located in the southeast quadrant of Rockford. In 1960, Hallstrom was 4% African-American, in 1967 it was 6% African-American, and by 1970-71 the school was down to 3% African-American. Throughout the 1970's and the 1980's, Hallstrom was racially identifiable white with the exception of 1975-76 through 1979-80. In 1980-81 the RBE terminated busing for open enrollment and focus/alternative programs with the 1980-81 school year. In 1980-81, the number of African-American students at Hallstrom went from 31 students to 1 in 1980-81.

  Hallstrom Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Hallstrom Hallstrom Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 412 0 12 0 6 430 1971-72 379 0 12 1 9 401 1972-73 349 9 0 358 1973-74 316 0 5 1 6 328 1974-75 330 2 3 335 1975-76 307 37 6 350 1976-77 282 36 4 322 1977-78 268 2 54 1 4 329 1978-79 280 2 39 8 10 339 1979-80 281 1 31 8 9 330 1980-81 269 16 1 17 6 309 1981-82 278 0 11 8 9 306 1982-83 297 0 11 13 6 327 1983-84 273 0 11 6 3 293 1984-85 293 0 10 2 4 309 1985-86 321 0 7 0 1 329 1986-87 326 0 10 0 5 341 1987-88 301 0 5 4 2 312 1988-89 315 0 3 3 3 324 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr-Hi 1970-71 95.81% 2.79% 1.40% 4.19% 1971-72 94.51% 2.99% 2.24% 5.24% 1972-73 97.49% 2.51% 0.00% 2.51% 1973-74 96.34% 1.52% 1.83% 3.53% 1974-75 98.81% .60% .90% 1.49% 1975-76 87.71% 10.57% 1.71% 12.29% 1976-77 87.58% 11.18% 1.24% 12.42% 1977-78 81.46% 16.41% 1.22% 17.63% 1978-79 82.60% 11.50% 2.95% 14.45% 1979-80 85.15% 9.39% 2.73% 12.12% 1980-81 87.06% .32% 1.94% 2.27% 1981-82 90.85% 3.59% 2.94% 6.54% 1982-83 90.83% 3.36% 1.83% 5.20% 1983-84 93.17% 3.75% 1.02% 4.78% 1984-85 94.82% 3.24% 1.29% 4.53% 1985-86 97.57% 2.13% .30% 2.43% 1986-87 95.60% 2.93% 1.47% 4.40% 1987-88 96.47% 1.60% .64% 2.24% 1988-89 97.22% .93% .93% 1.85% 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  HASKELL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Haskell Elementary School, located in the southwest quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1959 and had additions added in 1961, 1962, and 1965. Its CDB capacity is 494 students. Haskell's boundaries were gerrymandered to contain African-Americans. When Haskell opened in 1960, it was a racially identifiable African-American school with 23% African-American students. By 1967 Haskell had an African-American student population of 37%. By 1971, Haskell's African-American student population was up to 62%. Until 1992, this African-American student population remained between 49 and 67%.

  In 1977-78, an Academics Plus focus center was started at Haskell at the same time the Academics Plus center was started at Bloom. In 1977-78, the African-American student population at Haskell was 49%, its lowest point between 1970 and 1991.

  In the 1980-81 school year, Haskell students who lived west of Kilburn Avenue were mandatorily reassigned to White Swan Elementary School in the far southeast quadrant of Rockford. After one year, those Haskell students were moved out of White Swan and reassigned to Brookview Elementary School.

  After the 1982-83 school year, a part of the Garrison Elementary School building was closed and its students were reassigned to Walker and Haskell Schools. As a result of this reassignment, Haskell's African-American student population jumped from 57% African-American to 63% African-American. At the same time, Walker's African-American student population decreased from 13% to 7%.

  Haskell Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Haskell Haskell Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 147 0 270 0 21 438 1971-72 144 4 307 0 25 480 1972-73 148 275 9 432 1973-74 156 0 284 1 9 450 1974-75 121 238 10 369 1975-76 149 212 10 371 1976-77 125 203 10 338 1977-78 149 2 156 0 14 321 1978-79 190 0 205 0 15 410 1979-80 166 0 221 0 14 401 1980-81 151 0 163 0 16 330 1982-82 129 4 169 0 26 328 1982-83 115 3 191 0 24 333 1983-84 111 3 228 2 19 363 1984-85 82 3 215 0 20 320 1985-86 85 3 183 2 21 294 1986-87 113 0 196 2 18 329 1987-88 113 0 187 6 20 326 1988-89 92 2 177 3 16 290 1989-90 86 0 184 2 17 289 1990-91 106 4 189 3 15 317 1991-92 85 0 206 2 19 312 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr-Am 1970-71 33.56% 61.64% 4.79% 66.44% 1971-72 30.00% 63.96% 5.21% 69.17% 1972-73 34.26% 63.66% 2.08% 65.74% 1973-74 64.67% 63.11% 2.00% 65.11% 1974-75 32.79% 64.50% 2.71% 67.21% 1975-76 40.16% 57.14% 2.70% 59.84% 1976-77 36.98% 60.06% 2.96% 63.02% 1977-78 46.42% 48.60% 4.36% 52.96% 1978-79 46.34% 50.00% 3.66% 53.66% 1979-80 41.40% 55.11% 3.49% 58.60% 1980-81 45.76% 49.39% 4.85% 54.24% 1981-82 39.33% 51.52% 7.93% 59.45% 1982-83 34.53% 57.36% 7.21% 64.56% 1983-84 30.58% 62.81% 5.23% 68004% 1984-85 25.62% 67.19% 6.25% 73.44% 1985-86 29.91% 62.24% 7.14% 69.39% 1986-87 34.35% 59.57% 5.47% 65.05% 1987-88 34.66% 57.36% 6.13% 63.50% 1988-89 31.72% 61.03% 5.52% 66.55% 1989-90 29.76% 63.67% 5.88% 69.55% 1990-91 33.44% 59.62% 4.73% 64.35% 1991-92 27.24% 66.03% 6.09% 72.12%

  HENRIETTA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Henrietta School, located in the southwest quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1950. It has a CDB capacity of 178. In 1960, Henrietta had a African-American student population of 1% and by 1967 that population had risen to 66%. The African-American student population at Henrietta rose to a high of 75% in 1974-75 and dropped to a low of 63% in 1980-81.

  In 1960, because of overcrowding, Henrietta began to house kindergarten through grade 3 only, with grades 4-6 going to Wilson.

  In 1976, the RBE decided to start a Reading focus center at Henrietta. Starting in 1976-77, the African-American population at Henrietta went from 71% to 63%.

  Henrietta was closed after the 1980-81 school year and its students were sent to nearby Dennis School (30% African-American) and bused several miles to Haight, in the far northwest quadrant, and its African-American student population rose to 42% African-American from 16% African-American.

  In the late 1970's and 1980's the RSD attempted to integrate racially identifiable white schools by creating satellite attendance zones from which African-American students were mandatorily bused to white schools. The white schools then became the so-called "neighborhood school" assigned to the African-American satellite attendance zone. Students in the satellite attendance zone were required to travel distances of 4 to 7 miles to get to their "neighborhood school." For example, in 1977-78, part of the northwest quadrant Whig Hill Elementary Schools' attendance zone was located over 4.5 miles away in the southwest quadrant in what had previously been part of the Dennis School area. As a result of these southwest quadrant students becoming part of Whig Hills' attendance zone, Whig Hill's minority percentage went from 6% in 1976-77 to 49% in 1977-78, thus creating another racially identifiable African-American school. Then, when Whig Hill was closed in 1980-81, students from the Whig Hill satellite attendance zone were then sent even further north to Haight Elementary School and to Conkin Elementary School. This action caused Haight to change from a desegregated school in 1980-81 (16% African-American) to a racially identifiable African-American school in 1981-82 (42% African-American) and for Conklin School to go from 15% African-American to 27% African-American in 1981-82. Additionally, the Whig Hill/Haight/Conklin southwest quadrant satellite attendance zone also became a satellite attendance zone for J.F. Kennedy Middle School. After Henrietta was closed, students from its former attendance area were part of the Dennis students being mandatorily transferred to the northwest quadrant.

  Henrietta Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Henrietta Henrietta Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 68 0 153 0 8 229 1971-72 48 0 144 0 3 195 1972-73 42 132 4 178 1973-74 42 0 117 0 4 163 1974-75 40 131 3 174 1975-76 52 133 3 188 1976-77 53 125 1 179 1977-78 49 0 118 0 2 169 1978-79 60 0 125 0 1 186 1979-80 59 0 135 0 5 199 1980-81 60 0 107 0 4 171 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 29.69% 66.81% 3.49% 70.31% 1971-72 24.62% 73.85% 1.54% 75.38% 1972-73 23.60% 74.16% 2.25% 76.40% 1973-74 25.77% 71.78% 2.45% 74.23% 1974-75 22.99% 75.29% 1.72% 77.01% 1975-76 27.66% 70.74% 1.60% 72.34% 1976-77 29.61% 69.83% .56% 70.39% 1977-78 28.99% 69.82% 1.18% 71.01% 1978-79 32.26% 67.20% .54% 67.74% 1979-80 29.65% 67.84% 2.51% 70.35% 1980-81 35.09% 62.57% 2.34% 64.91% 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  HIGHLAND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Highland Elementary School, located in the northeast quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1894, with additions added in 1917, 1955, and 1959. In 1960 and 1967, Highland was 100% white. Highland was a racially identifiable white school from 1970-71 until 1977-78 when it became desegregated. From 1970-71 until 1975-76 when Highland received its first African-American students, Highland was severely overcrowded.

  In 1980-81, Highland School was 16% African-American. Highland School, though, was located in an area in the northeast quadrant of Rockford that was all-white. When Highland School closed, the Highland neighborhood was divided into five areas. The Highland "neighborhood students" were sent to Bloom, Johnson, Jackson, Nelson and Fairview. Additionally, the Highland PTO funds were thus distributed to these five schools. Nearby Bloom school went from 15% African-American to 14% African-American. Nearby Johnson School went from 9.50% African-American to 10% African-American. Jackson School went from 23% African-American to 19% African-American. Nelson School went from 10% African-American to 5% African-American. Fairview School's African-American population went from 18% to 20%.

  The division of the Highland attendance zone did not take into account the African-American students who had been bused into Highland from other neighborhoods. In the last year that it was open, Highland had 55 African-American students. RSD attendance department data reveals that the African-American students who had been bused to Highland from the west side, were then bused to Conklin School which went from 15% African-American to 27% African-American. There was no provision to distribute any of the Highland PTO funds to Conklin School where Highland's African-American student population transferred to.

  Highland Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Highland Highland Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 553 0 2 4 0 559 1971-72 532 02 5 0 539 1972-73 459 0 0 459 1973-74 428 0 0 5 0 433 1974-75 390 0 0 390 1975-76 349 14 3 366 1976-77 351 34 4 389 1977-78 305 3 43 6 10 367 1978-79 310 7 37 4 -11 369 1979-80 315 4 34 5 10 368 1980-81 286 0 55 9 3 353 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am %Afr 1970-71 98.93% .36% 0.00% .36% 1971-72 98.70% .37% 0.00% .37% 1972-73 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1973-74 98.85% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1974-75 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1975-76 95.36% 3.83% .82% 4.64% 1976-77 90.23% 8.47% 1.03% 9.77% 1977-78 83.11% 11.72% 2.72% 14.44% 1978-79 84.01% 10.03% 2.98% 13.01% 1979-80 85.60% 9.24% 2.72% 11.96% 1980-81 81.02% 15.58% .85% 16.43 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  HILLMAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Hillman School, located in the southeast quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1966 with additions added in 1969 and 1976. In 1967 Hillman was 100% white. Hillman was a racially identifiable white school throughout the 1970's. In 1974-75, Hillman had 26 African-American students, raising its African-American student population to 5%. This group of African-American students apparently transferred into Hillman under the open enrollment program. In 1980-81, Hillman became integrated with the mandatory reassignment and busing of 4th, 5th, and 6th grade African-American students from Barbour to Hillman. Barbour was located approximately 4.5 miles from Hillman. Minority students from Barbour were still being mandatorily bused to Hillman in 1985-86. Hillman's African-American student population reached a high of 28% African-American students from 1984-85 to 1986-87. In 1989, Barbour students mandatorily assigned to Hillman were returned to Barbour. The African-American student population dropped to 7% in 1989-90.

  Hillman Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Hillman Hillman Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 512 1 2 1 6 522 1971-72 443 0 0 2 6 451 1972-73 435 0 8 443 1973-74 446 0 2 0 6 454 1974-75 461 26 6 493 1975-76 479 45 6 530 1976-77 475 49 1 525 1977-78 449 7 31 0 7 494 1978-79 425 1 34 4 7 471 1979-80 422 3 33 5 10 473 1980-81 414 2 89 9 16 530 1981-82 344 5 95 27 6 477 1982-83 308 3 115 26 6 458 1983-84 323 5 112 24 10 474 1984-85 308 8 136 14 20 486 1985-86 263 2 114 18 14 411 1986-87 268 1 115 14 8 406 1987-88 264 0 88 15 14 381 1988-89 247 1 94 17 13 372 1989-90 387 2 33 17 13 452 1990-91 400 0 52 12 16 480 1991-92 387 6 70 14 15 492 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 98.08% .38% 1.15% 1.53% 1971-72 98.23% 0.00% 1.33% 1.33% 1972-73 98.19% 0.00% 1.81% 1.81% 1973-74 98.24% .44% 1.32% 1.76% 1974-75 93.51% 5.27% 1.22% 6.49% 1975-76 90.38% 8.49% 1.13% 9.62% 1976-77 90.48% 9.33% .19% 9.52% 1977-78 90.89% 6.28% 1.42% 7.69% 1978-79 90.23% 7.22% 1.49% 8.70% 1979-80 89.22% 6.98% 2.11% 9.09% 1980-81 78.11% 16.79% 3.02% 19.81% 1981-82 72.12% 19.92% 1.26% 21.17% 1982-83 67.25% 25.11% 1.31% 26.42% 1983-84 68.14% 23.63% 2.11% 25.74% 1984-85 63.37% 27.98% 4.12% 32.10% 1985-86 63.99% 27.74% 3.41% 31.14% 1986-87 66.01% 28.33% 1.97% 30.30% 1987-88 69.29% 23.10% 3.67% 26.77% 1988-89 66.40% 25.27% 3.49% 28.76% 1989-90 85.62% 7.30% 2.88% 10.18% 1990-91 83.33% 10.83% 3.33% 14.17% 1991-92 78.66% 14.23% 3.05% 17.28%

  JACKSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Jackson, located near the downtown area of Rockford, east of the Rock River, was built in 1915, with additions added in 1950 and 1969, for a resulting CDB capacity of 554 students. In 1960 Jackson had no African-American students, and by 1967, Jackson had 2% African-American students. When nearby Hall School was closed in 1970 (Hall was 22% African-American in 1967), Jackson received white students, but no African-American students from Hall, even though Jackson had the capacity to take those students. In fact, Jackson operated under capacity throughout its existence. This happened because contrary to the recommendations of its own Director of Attendance, the RBE transferred the southernmost 16 blocks of the Hall District, where the African-American students resided, to the already overcrowded and 20% African-American (in 1968-69) Kishwaukee School. This had the effect of raising Kishwaukee to 25% African-American. The RBE sent the remaining (white) students to Jackson.

