lot of the Central Police Headquarters. For three years Mr. Robinson's case did not move.
In 1973, Mr. Robinson was joined by Tadeo Robert Camacho and others and the United States of America in two actions which alleged police department discrimination against hispanics and women as well as blacks.
When I was sworn in as a judge of this court on August 6, 1973 the Robinson case was reassigned to me as part of my original calendar. Thereafter 73 C 1252 and 73 C 2080 were reassigned to me as related to Robinson and in April 1974 the three cases were consolidated for all purposes. Robinson, et al. v. Conlisk, et al., 385 F. Supp. 540 (N.D. Ill. 1974).
Immediately thereafter I set the cases for an evidentiary hearing on plaintiffs' motions for a preliminary injunction (which were consolidated with the merits, Rule 65(a)(2) F.R.C.P.). I issued an opinion and preliminary injunction after seventeen days of trial, on November 7, 1974. United States v. City of Chicago, et al., 385 F. Supp. 543 (N.D. Ill. 1974). The preliminary injunction became the standard of relief throughout this litigation. An all male force was opened to women and the Department was enjoined from using hiring and promotional tests and standards which discriminated against blacks and hispanics. Thus in slightly more than a year the case was preliminarily resolved.
But, the "good news" was short lived. First, the City reneged on a hiring settlement agreement which necessitated further injunctive proceedings. United States v. City of Chicago, 395 F. Supp. 329 (N.D. Ill. 1975). Because the City used revenue sharing funds to support its discriminatory hiring and promotion practices, the secretary of the Treasury was enjoined from disbursing those funds to the City, following another lengthy hearing. Id. (In passing, the impoundment of $ 76,000,000 in revenue sharing funds was the single most effective remedy in the case. It got the attention of the City's power structure.)
Then, further evidentiary hearings were demanded by the City regarding the issuance of a permanent injunction. United States v. City of Chicago, et al., 411 F. Supp. 218 (N.D. Ill. 1976). There have been at least fifteen appeals, see, e.g., United States v. City of Chicago, et al., 525 F.2d 695, 534 F.2d 708, 549 F.2d 415, 567 F.2d 730, 631 F.2d 469, 648 F.2d 1110, 663 F.2d 1354, 766 F.2d 1053, 796 F.2d 205, 853 F.2d 572, 869 F.2d 1033, 870 F.2d 1256, 894 F.2d 943, 897 F.2d 243, 908 F.2d 197, with each appeal being heard by a different panel of the court of appeals with the opinion frequently written by a different judge.
In 1977 the City administered a lieutenant's promotion examination which was invalid because of its disparate impact on blacks and in 1979 it administered another invalid sergeant promotion examination. Indeed, the current controversies over standardization of test scores and voluntary affirmative action stem from 1987 promotion tests which had disparate impacts on blacks and females.
While these actions have lasted a generation and have seen five Presidents and six Mayors (thirteen Court of Appeals judges and one district judge) they should not be likened to the interminable equity proceedings in Bleak House. This institutional litigation has worked. The Chicago Police Department is a better place today than it was in 1970.
Finally, a word about the lawyers. The many reported decisions in this litigation recite their names. With one exception, each has represented his or her client in the highest traditions of the Bar. Many donated their services (despite the attorney's fee provisions of the applicable civil rights acts). Every step of the journey has reinforced my belief in the truth of Harrison Tweed's tribute:
I have a high opinion of lawyers. They are better to work with or play with or fight with or drink with than most other varieties of mankind.