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UNITED STATES EX REL. LYNCH v. SANDAHL
April 28, 1992
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ex rel. STEVEN LYNCH, Petitioner,
DAVID SANDAHL, WARDEN, Shawnee Correctional Facility, Respondent.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: MARVIN E. ASPEN
MARVIN E. ASPEN, District Judge:
Petitioner Steven Lynch is before this court for the second time seeking a writ of habeas corpus pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2254. Presently, Lynch's sole contention is that he was denied due process of law because the instructions given to the jury at trial allowed the jury to return a verdict of murder despite findings that should have resulted in a verdict of voluntary manslaughter. Respondent David Sandahl, Warden of the Shawnee Correctional Facility, has answered the petition and now moves to dismiss for failure to exhaust available state remedies. For the reasons stated below, we deny Sandahl's motion to dismiss and grant Lynch's petition for habeas relief.
Following a jury trial in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Lynch was convicted of the murder of Jack Herdenberg and sentenced to a term of forty years imprisonment. The following facts supporting Lynch's conviction are taken from the opinion of the appellate court on direct review, and are presumed accurate. 28 U.S.C. § 2254(d) (1988).
On September 23, 1979, the body of Jack Herdenberg was found in an alley in Maywood by police. He had been shot twice from close range, once in the stomach and once in the head. He also had two cuts on his hand, a cut on his chin and a cut on his neck. The latter was about 2 inches long and 1 1/2 inches deep at the left end but not as deep on the right. In the opinion of the pathologist, the neck wound could have been an attempt to slash his throat.
On September 30, 1979, the police received a call from Bob Green in which he gave them defendant's name in connection with the death of Herdenberg. The next day the police arrested defendant in the parking lot behind his apartment. During a search of his van, the police found two concrete blocks. Immediately after being given his rights, defendant stated he had killed Herdenberg during a fight, but did not murder him. Defendant had a wound on his head and abrasions on his cheek and shin. The police took him to the hospital. At the hospital, the police played for him a tape of Green's phone call.
Police Sergeant John Reed testified that defendant then told the police that on September 22nd he went to Herdenberg's apartment around 4:30 p.m. in connection with some money Herdenberg owed him. Herdenberg attacked defendant with a knife and stabbed defendant on the head and told defendant he was going to kill him.
The record also shows that defendant shot Herdenberg point blank in the stomach and face and slashed his throat. Defendant then went to work his shift as a delivery driver. When his shift ended, he returned to the victim's apartment, cleaned up the blood and disposed of the gun and the blood-soaked cleaning towels. He then placed the body in a sleeping bag, covered the head with a garbage bag and bundled the body up with a belt and chain. He placed the body in his van, which contained two concrete blocks to weight down the body in the river. In order to properly secure the victim's body in the sleeping bag so it would remain submerged and hidden from the police, defendant had to make additional holes in the belt that helped truss up the body in the bag. He drove his van to a bridge over the DesPlaines River, but before he could discard the body, a police car pulled up. Defendant told the approaching officer that he was fixing a flat tire. When the officer left, defendant abandoned his original plans and drove to Maywood and there dumped the body in an alley.
Judy Baker testified that she moved in with defendant during the first week of July. A few days after this she met Herdenberg, who lived next door to defendant. For the next three weeks she saw Herdenberg every day and became his lover. She also stated the Herdenberg had been hospitalized for drug usage and she knew he took P.C.P. On August 3rd defendant told her he was going to kill Herdenberg because he had been pimping or selling out defendant's wife. She told defendant he was crazy. About a week later, she and defendant drove defendant's van to New York. During this trip defendant allegedly told her that when they got back to Chicago he was going to shoot Herdenberg and throw his body in the river. A month later they returned to Chicago and she went to live with Bob Green, who was the father of her illegitimate child. A week after this she again moved in with defendant. Around September 21st Baker visited Herdenberg, but never mentioned defendant's alleged plan. The most she did was to tell Herdenberg that defendant was crazy and to be careful.
William Ptack testified that he had been convicted of possession of a stolen vehicle and was currently charged with the theft of some silver. He could not make bond and was in jail, where he became defendant's cellmate. Defendant stated that Herdenberg had been killed because he knew where a Nazi Academy was to be built. Defendant also stated he pulled out a gun on Herdenberg, but eh latter knocked it from defendant and picked up a knife. Defendant then took the knife from Herdenberg, who cut his hand attempting to retrieve the knife. Eventually Herdenberg retrieved the knife and stabbed defendant, at which time defendant shot him.
Ptack went to the State's Attorney and told him about the conversations he and defendant had. Later Ptack had his bond lowered to an amount he could afford. He also stated that as a result of his testimony against defendant the State's Attorney would, during Ptack's trial, inform the court that Ptack had been a crucial witness in defendant's trial.
Defendant testified that on September 22nd around 4:30 p.m. he went to Herdenberg's apartment. They talked about the $ 85 defendant had loaned Herdenberg when he bailed him out of jail. Defendant also noticed at this time that Herdenberg was high on P.C.P. and was playing with a combat knife that he always kept around. When defendant got up to go, Herdenberg asked him to stay because he was bored and lonely. When defendant asked him if he was weird, Herdenberg picked up the knife, jumped at defendant and stabbed him on the right cheek. Herdenberg lunged again and a struggle ensued in the kitchen, during which defendant's arm went through the wall. During this struggle, defendant knocked the knife to the floor and they both dived for it. Defendant got the knife first and held on while Herdenberg grabbed the blade in an attempt to retrieve the knife.
Defendant then poked Herdenberg in the stomach and chest with the knife and headed for the door. Before he reached the door, however, Herdenberg grabbed him from behind and put him in a chokehold. Defendant poked Herdenberg a few times more and they both fell to the floor, with the defendant landing on top. Defendant then pointed the knife at Herdenberg's throat and told him to calm down. Herdenberg bucked his legs and threw defendant forward so that the knife speared Herdenberg's neck. Defendant was able to pin him again and then threw the knife to the side. Both were bleeding and defendant offered to call an ambulance for Herdenberg. This was refused. Defendant then entered the bathroom and put a wet towel on his face. At the same time Herdenberg entered the living room with the knife, looking in the mirror and said, "Oh my God" over and over.
Suddenly Herdenberg said, "Steve, I'm going to kill you, and lunged at defendant, cutting his scalp. Defendant then took a derringer from his pocket and shot Herdenberg once in the stomach. Defendant headed for the door, but was grabbed by Herdenberg, who turned him around, knocked the gun from his hand and threw him to the floor. As ...
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