  Jackson's African-American student population began to increase in the 1977-78 school year when 31 African-American students were enrolled at Jackson, raising its African-American student population to 8%. Then, in 1979-80, Jackson's African-American population increased to 20% when the G.I.T. program was expanded to Jackson.

  When Highland School closed after the 1980-81 school year, Jackson received a large influx of white students, reducing the African-American student population to 14%. For the remainder of the 1980's, Jackson remained a desegregated school. In 1985-86 minority students from Ellis grades 4-5-6 were being mandatorily bused to Jackson.

  Jacksons Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Jackson Jackson Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 463 0 8 1 1 473 1971-72 432 0 0 1 2 435 1972-73 436 0 2 438 1973-74 440 0 6 0 5 451 1974-75 408 6 9 423 1975-76 394 9 9 412 1976-77 384 6 6 396 1977-78 318 0 31 6 11 366 1978-79 298 7 26 3 8 342 1979-80 273 4 72 2 16 367 1980-81 263 4 83 2 16 368 1981-82 388 3 69 13 14 487 1982-83 368 2 72 14 13 469 1983-84 352 2 110 11 9 484 1984-85 338 1 82 12 8 441 1985-85 297 0 66 12 11 386 1986-87 322 6 90 12 13 443 1987-88 311 2 77 3 7 400 1988-89 288 0 66 4 11 369 1989-90 303 0 94 2 13 412 1990-91 282 1 95 3 8 389 1991-92 293 0 87 0 21 401 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 97.89% 1.69% .21% 1.90% 1971-72 99.31% 0.00% .46% .46% 1972-73 99.54% 0.00% .46% .46% 1973-74 97.56% 1.33% 1.11% 2.44% 1974-75 96.45% 1.42% 2.13% 3.55% 1975-76 95.63% 2.18% 2.18% 4.37% 1976-77 96.97% 1.52% 1.52% 3.03% 1977-78 86.89% 8.47% 3.01% 11.48% 1978-79 87.13% 7.60% 2.34% 9.94% 1979-80 74.39% 19.62% 4.36% 23.98% 1980-81 71.47% 22.55% 4.35% 26.90% 1981-82 79.67% 14.17% 2.87% 17.04% 1982-83 78.46% 15.35% 2.77% 18.12% 1983-84 72.73% 22.73% 1.86% 24.59% 1984-85 76.64% 18.59% 1.81% 20.41% 1985-85 76.94% 17.10% 2.85% 19.95% 1986-87 72.69% 20.32% 2.93% 23.25% 1987-88 77.75% 19.25% 1.75% 21.00% 1988-89 78.05% 17.89% 2.98% 20.87% 1989-90 73.54% 22.82% 3.16% 25.97% 1990-91 72.49% 24.42% 2.06% 26.48% 1991-92 73.07% 21.70% 5.24% 26.93%

  JOHNSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Johnson, located in the northeast quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1958 and had a CDB capacity of 573 students. In 1960 and 1967, Johnson was 100% white. From 1971 through 1989, Johnson operated well under capacity. Johnson was an all-white school from 1970-71 until 1973-74 when 26 African-American students from the Muldoon closing were mandatorily assigned and bused to Johnson. Because of the presence of African-American students from the Muldoon area, Johnson's African-American student population continued to be between 9% and 16% until the 1982-83 school year. In 1983-84, Johnson received 121 white students as the result of the closing of Fairview school. In 1983-84, Johnson had a African-American student population of 6%. Johnson was a racially identifiable white school from 1983-84 through 1991.

  Johnson Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Johnson Johnson Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 607 0 0 0 0 607 1971-72 508 0 0 0 0 508 1972-73 447 0 0 447 1973-74 446 0 26 0 8 480 1974-75 427 44 0 471 1975-76 402 55 2 459 1976-77 355 49 0 404 1977-78 359 1 62 0 0 422 1978-79 350 0 51 0 0 401 1979-80 316 0 61 0 1 378 1980-81 322 0 34 1 1 358 1981-82 342 0 38 5 3 388 1982-83 315 0 50 6 6 377 1983-84 436 1 31 4 12 484 1984-85 485 0 16 11 6 518 1985-85 481 0 7 6 3 497 1986-87 463 0 11 11 5 490 1987-88 465 0 13 12 8 498 1988-89 460 0 9 9 6 484 1989-90 458 0 28 20 22 528 1990-91 500 0 51 20 18 589 1991-92 341 1 78 7 7 434 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1973-74 92.92% 5.42% 1.67% 7.08% 1974-75 90.66% 9.34% 0.00% 9.34% 1975-76 87.58% 11.98% .44% 12.42% 1976-77 87.87% 12.13% 0.00% 12.13% 1977-78 85.07% 14.69% 0.00% 14.69% 1978-79 87.28% 12.72% 0.00% 12.72% 1979-80 83.60% 16.14% .26% 16.40% 1980-81 89.94% 9.50% .28% 9.78% 1981-82 88.14% 9.79% .77% 10.57% 1982-83 83.55% 13.26% 1.59% 14.85% 1983-84 90.08% 6.40% 2.48% 8.88% 1984-85 93.63% 3.09% 1.16% 4.25% 1985-85 96.78% 1.41% .60% 2.01% 1986-87 94.49% 2.24% 1.02% 3.27% 1987-88 93.37% 2.61% 1.61% 4.22% 1988-89 95.04% 1.86% 1.24% 3.10% 1989-90 86.74% 5.30% 4.17% 9.47% 1990-91 84.89% 8.66% 3/06% 11.71% 1991-92 78.57% 17.97% 1.61% 19.59%

  KING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  King Elementary School, in the southwest quadrant was built in 1972 on the site of the old Montague Elementary School, which was closed as a fire hazard in 1971. When Montague closed, it was a 69% African-American school. By building King on the same spot as Montague and reinstating the prior attendance boundaries, the RBE opened King with a 84% African-American student population in 1972-73. Its African-American population rose to 93% in 1974-75. It has a CDB capacity of 468.

  High school students in the King attendance district were, in 1970-71 mandatorily reassigned to East High School in an effort to integrate East High. The first significant drop in King's African-American student population occurred in 1977-78 with the addition of the gifted program at King. At the same time, the bilingual program, which had been housed at King since 1973-74 was moved to Whitehead. In the 1977-78 school year, King's African-American student percentage was 66% and in 1978-79 it was 47%. In 1978-79, 6th grade students who lived in the King attendance zone were reassigned to Washington Middle School. King's African-American student percentage was 45% in 1979-80. A Gifted Program was started at King in 1977-78. In 1976-77, the minority student population was 91%. In 1977-78, it was 66%. The African-American student population at King to continued to drop to the 30-37% range throughout the next 15 years. The Hispanic-American population was 12% in 1981-82. From 1983-84 to 1987-88 its Hispanic-American population was 23%-26%. King was a segregated African-American plus Hispanic-American school from 1982-83 to 1987-88. Kishwaukee was a desegregated school during the 1988-89 school year.

  King Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: King King Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 35 231 9 275 1973-74 36 0 279 0 47 362 1974-75 23 250 64 337 1975-76 40 240 69 349 1976-77 27 232 41 300 1977-78 120 1 222 0 11 354 1978-79 219 0 218 1 21 459 1979-80 229 0 207 0 22 458 1980-81 240 0 170 2 38 450 1981-82 205 1 150 1 48 405 1982-83 180 0 136 0 73 389 1983-84 172 0 106 1 60 339 1984-85 180 1 113 11 90 395 1985-85 181 2 117 11 93 404 1986-87 159 0 99 4 93 355 1987-88 190 1 85 5 88 369 1988-89 201 1 96 11 47 356 1989-90 213 0 130 4 61 408 1990-91 190 1 131 5 45 372 1991-92 178 5 135 8 38 364 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 12.73% 84.00% 3.27% 87.27% 1973-74 9.94% 77.07% 12.98% 90.06% 1974-75 6.82% 74.18% 18.99% 93.18% 1975-76 11.46% 68.77% 19.77% 88.54% 1976-77 9.00% 77.33% 13.67% 91.00% 1977-78 33.90% 62.71% 3.11% 65.82% 1978-79 47.71% 47.49% 4.58% 52.07% 1979-80 50.00% 45.20% 4.80% 50.00% 1980-81 53.33% 37.78% 8.44% 46.22% 1981-82 50.62% 37.04% 11.85% 48.89% 1982-83 46.27% 34.96% 18.77% 53.73% 1983-84 50.74% 31.27% 17.70% 48.97% 1984-85 45.57% 28.61% 22.78% 51.39% 1985-85 44.80% 28.96% 23.02% 51.98% 1986-87 44.79% 27.89% 26.20% 54.08% 1987-88 51.49% 23.04% 23.85% 46.88% 1988-89 56.46% 26.97% 13.20% 40.17% 1989-90 52.21% 31.86% 14.95% 46.81% 1990-91 51.08% 35.22% 12.10% 47.31% 1991-92 48.90% 37.09% 10.44% 47.53%

  KISHWAUKEE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Kishwaukee School, located in the southeast quadrant of Rockford, along the Rock River, was built in 1921 and has a CDB capacity of 483 students. In 1960, Kishwaukee had 6% African-American students. In 1967 it had 11% African-American students. In 1970-71, that African-American population had grown to 25%. Kishwaukee remained desegregated from 1970 until the present.

  On July 9, 1962, the RBE received a letter from Samuel L. Dean, Jr., a African-American attorney in Rockford, who was chairman of the Future Outlook League. Mr. Dean stated that it had come to the attention of his organization that the RBE was contemplating moving the school boundaries in the southeast section of the city to the east, from the Rock River to Kishwaukee Street. Mr. Dean went on to state: "This will mean a concentration of negro students in the Washington Junior High School and West High School and then almost complete elimination of them from Jefferson Junior High School and East High School. We feel that in view of the fact that these schools have been fairly evenly integrated in the past, such a move would be very undesirable for the colored population of Rockford. The pattern of segregated schools is one that is highly frowned upon by the negro citizens in any of the northern cities where this practice occurs. It leads to inferior teachers, overcrowding, and all of the many of the ills concurrent with segregated education. This matter has been successfully attacked in the federal court by the citizens of New Rochelle, New York last year and has repeatedly been under attack in the City of Chicago during the current year."

  In 1963, the RBE enlarged the boundary for these two west side secondary schools by approving the boundary change objected to by Mr. Dean. The area in question is what later became the Beyer School attendance area and it contained the Blackhawk Ridge public housing development. At the time, it was contained in the Kishwaukee School attendance area, along the Rock River in the southeast quadrant.

  In 1960 Kishwaukee had a 6% African-American student population, which grew to 11% by 1967. Kishwaukee was one of only three elementary school districts on the east side of the river at this time which had African-American populations greater than 1% (the other two being Hall, 10% African-American; and Rock River, 32% African-American; both figures from 1960). All of the Kishwaukee area was previously part of the Jefferson Jr. High and East High attendance areas.

  Jefferson Jr. High went from 3% African-American in 1960 to 5% African-American in 1967. East High School increased from 1% African-American in 1960 to 2% African-American in 1967. African-American students were consistently moved from schools on the east side of the river to the schools on the west side of the river. Washington Jr. High was 22% African-American in 1960, and 50% African-American in 1967. West High increased from 5% African-American in 1960 to 12% African-American in 1967,

  In 1969, about 100 African-American students from the Jane Adams Village public housing development, located within the Kishwaukee attendance zone, were assigned to Carlson School in the far north part of the northeast quadrant. The students were only there one year before the RBE sent them back to Kishwaukee. In 1970-71, not only was Kishwaukee overcapacity, its African-American student population increased from 20% to 25% African-American. And, conversely, Carlson was operating under capacity and after the removal of the Jane Adams students, was 98% white.

  In 1970, when Hall School closed, all of the Hall School area, except for 16 blocks of the south end, was sent to Jackson. The 16 blocks of the south end had a high percentage of African-American students and were assigned to Kishwaukee School. As a result of this action, in 1970-71, Jackson School remained 98% white, and Kishwaukee had a 25% African-American population.

  When predominantly African-American Montague School was closed in 1971, students of Montague, grades K-4 were transported to Page Park School for 1971-72. Upon receipt of petition from Montague parents, students could be transferred from Page Park to Barbour, Kishwaukee, or Beyer without transportation being provided by the RSD. At this time, Kishwaukee was still seriously overcrowded and therefore, could not handle any additional students. Montague students were not given the option of attending Carlson school, a school that many of them wanted to attend. Carlson was an all-white school operating well under capacity.

  In 1976, the RBE decided to open an Instrumental Music Focus Center at Kishwaukee. The Focus Center was dropped one year later.

  Kishwaukee Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Kishwaukee Kishwaukee Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 525 0 176 0 11 712 1971-72 470 6 69 0 5 550 1972-73 393 62 3 458 1973-74 379 2 54 4 13 452 1974-75 358 62 4 424 1975-76 348 64 8 420 1976-77 324 67 17 408 1977-78 290 15 82 0 15 402 1978-79 337 0 68 0 16 421 1979-80 276 1 80 4 20 381 1980-81 304 0 82 39 26 451 1981-82 280 1 79 114 22 496 1982-83 264 4 65 85 22 440 1983-84 300 7 76 79 19 481 1984-85 292 0 79 70 24 465 1985-85 245 4 73 55 19 396 1986-87 243 0 99 70 21 433 1987-88 223 1 92 88 25 429 1988-89 235 1 78 81 15 410 1989-90 189 4 67 72 19 351 1990-91 246 0 94 68 16 424 1991-92 216 0 70 69 17 372 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 73.74% 24.72% 1.54% 26.26% 1971-72 85.45% 12.55% .91% 13.45% 1972-73 85.81% 13.54% .66% 14.19% 1973-74 83.85% 11.95% 2.88% 14.82% 1974-75 84.43% 14.62% .94% 15.57% 1975-76 82.86% 15.24% 1.90% 17.14% 1976-77 79.41% 16.42% 4.17% 20.59% 1977-78 72.14% 20.40% 3.73% 24.13% 1978-79 80.05% 16.15% 3.80% 19.95% 1979-80 72.44% 21.00% 5.25% 26.25% 1980-81 67.41% 18.18% 5.76% 23.95% 1981-82 56.45% 15.93% 4.44% 20.36% 1982-83 60.00% 14.77% 5.00% 19.77% 1983-84 62.37% 15.80% 3.95% 19.75% 1984-85 62.80% 16.99% 5.16% 22.15% 1985-85 61.87% 18.43% 4.80% 23.23% 1986-87 56.12% 22.86% 4.85% 27.71% 1987-88 51.98% 21.45% 5.83% 27.27% 1988-89 57.32% 19.02% 3.66% 22.68% 1989-90 53.85% 19.09% 5.41% 24.50% 1990-91 58.02% 22.17% 3.77% 25.94% 1991-92 58.06% 18.82% 4.57% 23.39%

  LATHAM PARK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Latham Park Elementary School, located in the far northwest quadrant, was annexed to the Rockford School District #205 in 1966. In 1960 and 1967 it was 100% white. The school was closed after 1970-71 when it was 98% white and operating under its CDB capacity of 183. Latham Park students in grades K - 5 were transferred to Haight School and sixth grade students were transferred to JFK Middle School. In 1971-72 Haight School (a new school) was 98% white and JFK Middle School (also new) was almost 100% white (only 1 minority student out of 738 total enrollment). Latham Park was reopened in 1973-74 as the Rockford Alternative Elementary School (RAES). From 1973-74 to 1980-81 Latham Park was an integrated school.

  Latham Park Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Latham Park Latham Park Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 122 0 0 0 3 125 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 99 0 32 0 0 131 1974-75 111 32 1 144 1975-76 126 35 2 163 1976-77 133 33 0 166 1977-78 127 0 30 1 0 158 1978-79 120 2 26 1 1 150 1979-80 126 3 28 1 1 159 1980-81 108 2 28 2 1 141 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-85 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 97.60% 0.00% 2.40% 2.40% 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 75.57% 24.43% 0.00% 24.43% 1974-75 77.08% 22.22% .69% 22.92% 1975-76 77.30% 21.47% 1.23% 22.70% 1976-77 80.12% 19.88% 0.00% 19.88% 1977-78 80.38% 18.99% 0.00% 18.99% 1978-79 80.00% 17.33% .67% 18.00% 1979-80 79.25% 17.61% .63% 18.24% 1980-81 76.60% 19.86% .71% 20.57% 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-85 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  LATHROP ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Lathrop Elementary School was built in 1958 in the southwest quadrant of Rockford. In 1960, its African-American student population was at 43% and by 1967, that population was up to 66%. By 1970, the African-American student population at Lathrop was up to 71% and it stayed in the low 70's through the 1976-77 school year. The CDB capacity of Lathrop is 573 students.

  Starting with the 1971-72 school year, high school students in the Lathrop attendance zone were mandatorily reassigned across the Rock River to East High School in an attempt to integrate East.

  In 1977, Riverside Elementary School (farther south in the southwest quadrant) closed and its adjacent attendance area and students were reassigned to Lathrop. When it closed, Riverside was almost completely white. In 1976-77, Lathrop was 73% African-American, but in 1977-78, Lathrop's African-American population dropped to 51%.

  In the 1983-84 school year, Evergreen Elementary School closed, and the African-American student population at Lathrop dropped to 38% from 47%. Lathrop's African-American student population continued to decrease throughout the 80's. Lathrop became desegregated in 1984-85. In 1991, the African-American population at Lathrop was 23%.

  Lathrop Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Lathrop Lathrop Elementa School Southwt Quadrt -- Enrlment Htory Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 123 0 330 0 10 463 1971-72 125 0 327 0 11 463 1972-73 88 214 3 305 1973-74 70 0 225 2 0 297 1974-75 69 183 0 252 1975-76 68 202 0 270 1976-77 69 189 0 258 1977-78 149 1 155 0 1 306 1978-79 188 1 178 0 1 368 1979-80 132 9 163 0 4 308 1980-81 142 0 138 0 1 281 1981-82 188 0 167 0 3 358 1982-83 165 0 149 1 5 320 1983-84 270 2 181 7 12 472 1984-85 319 2 166 5 18 510 1985-86 350 0 160 2 14 526 1986-87 275 0 122 4 13 414 1987-88 274 3 118 2 12 409 1988-89 302 0 131 4 19 456 1989-90 252 0 121 1 17 391 1990-91 269 0 99 0 8 376 1991-92 281 0 88 0 16 385 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 26.57% 71.27% 2.16% 73.43% 1971-72 27.00% 70.63% 2.38% 73.00% 1972-73 28.85% 70.16% .98% 71.15% 1973-74 23.57% 75.76% 0.00% 75.76% 1974-75 27.38% 72.62% 0.00% 72.62% 1975-76 25.19% 74.81% 0.00% 74.81% 1976-77 26.74% 73.26% 0.00% 73.26% 1977-78 48.69% 50.65% .33% 50.98% 1978-79 51.09% 48.37% .27% 48.64% 1979-80 42.86% 52.92% 1.30% 54.22% 1980-81 50.53% 49.11% .36% 49.47% 1981-82 52.51% 46.65% .84% 47.49% 1982-83 51.56% 46.56% 1.56% 48.13% 1983-84 57.20% 38.35% 2.54% 40.89% 1984-85 62.55% 32.55% 3.53% 36.08% 1985-86 66.54% 30.42% 2.66% 33.08% 1986-87 66.43% 29.47% 3.14% 32.61% 1987-88 66.99% 28.85% 2.93% 31.78% 1988-89 66.23% 28.73% 4.17% 32.89% 1989-90 64.45% 30.95% 4.35% 35.29% 1990-91 71.54% 26.33% 2.13% 28.46% 1991-92 72.99% 22.86% 4.16% 27.01%

  LINCOLN PARK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Lincoln Park Elementary School, located in the western part of the southwest quadrant in Rockford, was built in 1918, with additions added in 1921, 1936, and 1948. In 1967 it was a racially identifiable African-American school with an African-American student population of 40%. Originally Lincoln Park was in the Lincoln Park School District which was annexed to the RSD in September of 1965. It remained a segregated African-American school until it closed in 1977. The CDB capacity of Lincoln Park was 467 students.

  When Lincoln Park Elementary was closed, its students were reassigned to Dennis and Stiles. After Lincoln Park was closed to regular students, the Rockford Alternative Middle and Elementary Schools (RAMS and RAES), previously located at Freeman School were relocated to Lincoln Park School. Lincoln Park thus became a full site magnet school. When Lincoln Park was closed permanently in 1981, the Rockford Alternative Middle School (RAMS) moved to the Lincoln Middle School. The Rockford Alternative Elementary School (RAES) moved to Ellis.

  Lincoln Park Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Lincoln Park Lincoln Park Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 277 6 210 0 7 500 1971-72 269 6 232 0 3 510 1972-73 237 292 3 532 1973-74 186 2 240 0 3 431 1974-75 149 180 2 331 1975-76 159 187 1 347 1976-77 149 139 2 290 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 55.40% 42.00% 1.40% 43.40% 1971-72 52.75% 45.49% .59% 46.08% 1972-73 44.55% 54.89% .56% 55.45% 1973-74 43.16% 55.68% .70% 56.38% 1974-75 45.02% 54.38% .60% 54.98% 1975-76 45.82% 53.89% .29% 54.18% 1976-77 51.38% 47.93% .69% 48.62% 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  MARSH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Marsh Elementary School, located in the northeast quadrant, was all-white (100% white) in 1960 and 1967 and continued to be a racially identifiable white school (93% to 99% white) from 1970-71 until it was closed after 1977-78. Its students were transferred to nearby Bloom and Johnson Schools, which were desegregated schools from 1977-78 to 1978-79 as a result of the busing of west side African-American children to these schools. The attendance area of Marsh was still divided between Bloom and Johnson in 1978-78, 1981-82 and 1984-85. Bloom was a racially identifiable white school from 1982-83 to 1991-92 except for one year in 1983-84 when it was integrated. Johnson school was a racially identifiable white school from 1980-81 to 1989-90 except for one year in 1982-83.

  Marsh Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Marsh Marsh Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 590 0 0 3 1 594 1971-72 585 2 0 0 4 591 1972-73 614 1 3 618 1973-74 601 0 0 1 3 605 1974-75 654 18 2 674 1975-76 635 35 2 672 1976-77 586 41 6 633 1977-78 568 3 28 4 1 604 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 470 1 83 11 4 569 1992-93 463 1 88 15 4 571 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 99.33% 0.00% .17% .17% 1971-72 98.98% 0.00% .68% .68% 1972-73 99.35% .16% .49% .65% 1973-74 99.34% 0.00% .50% .50% 1974-75 97.03% 2.67% .30% 2.97% 1975-76 94.49% 5.21% .30% 5.51% 1976-77 92.58% 6.48% .95% 7.42% 1977-78 94.04% 4.64% .17% 4.80% 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 82.60% 14.59% .70% 15.29% 1992-93 81.09% 15.41% .70% 16.11%

  MCINTOSH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  McIntosh, located in the southwest quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1966 with an addition added in 1969. The CDB capacity of McIntosh is 529 students. One year after it opened, McIntosh had an African-American student population of 20%. In that same year, Church School, which had the attendance area immediately to the east, was all white. By 1970, the school had an African-American student population percentage of 35% and by 1974-75 it was up to 45%. McIntosh has been a racially identifiable African-American school since at least 1968-69.

  In January of 1971, the RBE reassigned the 6th graders at McIntosh to Wilson Jr. High.

  In 1977-78, McIntosh's African-American student population dropped to 35% from 45% the previous year. Then, in the 1981-82, McIntosh School received students from the closing of Henrietta Elementary. In this year, McIntosh's African-American enrollment went from 45% to 53%. After 1981, McIntosh's African-American student enrollment remained above 50%.

  McIntosh Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: McIntosh McIntosh Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 350 3 193 0 11 557 1971-72 309 4 179 0 10 502 1972-73 292 160 7 459 1973-74 274 2 202 2 9 489 1974-75 227 194 9 430 1975-76 283 213 18 514 1976-77 227 205 19 451 1977-78 293 2 166 1 13 475 1978-79 297 2 184 0 17 500 1979-80 307 3 208 1 11 530 1980-81 242 0 214 1 18 475 1981-82 226 1 281 0 18 526 1982-83 210 0 264 0 19 493 1983-84 192 2 263 0 16 473 1984-85 183 3 252 0 17 455 1985-86 166 3 249 0 17 435 1986-87 180 2 255 0 17 454 1987-88 171 0 277 2 16 466 1988-89 165 0 290 2 17 474 1989-90 156 0 255 2 16 429 1990-91 164 0 247 3 15 429 1991-92 186 0 245 1 10 442 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr Hi 1970-71 62.84% 34.65% 1.97% 36.62% 1971-72 61.55% 35.66% 1.99% 37.65% 1972-73 63.62% 34.86% 1.53% 36.38% 1973-74 56.03% 41.31% 1.84% 43.15% 1974-75 52.79% 45.12% 2.09% 47.21% 1975-76 55.06% 41.44% 3.50% 44.94% 1976-77 50.33% 45.45% 4.21% 49.67% 1977-78 61.68% 34.95% 2.74% 37.68% 1978-79 59.40% 36.80% 3.40% 40.20% 1979-80 57.92% 39.25% 2.08% 41.32% 1980-81 50.95% 45.05% 3.79% 48.84% 1981-82 42.97% 53.42% 3.42% 56.84% 1982-83 42.60% 53.55% 3.85% 57.40% 1983-84 40.59% 55.60% 3.38% 58.99% 1984-85 40.22% 55.38% 3.74% 59.12% 1985-86 38.16% 57.24% 3.91% 61.15% 1986-87 39.65% 56.17% 3.74% 59.91% 1987-88 36.70% 59.44% 3.43% 62.88% 1988-89 34.81% 61.18% 3.59% 64.77% 1989-90 36.36% 59.44% 3.73% 63.17% 1990-91 38.23% 57.58% 3.50% 61.07% 1991-92 42.08% 55.43% 2.26% 57.69%

  MONTAGUE SCHOOL

  Montague Elementary School was located in the southwest quadrant of Rockford. In 1960, Montague was a racially identifiable African-American school with a African-American student enrollment of 30%, and by 1967 that number was up to 70%. It was closed in 1970-71, when it had an African-American population of 69%.

  In 1961, sixth-grade Montague students were transferred to Washington Jr. High School because of overcrowding. Then, in 1971, the RBE considered sending the Montague fifth grade students to Washington as well. Instead, the RBE rented space at a catholic school near Washington. At this time, Montague did not meet State Fire Safety Code standards. In February of 1971, Montague parents requested that their children be allowed to enroll at Carlson School, a school that was 98% white and had additional capacity. The RBE refused to move the Montague children.

  After a parent boycott of Montague, the RBE agreed, in March of 1971, to bus Montague students to previously closed Page Park School for the remainder of the school year. The parents were also given the option of transporting their children themselves to Barbour, Beyer or Kishwaukee. For the 1971-72 school, Montague students went to Page Park, Beyer and Barbour. Beyer school went from 14% African-American to 33% African-American and Barbour went from 52% African-American to 64% African-American. Page Park, at the time, had no other students than the Montague students and in the 1971-72 school year was 85% African-American. Carlson School, where Montague parents wanted their children to go remained white and under capacity.

  In 1972, the newly built Martin Luther King School was opened on the site of the old Montague school, with the same attendance boundaries and opened with a African-American student enrollment of 84%.

  File: Montague Montague Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 49 0 152 0 20 221 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr Hi 1970-71 22.17% 68.78% 9.05% 77.83% 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  MUHL CENTER

  Muhl Center was operated by the RSD as a special education facility at all times in 1971-72 and 1973-81. It was not in operation in 1970-71 or 1972-73. It was located in the southeast quadrant on the same site as Rolling Green Elementary School.

  Muhl Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Muhl Center Muhl Center Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 1971-72 101 0 10 0 0 111 1972-73 1973-74 111 0 30 0 1 142 1974-75 101 28 0 129 1975-76 106 21 2 129 1976-77 87 17 1 105 1977-78 78 0 19 1 2 100 1978-79 78 0 15 2 2 97 1979-80 62 1 10 0 3 76 1980-81 39 1 11 2 1 54 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr Hi 1970-71 1971-72 90.99% 9.01% 0.00% 9.01% 1972-73 1973-74 78.17% 21.13% .70% 21.83% 1974-75 78.29% 21.71% 0.00% 21.71% 1975-76 82.17% 16.28% 1.55% 17.83% 1976-77 82.86% 16.19% .95% 17.14% 1977-78 78.00% 19.00% 2.00% 21.00% 1978-79 80.41% 15.46% 2.06% 17.53% 1979-80 81.58% 13.16% 3.95% 17.11% 1980-81 72.22% 20.37% 1.85% 22.22% 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  MULDOON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Muldoon School was purchased by the District in 1971, because the RBE had decided to transfer the Fairgrounds Valley Housing Development children from Walker back to Ellis, but Ellis was badly overcrowded. Muldoon was an old, previously closed Catholic girls' school, which had recently been purchased from the Archdiocese.

  In 1969, the RBE had mandatorily bussed African-American students from the Fairgrounds Valley Housing Development that lived in the Ellis attendance zone to Walker School in the northwest quadrant in an effort to aid integration and to reduce overcrowding at Ellis. On January 25, 1971, the RBE determined that at the end of that school year the children from Fairgrounds would be transferred from Walker to Ellis and Muldoon Schools. Muldoon was in the immediate vicinity of Ellis school. It was open as an RSD school for only one year before it was closed down and its students dispersed to several different schools throughout the RSD. During that year (1971-72), grades 1-3 were located at Ellis and grades 4-6 were located at Muldoon. In the prior year (1970 - 71), Ellis was overcrowded (109% of CDB capacity) and 65% African-American. For the 1971-72 year, with the temporary use of Muldoon School, the crowding was somewhat alleviated, but both Ellis and Muldoon were heavily African-American, 69% and 70%, respectively.

  When Muldoon closed, its students were given the "option" of transferring to Bloom, Guilford Center, Johnson, or Spring Creek -- all in the eastern part of Rockford; or to stay in the "closest" neighborhood school (i.e. the schools closest to Muldoon). But, the neighborhood schools had no available capacity, so Muldoon area students were assigned to northeastern quadrant schools.

  Muldoon School was never replaced and by 1980, students who lived in the Muldoon neighborhood were attending 19 different schools throughout the RSD.

  File: Muldoon Muldoon Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 1971-72 78 0 197 1 6 282 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr Hi 1970-71 1971-72 27.66% 69.86% 2.13% 71.99% 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  NASHOLD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Nashold Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant, was built in 1952 with additions added to the building in 1957 and 1958. It has a CDB capacity of 536, and operated over capacity 6 out of 7 years from 1970-71 to 1976-77. Nashold was 100% white in 1960 and 1967 and was a racially identifiable white school every year from 1970-71 to 1991-92 except from 1985-86 to 1987-88 when it was an integrated school. In 1974-75 Nashold 6th graders were sent to Whitehead School, and in 1976-77 the Nashold 6th graders were returned to Nashold. Whitehead was a racially identifiable white school from 1970-71 to 1976-77. In 1977-78 there was a boundary change between Nashold and Riverdahl, both racially identifiable white schools. In 1981-82 Nashold received some students from the Gunsolas School closing and from a boundary change with Froberg School. In 1980-81 Gunsolas was a racially identifiable white school with 93% white students. From 1980-81 to 1981-82 Froberg changed from an desegregated to a racially identifiable white school after it gained 63 white students and lost 51 African-American and 5 Hispanic students. After the 1980-81 school year, the RBE decided to end busing for open enrollment. The additional white students came from the closing of Gunsolas. In 1985-86 Nashold received minority students who were being mandatorily bused from Barbour. The percentage of African-American students that year increased to 11% from 10% the previous year, and Nashold became a desegregated school for three years.

  Then, in 1989-90, Nashold received the bilingual program and it became a segregated Hispanic school.

  Nashold Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Nashold Nashold Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 598 0 6 0 0 604 1971-72 663 0 12 0 1 676 1972-73 641 19 3 663 1973-74 659 0 18 1 11 689 1974-75 518 11 26 555 1975-76 465 9 12 486 1976-77 534 23 13 570 1977-78 436 19 27 4 16 502 1978-79 406 12 19 10 18 465 1979-80 373 5 22 10 18 428 1980-81 366 2 19 9 13 409 1981-82 421 1 19 7 12 460 1982-83 420 0 25 5 11 461 1983-84 404 2 42 5 9 462 1984-85 406 2 46 5 9 468 1985-86 339 1 44 9 9 402 1986-87 341 5 47 10 9 412 1987-88 321 4 46 15 12 398 1988-89 305 1 35 14 13 368 1989-90 268 1 21 10 211 511 1990-91 285 1 14 8 276 584 1991-92 250 1 15 6 181 453 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr Hi 1970-71 99.01% .99% 0.00% .99% 1971-72 98.08% 1.78% .15% 1.92% 1972-73 96.68% 2.87% .45% 3.32% 1973-74 95.65% 2.61% 1.60% 4.21% 1974-75 93.33% 1.98% 4.68% 6.67% 1975-76 95.68% 1.85% 2.47% 4.32% 1976-77 93.68% 4.04% 2.28% 6.32% 1977-78 86.85% 5.38% 3.19% 8.57% 1978-79 87.31% 4.09% 3.87% 7.96% 1979-80 87.15% 5.14% 4.21% 9.35% 1980-81 89.49% 4.65% 3.18% 7.82% 1981-82 91.52% 4.13% 2.61% 6.74% 1982-83 91.11% 5.42% 2.39% 7.81% 1983-84 87.45% 9.09% 1.95% 11.04% 1984-85 86.75% 9.83% 1.92% 11.75% 1985-86 84.33% 10.95% 2.24% 13.18% 1986-87 82.77% 11.41% 2.18% 13.59% 1987-88 80.65% 11.56% 3.02% 14.57% 1988-89 82.88% 9.51% 3.53% 13.04% 1989-90 52.45% 4.11% 41.29% 45.40% 1990-91 48.80% 2.40% 47.26% 49.66% 1991-92 55.19% 3.31% 39.96% 43.27%

  NELSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Nelson Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant, was built in 1907 with additions to the building added in 1950 and 1969. It has a CDB capacity of 559 and has operated under capacity from 1970-71 to 1991-92.

  In 1960 and 1967 Nelson was 100% white and from 1971-72 to 1975-76 Nelson was a racially identifiable white school. In 1974-75 Nelson became a language arts special interest center for all 4th grade students. All 4th grade students would attend Nelson for a 10-day period. In 1976, the RBE decided that Nelson be designated a Language Arts special focus center for grades 1-6.

  From 1976-77 to 1979-80 Nelson was an desegregated school as measured by the RBE i.e. the part-time desegregation students at the focus center were included in the student enrollment figures.

  From 1980-81 to 1983-84 Nelson was again a racially identifiable white school when the interest center and focus center programs ceased. In 1981-82 Nelson Tom Thumb and Little People's day care students were added at Nelson. From 1980-81 to 1981-82 the percentage of African-American students at Nelson dropped from 10% to 5% and the percentage of white students remained almost the same at 88% and 87%, while the percentage of Asian and Hispanic students increased slightly from 1% to 5% and 1% to 3% respectively. In 1984-85 it was a desegregated school for one year. From 1985-86 to 1991-92 it was a racially identifiable white school.

  Nelson Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Nelson Nelson Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 430 0 4 3 3 440 1971-72 392 0 3 2 1 398 1972-73 350 0 2 352 1973-74 333 0 2 3 0 338 1974-75 317 4 0 321 1975-76 302 6 3 311 1976-77 291 32 5 328 1977-78 202 0 24 1 2 229 1978-79 256 3 38 0 7 304 1979-80 229 0 31 1 8 269 1980-81 256 0 30 3 3 292 1981-82 309 0 19 17 12 357 1982-83 313 0 24 33 15 385 1983-84 337 0 45 24 21 427 1984-85 375 0 75 25 22 497 1985-86 309 1 12 15 17 354 1986-87 319 0 14 10 19 362 1987-88 282 0 14 13 14 323 1988-89 296 0 18 23 16 353 1989-90 436 0 25 25 19 505 1990-91 424 0 56 18 17 515 1991-92 433 0 69 12 23 537 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr Hi 1970-71 97.73% .91% .68% 1.59% 1971-72 98.49% .75% .25% 1.01% 1972-73 99.43% 0.00% .57% .57% 1973-74 98.52% .59% 0.00% .59% 1974-75 98.75% 1.25% 0.00% 1.25% 1975-76 97.11% 1.93% .96% 2.89% 1976-77 88.72% 9.76% 1.52% 11.28% 1977-78 88.21% 10.48% .87% 11.35% 1978-79 84.21% 12.50% 2.30% 14.80% 1979-80 85.13% 11.52% 2.97% 14.50% 1980-81 87.67% 10.27% 1.03% 11.30% 1981-82 86.55% 5.32% 3.36% 8.68% 1982-83 81.30% 6.23% 3.90% 10.13% 1983-84 78.92% 10.54% 4.92% 15.46% 1984-85 75.45% 15.09% 4.43% 19.52% 1985-86 87.29% 3.39% 4.80% 8.19% 1986-87 88.12% 3.87% 5.25% 9.12% 1987-88 87.31% 4.33% 4.33% 8.67% 1988-89 83.85% 5.10% 4.53% 9.63% 1989-90 86.34% 4.95% 3.76% 8.71% 1990-91 82.33% 10.87% 3.30% 14.17% 1991-92 80.63% 12.85% 4.28% 17.13%

  NEW MILFORD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  New Milford Elementary School, located in the far southeast quadrant, was built in 1936 and had additions to the building added in 1954 and 1962. Its CDB capacity is 420, and it has operated under capacity except from 1970-71 to 1973-74 and for one year in 1981-82.

  New Milford has always been a racially identifiable school. In 1960 and 1967 New Milford was 100% white. From 1970-71 to 1991-92 New Milford was a racially identifiably white school, except for four years from 1979-80 to 1982-83 when the bi-lingual program was transferred there. In 1979-80 grades K-3 of the bi-lingual program were transferred to New Milford. In 1980-81 grade 4 of the bi-lingual program was transferred to New Milford. In 1981-82 grade 5 of the bi-lingual program was transferred to New Milford. In 1982-83 grade 6 of the bi-lingual program was transferred to New Milford. During the four years that the bi-lingual program was located there, New Milford was segregated Hispanic with a Hispanic population of 24% to 31%.

  The bilingual program was removed from New Milford after 1982-83. In 1983-84 New Milford also received students from the closings of Evergreen and Skyview, which had 87% and 97% white students the previous school year. In 1983-84 New Milford once again became a racially identifiable white school with 99% white students. It has remained so to the present.

  New Milford Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: New Milford New Milford Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 560 0 0 0 3 563 1971-72 519 0 0 1 3 523 1972-73 526 0 6 532 1973-74 511 0 0 1 7 519 1974-75 384 0 4 388 1975-76 340 3 0 343 1976-77 355 8 0 363 1977-78 332 0 9 0 1 342 1978-79 276 0 0 0 0 276 1979-80 257 2 0 0 83 342 1980-81 258 2 0 0 106 366 1981-82 292 1 0 0 132 425 1982-83 268 0 0 0 100 368 1983-84 359 2 0 0 2 363 1984-85 331 2 1 1 2 337 1985-86 341 2 2 1 3 349 1986-87 327 3 2 5 6 343 1987-88 289 2 4 2 9 306 1988-89 299 1 2 2 9 313 1989-90 316 2 5 2 3 328 1990-91 364 3 17 4 10 398 1991-92 249 1 4 3 2 259 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 99.47% 0.00% .53% .53% 1971-72 99.24% 0.00% .57% .57% 1972-73 98.87% 0.00% 1.13% 1.13% 1973-74 98.46% 0.00% 1.35% 1.35% 1974-75 98.97% 0.00% 1.03% 1.03% 1975-76 99.13% .87% 0.00% .87% 1976-77 97.80% 2.20% 0.00% 2.20% 1977-78 97.08% 2.63% .29% 2.92% 1978-79 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1979-80 75.15% 0.00% 24.27% 24.27% 1980-81 70.49% 0.00% 28.96% 28.96% 1981-82 68.71% 0.00% 31.06% 31.06% 1982-83 72.83% 0.00% 27.17% 27.17% 1983-84 98.90% 0.00% .55% .55% 1984-85 98.22% .30% .59% .89% 1985-86 97.71% .57% .86% 1.43% 1986-87 95.34% .58% 1.75% 2.33% 1987-88 94.44% 1.31% 2.94% 4.25% 1988-89 95.53% .64% 2.88% 3.51% 1989-90 96.34% 1.52% .91% 2.44% 1990-91 91.46% 4.27% 2.51% 6.78% 1991-92 96.14% 1.54% .77% 2.32%

  PAGE PARK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Page Park Elementary School was located in the northwest quadrant. On March 8, 1971 the RBE agreed to transport students from Montague, which did not meet Life Safety standards to Barbour, Beyer, Kishwaukee and the empty Page Park School for the 1971-72 school year. Montague was a racially identifiable African-American school in 1970-71 with 69% African-American students. In 1971-72 Page Park was a racially identifiable African-American school with 85% African-American students (92% African-American and Hispanic).

  From 1974-75 to 1980-81 Page Park operated as a special education site. During these years it was a desegregated school. Page Park was closed from 1981 to 1989.

  Page Park Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Page Park Page Park Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 1971-72 8 0 82 0 6 96 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 102 30 2 134 1975-76 145 37 0 182 1976-77 126 32 3 161 1977-78 122 0 36 1 3 162 1978-79 132 1 35 0 2 170 1979-80 127 0 36 1 3 167 1980-81 134 0 33 1 2 170 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 105 1 24 3 3 136 1990-91 115 0 24 2 3 144 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 1971-72 8.33% 85.42% 6.25% 91.67% 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 76.12% 22.39% 1.49% 23.88% 1975-76 79.67% 20.33% 0.00% 20.33% 1976-77 78.26% 19.88% 1.86% 21.74% 1977-78 75.31% 22.22% 1.85% 24.07% 1978-79 77.65% 20.59% 1.18% 21.76% 1979-80 76.05% 21.56% 1.80% 23.35% 1980-81 78.82% 19.41% 1.18% 20.59% 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 77.21% 17.65% 2.21% 19.85% 1990-91 79.86% 16.67% 2.08% 18.75% 1991-92

  PETERSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Peterson Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant, was built in 1911 and had an addition to the building added in 1931. In 1960 Peterson was 99% white, and in 1967, it was 100% white. From 1970-71 to 1980-81 Peterson was a racially identifiable white school with between 99% and 88% white students. On March 8, 1971 the RBE approved the transfer of Peterson 6th grade students to Beyer School. Peterson 6th graders were removed from Beyer in 1978-79. In 1970-71 Beyer was desegregated. From 1971-72 to 1978-79 Beyer was a racially identifiable African-American school.

  On June 12, 1978, the RBE decided to close Turner School and reassign some of its students to Peterson. Turner was a racially identifiable white school with 92% white students.

  Peterson was closed after 1980-81. Its students were reassigned to Beyer, Rock River and Hallstrom. From 1980-81 to 1981-82 Beyer and Rock River went from racially identifiable African-American to desegregated schools and Hallstrom remained a racially identifiable white school.

  Peterson Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Peterson Peterson Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 385 0 2 0 0 387 1971-72 345 0 3 0 0 348 1972-73 326 3 4 333 1973-74 305 0 3 0 4 312 1974-75 277 4 5 286 1975-76 254 4 6 264 1976-77 243 6 2 251 1977-78 225 2 4 2 2 235 1978-79 229 2 4 2 2 239 1979-80 268 1 5 5 6 285 1980-81 243 3 17 4 9 276 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 99.48% .52% 0.00% .52% 1971-72 99.14% .86% 0.00% .86% 1972-73 97.90% .90% 1.20% 2.10% 1973-74 97.76% .96% 1.28% 2.24% 1974-75 96.85% 1.40% 1.75% 3.15% 1975-76 96.21% 1.52% 2.27% 3.79% 1976-77 96.81% 2.39% .80% 3.19% 1977-78 95.74% 1.70% .85% 2.55% 1978-79 95.82% 1.67% .84% 2.51% 1979-80 94.04% 1.75% 2.11% 3.86% 1980-81 88.04% 6.16% 3.26% 9.42% 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  RIVERDAHL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Riverdahl Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant, was a racially identifiable white school in 1960 and 1967 and every year it was open from 1970-71 to 1992-93. It was built in 1952 to relieve overcrowding at nearby Rock River Elementary School. By 1960, Riverdahl was 98% white and Rock River was 42% African-American. With a CDB capacity of 384, Riverdahl operated over capacity until 1976-77.

  Riverdahl is located just to the south of the Rock River attendance zone. Rock River was a racially identifiable African-American school from 1970-71 to 1976-77, in 1980-81 and 1984-85 and from 1986-87 to 1988-89. From 1970-71 to 1975-76 Riverdahl operated at over capacity while Rock River operated with ample capacity to take all of the excess Riverdahl students. Nevertheless, the RSD failed to make boundary adjustments or other reassignments.

  On June 6, 1972, the RBE approved a boundary change between Nashold and Riverdahl in order to reassign 70 Nashold students to Riverdahl. In 1971-72 and 1972-73 Nashold and Riverdahl operated at 126% to 124% and 101% to 122% of CDB capacity, respectively. They were both racially identifiable white schools for both school years. Again, no effort was made by the RBE to assign students to nearby Rock River, a African-American school with ample capacity.

  Morris Kennedy Elementary School was also very near Riverdahl. It was closed and converted to a junior high school after the 1970-71 school year, and its elementary students were reassigned. At that time it was 10% African-American (69 out of 723). Even though Peterson and Riverdahl were nearby schools, and Peterson was operating under capacity, and Riverdahl was (in 1971-72) only 1% over capacity, the 69 African-American students were sent a further distance away to Beyer Elementary and to Rock River. Riverdahl and Peterson were less than 2% African-American and as a result of the addition of the African-American children from Morris Kennedy, Beyer went from being a desegregated school (14% African-American) to a segregated African-American school (33% African-American in 1971-72). Beyer remained a segregated African-American school for the next decade.

  From 1976-77 to 1977-78 there was another boundary change between Nashold and Riverdahl. Both schools were racially identifiable white schools both years. Beginning in 1981, open enrollment transportation was restricted. In 1980-81 there were no desegregation students at Riverdahl and the number of African-American students dropped from 22 to 8 (6% to 2%).

  Riverdahl Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Riverdahl Riverdahl Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 393 1 7 0 8 409 1971-72 378 0 7 0 4 389 1972-73 449 8 12 469 1973-74 437 0 11 0 16 464 1974-75 438 11 10 459 1975-76 372 11 8 391 1976-77 355 17 11 383 1977-78 330 0 31 0 12 373 1978-79 371 0 29 0 9 409 1979-80 345 0 22 0 11 378 1980-81 347 0 8 8 10 373 1981-82 327 0 9 4 8 348 1982-83 352 0 8 3 5 368 1983-84 340 1 7 10 3 361 1984-85 322 0 12 4 3 341 1985-86 330 2 10 2 6 350 1986-87 299 2 9 2 6 318 1987-88 312 0 9 6 5 332 1988-89 298 0 12 8 5 323 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 212 0 11 2 160 385 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 96.09% 1.71% 1.96% 3.67% 1971-72 97.17% 1.80% 1.03% 2.83% 1972-73 95.74% 1.71% 2.56% 4.26% 1973-74 94.18% 2.37% 3.45% 5.82% 1974-75 95.42% 2.40% 2.18% 4.58% 1975-76 95.14% 2.81% 2.05% 4.86% 1976-77 92.69% 4.44% 2.87% 7.31% 1977-78 88.47% 8.31% 3.22% 11.53% 1978-79 90.71% 7.09% 2.20% 9.29% 1979-80 91.27% 5.82% 2.91% 8.73% 1980-81 93.03% 2.14% 2.68% 4.83% 1981-82 93.97% 2.59% 2.30% 4.89% 1982-83 95.65% 2.17% 1.36% 3.53% 1983-84 94.18% 1.94% .83% 2.77% 1984-85 94.43% 3.52% .88% 4.40% 1985-86 94.29% 2.86% 1.71% 4.57% 1986-87 94.03% 2.83% 1.89% 4.72% 1987-88 93.98% 2.71% 1.51% 4.22% 1988-89 92.26% 3.72% 1.55% 5.26% 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 55.06% 2.86% 41.56% 44.42%

  RIVERSIDE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Riverside Elementary School, the farthest south school in the southwest quadrant, was an all-white school (100%) until its last year in operation when it was 99% white and had only two minority students (both Hispanics). It was the oldest school in the RSD and was built in 1873. Riverside was closed after 1976-77. In 1977-78 Riverside students were reassigned to Lathrop and while the percentage of African-American students at Lathrop dropped from 73% to 51%, it remained a segregated African-American school. Students living in the former Riverside area west of South Main below Simpson were reassigned to Evergreen, a racially identifiable white school.

  Riverside Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Riverside Riverside Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 145 0 0 0 0 145 1971-72 155 0 0 0 0 155 1972-73 151 0 0 0 151 1973-74 124 0 0 0 0 124 1974-75 161 0 0 161 1975-76 144 0 0 144 1976-77 133 0 2 135 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1973-74 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1974-75 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1975-76 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1976-77 98.52% 0.00% 1.48% 1.48% 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  ROCK RIVER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Rock River Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant near the river, was built in 1911 with additions to the building added in 1946, 1959 and 1961. Rock River was 42% African-American in 1960 and was 45% African-American in 1967. Rock River, a racially identifiable African-American school until 1977-78, is located just to the north of the Riverdahl attendance zone. It has operated under its CDB capacity of 572 from 1970-71 to 1991-92. Riverdahl was a racially identifiable white school (93-97% white) that operated over capacity from 1970-71 to 1976-77.

  Rock River became an Arts Focus Center in 1976-77. It remained a racially identifiable African-American school that year and was integrated from 1977-78 to 1979-80. In 1981-82 some students were reassigned to Rock River after Peterson closed. Rock River was desegregated from 1981-82 to 1983-84, was a racially identifiable African-American school for one year in 1984-85, was desegregated for one year in 1985-86, was a racially identifiable African-American school from 1986-87 to 1988-89.

  File: Rock River Rock River Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 288 0 168 0 3 459 1971-72 298 0 188 0 4 490 1972-73 261 188 7 456 1973-74 237 0 179 0 5 421 1974-75 184 180 20 384 1975-76 216 163 22 401 1976-77 215 130 16 361 1977-78 239 0 119 0 11 369 1978-79 249 0 135 0 11 395 1979-80 246 0 134 0 4 384 1980-81 193 0 137 0 9 339 1981-82 281 0 148 1 9 439 1982-83 253 0 135 1 17 406 1983-84 216 0 124 0 24 364 1984-85 217 0 158 0 26 401 1985-86 212 0 135 4 20 371 1986-87 208 0 137 7 19 371 1987-88 176 0 137 7 16 336 1988-89 175 0 118 10 17 320 1989-90 317 0 130 8 19 474 1990-91 296 0 134 7 17 454 1991-92 276 0 122 2 13 413 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 62.75% 36.60% .65% 37.25% 1971-72 60.82% 38.37% .82% 39.18% 1972-73 57.24% 41.23% 1.54% 42.76% 1973-74 56.29% 42.52% 1.19% 43.71% 1974-75 47.92% 46.88% 5.21% 52.08% 1975-76 53.87% 40.65% 5.49% 46.13% 1976-77 59.56% 36.01% 4.43% 40.44% 1977-78 64.77% 32.25% 2.98% 35.23% 1978-79 63.04% 34.18% 2.78% 36.96% 1979-80 64.06% 34.90% 1.04% 35.94% 1980-81 56.93% 40.41% 2.65% 43.07% 1981-82 64.01% 33.71% 2.05% 35.76% 1982-83 62.32% 33.25% 4.19% 37.44% 1983-84 59.34% 34.07% 6.59% 40.66% 1984-85 54.11% 39.40% 6.48% 45.89% 1985-86 57.14% 36.39% 5.39% 41.78% 1986-87 56.06% 36.93% 5.12% 42.05% 1987-88 52.38% 40.77% 4.76% 45.54% 1988-89 54.69% 36.88% 5.31% 42.19% 1989-90 66.88% 27.43% 4.01% 31.43% 1990-91 65.20% 29.52% 3.74% 33.26% 1991-92 66.83% 29.54% 3.15% 32.69%

  Rock River Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  ROLLING GREEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Rolling Green Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant, was built in 1951 with an addition to the building added in 1963. It operated over its CDB capacity of 622 before 1973-74 and under capacity from 1973-74 to 1988-89. Rolling Green was all-white in 1960 and 1967, and continued to be a racially identifiable white school until 1980-81. In 1977-78 west side African-American students from the Muldoon closing were assigned to Rolling Green, but there were only 9 more African-American students than in the previous year. In 1980-81 students in grades 4-5-6 from the Barbour closing were transferred to Rolling Green and it was desegregated from 1980-81 to 1985-86, when minority students from Barbour continued to be mandatorily bused to Rolling Green. The next year Rolling Green was a racially identifiable white school for one year. It was desegregated from 1987-88 to 1991-92.

  Rolling Green Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Rolling Green Rolling Green Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 703 0 1 0 12 716 1971-72 679 0 0 0 12 691 1972-73 658 0 8 666 1973-74 572 1 2 0 5 580 1974-75 524 1 6 531 1975-76 476 2 4 482 1976-77 451 15 4 470 1977-78 419 2 24 11 4 460 1978-79 392 2 38 11 2 445 1979-80 399 3 41 9 1 453 1980-81 382 1 73 7 6 469 1981-82 312 2 53 11 3 381 1982-83 307 2 71 12 3 395 1983-84 334 1 69 14 3 421 1984-85 370 1 65 12 11 459 1985-86 312 0 45 11 4 372 1986-87 301 0 38 12 9 360 1987-88 291 3 50 12 8 364 1988-89 301 2 51 10 5 369 1989-90 414 2 92 10 12 530 1990-91 410 0 74 14 12 510 1991-92 445 0 79 5 10 539 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 98.18% .14% 1.68% 1.82% 1971-72 98.26% 0.00% 1.74% 1.74% 1972-73 98.80% 0.00% 1.20% 1.20% 1973-74 98.62% .34% .86% 1.21% 1974-75 98.68% .19% 1.13% 1.32% 1975-76 98.76% .41% .83% 1.24% 1976-77 95.96% 3.19% .85% 4.04% 1977-78 91.09% 5.22% .87% 6.09% 1978-79 88.09% 8.54% .45% 8.99% 1979-80 88.08% 9.05% .22% 9.27% 1980-81 81.45% 15.57% 1.28% 16.84% 1981-82 81.89% 13.91% .79% 14.70% 1982-83 77.72% 17.97% .76% 18.73% 1983-84 79.33% 16.39% .71% 17.10% 1984-85 80.61% 14.16% 2.40% 16.56% 1985-86 83.87% 12.10% 1.08% 13.17% 1986-87 83.61% 10.56% 2.50% 13.06% 1987-88 79.95% 13.74% 2.20% 15.93% 1988-89 81.57% 13.82% 1.36% 15.18% 1989-90 78.11% 17.36% 2.26% 19.62% 1990-91 80.39% 14.51% 2.35% 16.86% 1991-92 82.56% 14.66% 1.86% 16.51%

  SKYVIEW ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Sky View Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant, was the farthest south school in the Rockford School District #205. It was built in 1966 with an addition to the building added in 1968, and from 1970-71 until it was closed it operated under its CDB capacity of 293. Sky View was 100% white in 1967 and from 1970-71 to 1982-83 it was either an all-white (100% white) or a racially identifiable white (96% to 99% white) school. In 1978-79 and 1981-82 there was a boundary change between Sky View and Cherry Valley. Cherry Valley was 100% white before and 99% white after the boundary change in 1978-79, and 98% white before and 99% white after the boundary change in 1981-82. Sky View was closed after 1982-83 and its students were reassigned to Froberg and New Milford. New Milford also received students from Evergreen which had been 87% white in 1982-83. Froberg was 95% white before and 97% white after receiving students from the Sky View closing, and New Milford 73% before and 99% after receiving the students from Sky View and Evergreen.

  Skyview Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Skyview Skyview Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 224 0 0 0 0 224 1971-72 181 0 0 0 0 181 1972-73 172 2 0 174 1973-74 170 0 0 0 5 175 1974-75 279 0 3 282 1975-76 264 1 0 265 1976-77 263 0 0 263 1977-78 202 3 0 0 6 211 1978-79 278 4 0 2 4 288 1979-80 247 3 0 0 4 254 1980-81 232 2 0 0 3 237 1981-82 262 1 0 0 6 269 1982-83 214 0 0 5 1 220 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 98.85% 1.15% 0.00% 1.15% 1973-74 97.14% 0.00% 2.86% 2.86% 1974-75 98.94% 0.00% 1.06% 1.06% 1975-76 99.62% .38% 0.00% .38% 1976-77 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1977-78 95.73% 0.00% 2.84% 2.84% 1978-79 96.53% 0.00% 1.39% 1.39% 1979-80 97.24% 0.00% 1.57% 1.57% 1980-81 97.89% 0.00% 1.27% 1.27% 1981-82 97.40% 0.00% 2.23% 2.23% 1982-83 97.27% 0.00% .45% .45% 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  SPRING CREEK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Spring Creek Elementary School, located in the far east part of the northeast quadrant, was built in 1958 with additions to the building added in 1959, 1964 and 1965. It has a CDB capacity of 573 and operated under capacity from 1970-71 to 1991-92 except in 1990-91 when it operated at 111% of CDB capacity.

  Spring Creek was 100% white in 1960 and 1967, and was a racially identifiable white school from 1970-71 to 1973-74 African-American students from the Muldoon closing began to be assigned and bused to Spring Creek and, although the number of African-American students increased from 2 to 33 (0% to 7%), Spring Creek remained a racially identifiable white school until the next school year. From 1974-75 to 1980-81 it was a desegregated school as a result of the mandatory assignment of west side African-Americans.

  In 1981-82 desegregated Spring Creek along with desegregated White Swan received students from the closing of racially identifiable white Bell and Argyle Schools (94% and 98% white respectively). The percentage of African-American students at the two receiving schools dropped so much from the previous school year (from 13% to 9% at Spring Creek and from 22% to 0% at White Swan) that both schools again became racially identifiable white schools. Spring Creek remained a racially identifiable white school from 1981-82 to 1990-91. In 1983-84. Spring Creek received students from the closing of Guilford Center, a Northeast Quadrant school which had been desegregated (20% African-American) the year before, but there was no change in the racial percentages at Spring Creek. In 1985-86 minority students from Ellis grades 4-5-6 were being mandatorily bused to Spring Creek, but it remained a racially identifiable white school.

  Spring Creek Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Spring Creek Spring Creek Elementary School -- Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 471 0 5 0 0 476 1971-72 435 0 4 0 0 439 1972-73 433 2 0 435 1973-74 444 0 33 0 5 482 1974-75 427 63 6 496 1975-76 402 61 4 467 1976-77 382 56 3 441 1977-78 347 0 48 4 3 402 1978-79 314 0 59 4 1 378 1979-80 294 5 66 8 2 375 1980-81 327 0 50 6 1 384 1981-82 394 2 41 15 2 454 1982-83 346 1 41 20 3 411 1983-84 371 1 44 22 2 440 1984-85 388 0 60 20 6 474 1985-86 426 1 44 27 3 501 1986-87 438 1 27 24 4 494 1987-88 487 2 16 28 2 535 1988-89 543 2 10 24 1 580 1989-90 506 1 11 28 0 546 1990-91 583 1 19 31 0 634 1991-92 406 1 69 15 2 493 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 98.95% 1.05% 0.00% 1.05% 1971-72 99.09% .91% 0.00% .91% 1972-73 99.54% .46% 0.00% .46% 1973-74 92.12% 6.85% 1.04% 7.88% 1974-75 86.09% 12.70% 1.21% 13.91% 1975-76 86.08% 13.06% .86% 13.92% 1976-77 86.62% 12.70% .68% 13.38% 1977-78 86.32% 11.94% .75% 12.69% 1978-79 83.07% 15.61% .26% 15.87% 1979-80 78.40% 17.60% .53% 18.13% 1980-81 85.16% 13.02% .26% 13.28% 1981-82 86.78% 9.03% .44% 9.47% 1982-83 84.18% 9.98% .73% 10.71% 1983-84 84.32% 10.00% .45% 10.45% 1984-85 81.86% 12.66% 1.27% 13.92% 1985-86 85.03% 8.78% .60% 9.38% 1986-87 88.66% 5.47% .81% 6.28% 1987-88 91.03% 2.99% .37% 3.36% 1988-89 93.62% 1.72% .17% 1.90% 1989-90 92.67% 2.01% 0.00% 2.01% 1990-91 91.96% 3.00% 0.00% 3.00% 1991-92 82.35% 14.00% .41% 14.40%

  STILES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Stiles Elementary School, located in the far southwest quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1957 and has a CDB capacity of 288 students. Stiles School was originally part of the Lincoln Park School District. Stiles was all-white in 1960 and 1967 and from 1970-71 until the 1973-74. It is located one mile west of Dennis School, a racially identifiable African-American school.

  Stiles was racially identifiable white until 1973-74. In the 1973-74 school year, Stiles' African-American population went from 1% in 1972-73 to 19%. The African-American population at Stiles grew again in the 1977-78 school year as the result of two events: Lincoln Park Elementary School was closed and its students were reassigned to Dennis and Stiles; and, students from nearby, predominantly African-American, Dennis school were bused to Stiles. As a result, the African-American population was 26% in 1977-78. In August of 1977, the RBE approved changes in the plan to eliminate the busing of Stiles (white) children to Dennis (African-American) school. However, the RSD continued to bus children from Dennis to Stiles. The original plan would have involved two way busing of both Stiles and Dennis students. This change burdened African-American students, protected white students, and reduced possible integrative effects. Stiles' African-American population ranged from 23-32% from 1978-79 until 1982-83 when Stiles was changed back to a neighborhood school and the Dennis students were returned to Dennis. In 1983-84, Stiles' African-American population dropped to 7%. In 1986-87 the African-American population at Stiles increased by 26 students. In 1986-87, a transitional first grade program was started at Stiles.

  Stiles Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Stiles Stiles Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 319 0 2 0 0 321 1971-72 266 0 2 0 0 268 1972-73 252 2 0 254 1973-74 219 0 52 0 0 271 1974-75 218 40 3 261 1975-76 196 29 2 227 1976-77 189 28 5 222 1977-78 172 0 53 0 6 231 1978-79 176 0 74 0 5 255 1979-80 165 0 71 0 9 245 1980-81 175 0 88 0 14 277 1981-82 164 0 61 0 9 234 1982-83 156 0 57 0 10 223 1983-84 119 0 9 0 9 137 1984-85 127 0 10 0 10 147 1985-86 107 0 13 2 10 132 1986-87 107 0 39 0 6 152 1987-88 102 0 53 0 3 158 1988-89 93 0 56 1 2 152 1989-90 66 0 161 3 4 234 1990-91 97 0 164 0 6 267 1991-92 80 0 159 1 6 246 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 99.38% .62% 0.00% .62% 1971-72 99.25% .75% 0.00% .75% 1972-73 99.21% .79% 0.00% .79% 1973-74 80.81% 19.19% 0.00% 19.19% 1974-75 83.52% 15.33% 1.15% 16.48% 1975-76 86.34% 12.78% .88% 13.66% 1976-77 85.14% 12.61% 2.25% 14.86% 1977-78 74.46% 22.94% 2.60% 25.54% 1978-79 69.02% 29.02% 1.96% 30.98% 1979-80 67.35% 28.98% 3.67% 32.65% 1980-81 63.18% 31.77% 5.05% 36.82% 1981-82 70.09% 26.07% 3.85% 29.91% 1982-83 69.96% 25.56% 4.48% 30.04% 1983-84 86.86% 6.57% 6.57% 13.14% 1984-85 86.39% 6.80% 6.80% 13.61% 1985-86 81.06% 9.85% 7.58% 17.42% 1986-87 70.39% 25.66% 3.95% 29.61% 1987-88 64.56% 33.54% 1.90% 35.44% 1988-89 61.18% 36.84% 1.32% 38.16% 1989-90 28.21% 68.80% 1.71% 70.51% 1990-91 36.33% 61.42% 2.25% 63.67% 1991-92 32.52% 64.63% 2.44% 67.07%

  SUMMERDALE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Summerdale Elementary School, located in the northwest quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1950. In the late 1950's, there was an area of growing African-American population in a part of the southern border of the Summerdale attendance area. In 1959, the RSD built Haskell school, and gerrymandered the Haskell boundaries to include all of these African-Americans, as well as most of the African-Americans from the Garrison School area, and many of the African-Americans from the Franklin School area. By 1960, Haskell was already a racially identifiable (23% African-American) African-American school.

  Summerdale was all-white in 1960 and 1967 and was a racially identifiable white school from 1970-71 until 1974-75 when the Rockford Day Care Center was located at Summerdale, resulting in the enrollment of 38 African-American students. The African-American student population at Summerdale gradually increased until it dropped off in 1981-82 for two years. The addition of the Central Day school program from Walker in 1983-84 resulted in Summerdale's African-American population increasing again in 1983-84 to 15%.

  Summerdale Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Summerdale Summerdale Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 401 10 10 1 1 423 1971-72 426 0 7 1 0 434 1972-73 410 4 2 416 1973-74 360 2 14 6 8 390 1974-75 326 38 10 374 1975-76 298 59 17 374 1976-77 270 78 9 357 1977-78 245 6 98 5 10 364 1978-79 215 2 88 3 13 321 1979-80 209 1 76 3 13 302 1980-81 205 1 88 5 11 310 1981-82 305 0 31 5 9 350 1982-83 288 0 32 6 7 333 1983-84 320 0 60 3 6 389 1984-85 289 0 64 3 10 366 1985-86 318 1 120 9 20 468 1986-87 324 1 99 8 19 451 1987-88 305 0 104 7 18 434 1988-89 301 0 106 9 22 438 1989-90 314 0 152 6 27 499 1990-91 321 0 169 6 32 528 1991-92 272 0 83 7 23 385 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 94.80% 2.36% .24% 2.60% 1971-72 98.16% 1.61% 0.00% 1.61% 1972-73 98.56% .96% .48% 1.44% 1973-74 92.31% 3.59% 2.05% 5.64% 1974-75 87.17% 10.16% 2.67% 12.83% 1975-76 79.68% 15.78% 4.55% 20.32% 1976-77 75.63% 21.85% 2.52% 24.37% 1977-78 67.31% 26.92% 2.75% 29.67% 1978-79 66.98% 27.41% 4.05% 31.46% 1979-80 69.21% 25.17% 4.30% 29.47% 1980-81 66.13% 28.39% 3.55% 31.94% 1981-82 87.14% 8.86% 2.57% 11.43% 1982-83 86.49% 9.61% 2.10% 11.71% 1983-84 82.26% 15.42% 1.54% 16.97% 1984-85 78.96% 17.49% 2.73% 20.22% 1985-86 67.95% 25.64% 4.27% 29.91% 1986-87 71.84% 21.95% 4.21% 26.16% 1987-88 70.28% 23.96% 4.15% 28.11% 1988-89 68.72% 24.20% 5.02% 29.22% 1989-90 62.93% 30.46% 5.41% 35.87% 1990-91 60.80% 32.01% 6.06% 38.07% 1991-92 70.65% 21.56% 5.97% 27.53%

  THOMPSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Thompson Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant, and built in 1957 with additions to the building added in 1964, 1965, 1967 and 1968. Since 1970-71 Thompson has operated under its CDB capacity. Thompson was 100% white in 1960 and 1967, and has been a racially identifiable white school from 1970-71. In 1981-82 there was a boundary change between Thompson and Hillman, and Thompson gained a portion bordering on Alpine and Harrison of the former Hillman attendance zone. From 1980-81 to 1981-82 the percentage of white students at Thompson increased from 90% to 93% and the percentage of African-American students dropped from 6% to 4%.

  Thompson Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Thompson Thompson Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 494 0 0 2 4 500 1971-72 492 1 3 2 0 498 1972-73 449 2 1 452 1973-74 404 0 2 0 0 406 1974-75 394 6 0 400 1975-76 351 9 0 360 1976-77 342 5 2 349 1977-78 338 0 18 2 8 366 1978-79 357 0 10 4 5 376 1979-80 361 2 19 10 5 397 1980-81 336 2 21 11 3 373 1981-82 379 1 16 6 6 408 1982-83 364 0 10 5 5 384 1983-84 345 0 12 1 2 360 1984-85 361 1 16 4 3 385 1985-86 365 0 10 3 0 378 1986-87 346 0 12 4 1 363 1987-88 333 3 10 5 1 352 1988-89 326 1 4 8 2 341 1989-90 343 1 12 12 5 373 1990-91 327 1 18 11 5 362 1991-92 342 0 39 12 18 411 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 98.80% 0.00% .80% .80% 1971-72 98.80% .60% 0.00% .60% 1972-73 99.34% .44% .22% .66% 1973-74 99.51% .49% 0.00% .49% 1974-75 98.50% 1.50% 0.00% 1.50% 1975-76 97.50% 2.50% 0.00% 2.50% 1976-77 97.99% 1.43% .57% 2.01% 1977-78 92.35% 4.92% 2.19% 7.10% 1978-79 94.95% 2.66% 1.33% 3.99% 1979-80 90.93% 4.79% 1.26% 6.05% 1980-81 90.08% 5.63% .80% 6.43% 1981-82 92.89% 3.92% 1.47% 5.39% 1982-83 94.79% 2.60% 1.30% 3.91% 1983-84 95.83% 3.33% .56% 3.89% 1984-85 93.77% 4.16% .78% 4.94% 1985-86 96.56% 2.65% 0.00% 2.65% 1986-87 95.32% 3.31% .28% 3.58% 1987-88 94.60% 2.84% .28% 3.12% 1988-89 95.60% 1.17% .59% 1.76% 1989-90 91.96% 3.22% 1.34% 4.56% 1990-91 90.33% 4.97% 1.38% 6.35% 1991-92 83.21% 9.49% 4.38% 13.87%

  TURNER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Turner Elementary School was a southeast quadrant school, built in 1898, with additions in 1918, 1950, and 1970. Turner was only one out five elementary in Rockford School District #205 that had an increase in enrollment in 1969-70, a school year that otherwise had a decrease in enrollment all over the district. It was 100% white in 1960, 1967 and 1970-71, and was a racially identifiable white school from 1971-72 to 1977-78. Turner was closed after 1977-78 and its attendance zone was divided between Beyer, Kishwaukee, Hallstrom, Wight and Peterson Elementary Schools. From 1977-78 to 1978-79 the percentage of African-American students at Beyer (a racially identifiable African-American school) went from 46% to 44%, at Kishwaukee, Hallstrom and Wight (desegregated schools) from 20% to 16%, 16% to 12% and 11% to 14%, respectively and at Peterson (a racially identifiable white school) stayed at 2%. When Wight and Peterson were closed after 1980-81 the former Turner attendance zone was divided between Beyer, Kishwaukee, Hallstrom and Nelson. In 1981-82 Beyer and Kishwaukee were desegregated schools, and Hallstrom and Nelson were racially identifiable white schools.

  Turner Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Turner Turner Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 380 0 0 0 0 380 1971-72 330 0 0 2 8 340 1972-73 316 0 5 321 1973-74 275 0 1 1 8 285 1974-75 298 1 10 309 1975-76 251 8 6 265 1976-77 257 21 18 296 1977-78 416 14 1 13 8 452 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 97.06% 0.00% 2.35% 2.35% 1972-73 98.44% 0.00% 1.56% 1.56% 1973-74 96.49% .35% 2.81% 3.16% 1974-75 96.44% .32% 3.24% 3.56% 1975-76 94.72% 3.02% 2.26% 5.28% 1976-77 86.82% 7.09% 6.08% 13.18% 1977-78 92.04% .22% 1.77% 1.99% 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  VANDERCOOK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Vandercook School, located in the southeast quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1959, with additions added in 1962, 1964, 1966, 1969, and 1974.

  In 1973, a portable classroom was placed at Vandercook, an all-white school, in order to relieve overcrowding at that school. This was done one month after parents of predominantly African-American Lincoln Park students were told that a portable classroom could not be placed at Lincoln Park because it would compound the problem of racial imbalance.

  Vandercook was an all-white school in 1960 and 1967 and from 1970-71 until 1980-81, when it received its first group of African-American students. These African-American students were 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students from the Barbour attendance zone who were mandatorily reassigned to east side schools when the GIT program at Barbour was expanded. Minority students from Barbour were still being mandatorily bused to Vandercook in 1985-86. Vandercook remained integrated at 11 - 24% African-American students until its closing after the 1988-89 school year.

  Vandercook Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Vandercook Vandercook Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 330 0 0 0 0 330 1971-72 356 0 0 0 3 359 1972-73 383 1 4 388 1973-74 418 0 0 0 3 421 1974-75 357 0 0 357 1975-76 380 0 0 380 1976-77 364 1 0 365 1977-78 328 1 1 3 1 334 1978-79 296 3 2 3 0 304 1979-80 285 2 2 0 0 289 1980-81 244 0 59 52 310 1981-82 240 0 64 5 5 314 1982-83 216 0 68 4 10 298 1983-84 189 0 53 7 6 255 1984-85 163 0 56 5 7 231 1985-86 163 0 47 5 2 217 1986-87 143 0 28 3 3 177 1987-88 151 0 25 17 30 223 1988-89 132 2 23 1 15 173 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 99.16% 0.00% .84% .84% 1972-73 98.71% .26% 1.03% 1.29% 1973-74 99.29% 0.00% .71% .71% 1974-75 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1975-76 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1976-77 99.73% .27% 0.00% .27% 1977-78 98.20% .30% .30% .60% 1978-79 97.37% .66% 0.00% .66% 1979-80 98.62% .69% 0.00% .69% 1980-81 78.71% 19.03% .65% 19.68% 1981-82 76.43% 20.38% 1.59% 21.97% 1982-83 72.48% 22.82% 3.36% 26.17% 1983-84 74.12% 20.78% 2.35% 23.14% 1984-85 70.56% 24.24% 3.03% 27.27% 1985-86 75.12% 21.66% .92% 22.58% 1986-87 80.79% 15.82% 1.69% 17.51% 1987-88 67.71% 11.21% 13.45% 24.66% 1988-89 76.30% 13.29% 8.67% 21.97% 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  WALKER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Walker Elementary School, in the northwest quadrant, was built in 1911 and had additions added in 1950 and 1969. Walker is located just south of the Rockford Country Club, along the Rock River in the National Avenue Historic Area of Rockford. This is a wealthy, white neighborhood on the west side of the Rock River. The CDB capacity of Walker is 582 students. In 1960 and 1967 Walker was 100% white.

  In July of 1969, the RBE approved a pilot busing program where approximately 50 African-American students from the Fairgrounds Valley Public Housing Development were mandatorily assigned and bused to the Walker School district. The pilot program began in the 1969-70 school year. After a new RBE was elected in april of 1970, with a majority representation from the anti-busing community Education Committee, the RBE began to reconsider the Walker busing program. Walker School teachers and the Walker School principal urged the RBE to continue the program, as it was quite successful. In June of 1970, parents of the Fairgrounds Valley students sent a petition to the RBE asking that their children be allowed to remain at Walker.

  On June 22, 1970, the RBE voted to continue the Walker busing program for one more year, but only because there was not enough space at Ellis, the "neighborhood" school for these Fairgrounds Valley students. In January, 1971, the RBE discontinued the Walker busing program. The students were sent back to the Ellis school district which was badly overcrowded. To handle the overflow, the RBE purchased Muldoon School (an old, empty Catholic girls school) and assigned 1-3 grade students to Ellis and 406 grade students to Muldoon. Muldoon was closed after one year and its students reassigned to northeast quadrant schools.

  As a result of this action, Walker Elementary's African-American population dropped to 0% in 1971-72 from 10% in 1970-71. Walker remained all white until 1977. Even the placement of an interest center at Walker in 1974 did not alter Walker's identity as a white school.

  The presence of the bilingual program at Walker from 1983-84 to 1988-89 made Walker a segregated Hispanic school in those years.

  In the 1977-78 school year, a math/science focus center at Walker helped Walker attain an African-American population of 14%. Walkers African-American population fluctuated between 13% and 21% until 1983-84 when transportation to focus centers was eliminated. The reassignment of white students from Garrison contributed to Walker's African-American population dropping to 7% and staying at approximately that level until 1989.

  Walker Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Walker Walker Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 491 0 52 0 3 546 1971-72 573 0 1 0 4 578 1972-73 578 3 2 583 1973-74 547 0 1 0 5 553 1974-75 543 1 2 546 1975-76 539 5 3 547 1976-77 560 24 5 589 1977-78 522 1 83 2 4 612 1978-79 432 0 101 2 2 537 1979-80 418 7 115 0 10 550 1980-81 410 4 101 0 7 522 1981-82 393 3 94 0 2 492 1982-83 324 1 51 0 4 380 1983-84 381 1 39 1 110 532 1984-85 353 1 37 3 156 550 1985-86 328 0 31 5 199 563 1986-87 308 1 35 1 199 544 1987-88 302 1 31 2 204 540 1988-89 298 0 35 1 219 553 1989-90 395 0 92 0 63 550 1990-91 394 0 90 0 65 549 1991-92 431 0 87 4 27 549 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 89.93% 9.52% .55% 10.07% 1971-72 99.13% .17% .69% .87% 1972-73 99.14% .51% .34% .86% 1973-74 98.92% .18% .90% 1.08% 1974-75 99.45% .18% .37% .55% 1975-76 98.54% .91% .55% 1.46% 1976-77 95.08% 4.07% .85% 4.92% 1977-78 85.29% 13.56% .65% 14.22% 1978-79 80.45% 18.81% .37% 19.18% 1979-80 76.00% 20.91% 1.82% 22.73% 1980-81 78.54% 19.35% 1.34% 20.69% 1981-82 79.88% 19.11% .41% 19.51% 1982-83 85.26% 13.42% 1.05% 14.47% 1983-84 71.62% 7.33% 20.68% 28.01% 1984-85 64.18% 6.73% 28.36% 35.09% 1985-86 58.26% 5.51% 35.35% 40.85% 1986-87 56.62% 6.43% 36.58% 43.01% 1987-88 55.93% 5.74% 37.78% 43.52% 1988-89 53.89% 6.33% 39.60% 45.93% 1989-90 71.82% 16.73% 11.45% 28.18% 1990-91 71.77% 16.39% 11.84% 28.23% 1991-92 78.51% 15.85% 4.92% 20.77%

  WELSH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Welsh Elementary School, located in the northwest quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1929, with additions added in 1940 and 1954. In 1960, Welsh was 1% African-American. In November 1966, (Welsh was then 2% African-American) Joann Ander, later Joann Shaheen, an RSD teacher proposed to the RBE that a demonstration school called the Teacher Development Center (TDC) be developed by the RSD. The TDC was approved and located at Welsh Elementary School. The TDC resulted in an expanded school size to 600-650 students, district wide open enrollment and training for teachers and principals from throughout the district in the latest educational techniques. The RSD received federal funding for the TDC. The TDC was the RSD's first magnet school.

  The TDC was controversial both because of the use of innovative educational techniques and because it had district-wide open enrollment. From its inception, the RBE did not provide transportation to the TDC's open enrollment students. It also allowed students residing in the Welsh area to transfer to other schools if they so desired. In December of 1969, the RBE did vote to approve the continuance of the TDC for one more year. The TDC was eventually closed after the 1972-73 school year. In 1969, the RSD had received the prestigious Tom McAn award from the National Education Association partially because of the TDC.

  By the 1974-75 school year, Welsh Elementary had a 14% African-American student population. Welsh's African-American student population was between 10 and 20% between 1974-75 and 1991-92. In 1985-86 minority students from Ellis grades 4-5-6 were being mandatorily bused to Welsh.

  Welsh Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Welsh Welsh Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 660 0 14 0 1 675 1971-72 608 0 15 0 4 627 1972-73 577 30 5 612 1973-74 501 0 41 0 7 549 1974-75 426 70 5 501 1975-76 402 61 5 468 1976-77 359 86 12 457 1977-78 342 1 88 1 13 445 1978-79 350 1 95 0 16 462 1979-80 350 4 74 2 10 440 1980-81 358 0 86 0 7 451 1981-82 368 0 66 2 5 441 1982-83 332 0 60 2 5 399 1983-84 346 0 41 3 4 394 1984-85 350 0 46 5 4 405 1985-86 358 0 48 8 13 427 1986-87 333 0 54 9 7 403 1987-88 316 0 49 8 6 379 1988-89 326 0 50 7 12 395 1989-90 390 0 50 9 15 464 1990-91 403 0 47 5 10 465 1991-92 403 0 57 3 14 477 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 97.78% 2.07% .15% 2.22% 1971-72 96.97% 2.39% .64% 3.03% 1972-73 94.28% 4.90% .82% 5.72% 1973-74 91.26% 7.47% 1.28% 8.74% 1974-75 85.03% 13.97% 1.00% 14.97% 1975-76 85.90% 13.03% 1.07% 14.10% 1976-77 78.56% 18.82% 2.63% 21.44% 1977-78 76.85% 19.78% 2.92% 22.70% 1978-79 75.76% 20.56% 3.46% 24.03% 1979-80 79.55% 16.82% 2.27% 19.09% 1980-81 79.38% 19.07% 1.55% 20.62% 1981-82 83.45% 14.97% 1.13% 16.10% 1982-83 83.21% 15.04% 1.25% 16.29% 1983-84 87.82% 10.41% 1.02% 11.42% 1984-85 86.42% 11.36% .99% 12.35% 1985-86 83.84% 11.24% 3.04% 14.29% 1986-87 82.63% 13.40% 1.74% 15.14% 1987-88 83.38% 12.93% 1.58% 14.51% 1988-89 82.53% 12.66% 3.04% 15.70% 1989-90 84.05% 10.78% 3.23% 14.01% 1990-91 86.67% 10.11% 2.15% 12.26% 1991-92 84.49% 11.95% 2.94% 14.88%

  WESTVIEW ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Westview Elementary School is located in the far northwest quadrant of Rockford, with an attendance area bordering the Rock River. It was built in 1948 with additions added in 1953 and 1958. In 1960 and 1967 Westview was 100% white, and until the 1976-77, Westview's African-American population was less than 6%. By 1979-80, with continued open enrollment and the addition of the New Zion Day Care Center, Westview's African-American student population rose to 25%. In 1985-86 minority students from Ellis grades 4-5-6 were being mandatorily bused to Westview. Westview thus remained desegregated throughout the 1970's and 1980's.

  Westview Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: West View West View Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 520 0 0 1 0 521 1971-72 475 0 2 1 0 478 1972-73 439 8 0 447 1973-74 418 0 11 0 0 429 1974-75 380 21 1 402 1975-76 368 21 3 392 1976-77 327 51 2 380 1977-78 265 0 63 2 3 333 1978-79 275 0 77 5 5 362 1979-80 265 0 90 2 8 365 1980-81 253 0 46 1 6 306 1981-82 243 0 40 0 13 296 1982-83 231 0 42 0 8 281 1983-84 221 0 33 0 6 260 1984-85 221 0 77 1 5 304 1985-86 208 1 28 1 10 248 1986-87 199 0 53 2 10 264 1987-88 220 0 58 5 5 288 1988-89 231 0 74 8 8 321 1989-90 275 0 121 10 5 411 1990-91 272 0 110 11 15 408 1991-92 299 0 94 6 8 407 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr- 1970-71 99.81% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1971-72 99.37% .42% 0.00% .42% 1972-73 98.21% 1.79% 0.00% 1.79% 1973-74 97.44% 2.56% 0.00% 2.56% 1974-75 94.53% 5.22% .25% 5.47% 1975-76 93.88% 5.36% .77% 6.12% 1976-77 86.05% 13.42% .53% 13.95% 1977-78 79.58% 18.92% .90% 19.82% 1978-79 75.97% 21.27% 1.38% 22.65% 1979-80 72.60% 24.66% 2.19% 26.85% 1980-81 82.68% 15.03% 1.96% 16.99% 1981-82 82.09% 13.51% 4.39% 17.91% 1982-83 82.21% 14.95% 2.85% 17.79% 1983-84 85.00% 12.69% 2.31% 15.00% 1984-85 72.70% 25.33% 1.64% 26.97% 1985-86 83.87% 11.29% 4.03% 15.32% 1986-87 75.38% 20.08% 3.79% 23.86% 1987-88 76.39% 20.14% 1.74% 21.88% 1988-89 71.96% 23.05% 2.49% 25.55% 1989-90 66.91% 29.44% 1.22% 30.66% 1990-91 66.67% 26.96% 3.68% 30.64% 1991-92 73.46% 23.10% 1.97% 25.06%

  WHIG HILL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Whig Hill, located in the northwest quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1937, with additions added in 1947, 1952, 1956, 1959. Its CDB capacity was 584 students. Whig Hill was 100% white in 1960 and 1967. Whig Hill was in a school district that was annexed to the RSD school district in 1964.

  Whig Hill remained racially identifiably white until the 1977-78 school year. In that year a satellite attendance zone in the southwest quadrant of Rockford was added to Whig Hill's regular attendance zone. As a result of this, approximately 200 African-American students were mandatorily reassigned to Whig Hill, a school that was located over 4.5 miles from their homes. This changed Whig Hill from a racially identifiable white school to a racially identifiable African-American school. In 1976-77, Whig Hill was 6% African-American and in 1977-78 it was 49% African-American. Students from this satellite attendance zone stayed at Whig Hill until Whig Hill was closed after the 1980-81 school year. When Whig Hill closed, the southwest quadrant students were reassigned even further away from their homes to Haight Elementary School; causing Haight to change from an integrated school in 1980-81 at 16% African-American to a racially identifiable African-American school in 1981-82 (42% African-American).

  Whig Hill Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Whig Hill Whig Hill Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 557 2 2 3 10 574 1971-72 504 0 2 1 4 511 1972-73 461 2 5 468 1973-74 440 0 3 0 4 447 1974-75 388 5 3 396 1975-76 385 15 3 403 1976-77 378 24 10 412 1977-78 212 0 207 0 5 424 1978-79 231 0 193 0 20 444 1979-80 232 0 182 0 14 428 1980-81 210 0 182 7 13 412 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 97.04% .35% 1.74% 2.09% 1971-72 98.63% .39% .78% 1.17% 1972-73 98.50% .43% 1.07% 1.50% 1973-74 98.43% .67% .89% 1.34% 1974-75 97.98% 1.26% .76% 1.52% 1975-76 95.53% 3.72% .74% 1.99% 1976-77 91.75% 5.83% 2.43% 6.07% 1977-78 50.00% 48.82% 1.18% 6.84% 1978-79 52.03% 43.47% 4.50% 51.13% 1979-80 54.21% 42.52% 3.27% 48.36% 1980-81 50.97% 44.17% 3.16% 47.33% 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92

  WHITE SWAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  White Swan Elementary School, located in the far east portion of Rockford's southeast quadrant, was built in 1959, with additions added in 1962, 1964, 1966, 1968, and 1978. White Swan was 100% white in 1960 and 1967, and was a racially identifiable white school throughout its entire history except for one year.

  In 1980-81, a satellite attendance zone in the Haskell attendance area was created for White Swan. African-American, west side students were bused from the Haskell area to White Swan, a distance of approximately 7 miles. For the 1980-81 school year, Haskell was integrated with a 22% African-American population. When Argyle and Bell schools (white schools located in the northeast quadrant) were closed after the 1980-81 school year, the Haskell busing students were pulled out of White Swan to make room for Argyle-Bell students. The Haskell busing students were then sent to Brookview Elementary, also in the northeast quadrant and White Swan was once again a racially identifiable white school, with an African-American population of 1%. White Swan has remained a white school to the present.

  White Swan Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: White Swan White Swan Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 454 0 0 2 1 457 1971-72 331 0 0 2 0 333 1972-73 361 0 0 361 1973-74 364 10 2 2 0 378 1974-75 367 2 0 369 1975-76 353 2 2 357 1976-77 332 3 4 339 1977-78 314 0 7 4 8 333 1978-79 307 3 23 3 9 345 1979-80 288 2 18 1 10 319 1980-81 281 7 85 0 8 381 1981-82 353 1 2 1 3 360 1982-83 324 1 3 2 3 333 1983-84 289 3 3 3 4 302 1984-85 263 3 6 7 3 282 1985-86 261 2 8 7 1 279 1986-87 272 0 10 7 1 290 1987-88 270 0 8 9 2 289 1988-89 242 0 6 7 2 257 1989-90 319 1 7 11 1 339 1990-91 368 0 9 8 7 392 1991-92 314 0 24 7 5 350 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am %Afr 1970-71 99.34% 0.00% .22% .22% 1971-72 99.40% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1973-74 96.30% .53% 0.00% .53% 1974-75 99.46% .54% 0.00% .54% 1975-76 98.88% .56% .56% 1.12% 1976-77 97.94% .88% 1.18% 2.06% 1977-78 94.29% 2.10% 2.40% 4.50% 1978-79 88.99% 6.67% 2.61% 9.28% 1979-80 90.28% 5.64% 3.13% 8.78% 1980-81 73.75% 22.31% 2.10% 24.41% 1981-82 98.06% .56% .83% 1.39% 1982-83 97.30% .90% .90% 1.80% 1983-84 95.70% .99% 1.32% 2.32% 1984-85 93.26% 2.13% 1.06% 3.19% 1985-86 93.55% 2.87% .36% 3.23% 1986-87 93.79% 3.45% .34% 3.79% 1987-88 93.43% 2.77% .69% 3.46% 1988-89 94.16% 2.33% .78% 3.11% 1989-90 94.10% 2.06% .29% 2.36% 1990-91 93.88% 2.30% 1.79% 4.08% 1991-92 89.71% 6.86% 1.43% 8.29%

  WHITEHEAD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Whitehead Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant, was built in 1959. It operated over its CDB capacity of 561 in 1970-71 and operated under capacity from 1971-72 to the present. Whitehead was 100% white in 1960, 1967, and from 1970-71 to 1971-72. From 1972-73 to 1976-77 Whitehead was 99% white.

  From 1974-75 to 1975-76 Nashold sixth graders were sent to Whitehead. From 1970-71 to 1974-75 Nashold was 100% or 99% white school that had been operating at 113 to 129% of its CDB capacity. In April of 1976 the RBE designated Whitehead a law focus center grades 1-6, but Whitehead remained a racially identifiable white school.

  From 1977-78 to 1978-79 the bi-lingual program was transferred to Whitehead, and it was a segregated Hispanic-American school during those two school years. The bi-lingual program was transferred to New Milford in 1979-80.

  In 1980-81 Whitehead received students from the closing of Barbour 4th, 5th and 6th grades. From 1980-81 to 1982-83 Whitehead was a desegregated school. From 1982-83 to 1983-84 the percentage of African-American students at Whitehead decreased from 19% to 3% and Whitehead was once again a racially identifiable white school from 1983-84 to 1986-87. It was again desegregated from 1987-88 to 1988-89.

  Whitehead Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Whitehead Whitehead Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 590 0 0 0 1 591 1971-72 568 1 0 0 0 569 1972-73 524 0 3 527 1973-74 440 1 0 0 4 445 1974-75 449 1 3 453 1975-76 392 2 2 396 1976-77 304 3 1 308 1977-78 287 0 4 2 162 455 1978-79 275 0 0 0 129 404 1979-80 282 1 10 1 7 301 1980-81 281 3 36 2 9 331 1981-82 267 3 40 1 4 315 1982-83 273 2 66 2 3 346 1983-84 226 1 8 1 0 236 1984-85 234 1 5 5 0 245 1985-86 217 0 13 10 2 242 1986-87 206 0 23 10 10 249 1987-88 201 0 48 8 16 273 1988-89 222 0 61 9 6 298 1989-90 400 0 27 15 6 448 1990-91 391 1 43 9 9 453 1991-92 353 1 70 8 14 446 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 99.83% 0.00% .17% .17% 1971-72 99.82% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1972-73 99.43% 0.00% .57% .57% 1973-74 98.88% 0.00% .90% .90% 1974-75 99.12% .22% .66% .88% 1975-76 98.99% .51%.51% 1.01% 1976-77 98.70% .97% .32% 1.30% 1977-78 63.08% .88% 35.60% 36.48% 1978-79 68.07% 0.00% 31.93% 31.93% 1979-80 93.69% 3.32% 2.33% 5.65% 1980-81 84.89% 10.88% 2.72% 13.60% 1981-82 84.76% 12.70% 1.27% 13.97% 1982-83 78.90% 19.08% .87% 19.94% 1983-84 95.76% 3.39% 0.00% 3.39% 1984-85 95.51% 2.04% 0.00% 2.04% 1985-86 89.67% 5.37% .83% 6.20% 1986-87 82.73% 9.24% 4.02% 13.25% 1987-88 73.63% 17.58% 5.86% 23.44% 1988-89 74.50% 20.47% 2.01% 22.48% 1989-90 89.29% 6.03% 1.34% 7.37% 1990-91 86.31% 9.49% 1.99% 11.48% 1991-92 79.15% 15.70% 3.14% 18.83%

  WIGHT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

  Wight Elementary School, located in the southeast quadrant of Rockford, was built in 1889 with an addition added in 1920. Wight was an all-white school in 1960 and was 99% white in 1967. Wight was a racially identifiable white school from 1970-71 until 1977-78 when its African-American student population increased to 11%. A document prepared by the RSD shows that Wight received students for both a day care and special education program, which explains the influx of African-American and Hispanic students in 1977-78. In 1977-78, the African-American and Hispanic population at Wight was 18%.

  Wight's African-American population increased to 18% by 1980-81 when it was closed. Its students were sent to Kishwaukee and Nelson Schools.

  Wight Elementary

  [SEE GRAPH IN ORIGINAL]

  File: Wight Wight Elementary School - Enrollment History Year Other Nat-Am Afr-Am Asi-Am His-Am Total 1970-71 323 1 0 0 5 329 1971-72 284 1 4 3 4 296 1972-73 272 0 9 281 1973-74 227 0 0 1 12 240 1974-75 216 3 15 234 1975-76 240 7 15 262 1976-77 225 7 18 250 1977-78 211 1 29 5 18 264 1978-79 195 1 38 7 32 273 1979-80 213 1 50 7 16 287 1980-81 183 2 49 14 19 267 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Year % Other % Afr-Am % His-Am % Afr 1970-71 98.18% 0.00% 1.52% 1.52% 1971-72 95.95% 1.35% 1.35% 2.70% 1972-73 96.80% 0.00% 3.20% 3.20% 1973-74 94.58% 0.00% 5.00% 5.00% 1974-75 92.31% 1.28% 6.41% 7.69% 1975-76 91.60% 2.67% 5.73% 8.40% 1976-77 90.00% 2.80% 7.20% 10.00% 1977-78 79.92% 10.98% 6.82% 17.80% 1978-79 71.43% 13.92% 11.72% 25.64% 1979-80 74.22% 17.42% 5.57% 23.00% 1980-81 68.54% 18.35% 7.12% 25.47% 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92


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