its members. In the "re-amended complaint" plaintiffs simply allege that "there are other members of the Society residing in District 21 who are offended by the Districts's practice of enforcing Ill.Rev.Stat. ch. 122, sec. 27-3." Re-Amended Complaint, para. 4. The court finds this general allegation does not show any members other than the Shermans have suffered actual or threatened injuries, "other than the psychological consequence presumably produced by observation of conduct with which one disagrees. That is not an injury sufficient to confer standing under Art. III . . . ." Valley Forge College, 454 U.S. at 485. Therefore, the court holds the Society does not have standing to bring this suit on behalf of its members.
Defendant Hartigan argues that the Shermans also have not alleged a concrete injury, apparently basing his argument on the affidavits submitted by defendants Descarpentrie and Garrett and Richard's first grade teacher Marilyn Barden. All three affiants state that Richard Sherman was never punished or threatened with punishment for not participating in the Pledge. However, defendant Hartigan ignores this court's previous statement that "school children are impressionable and often susceptible to social influence" and therefore they may feel coerced to recite the Pledge even if they are not punished or threatened with punishment. Sherman, 714 F. Supp. at 936-37. Plaintiffs allege in the re-amended complaint and in Robert Sherman's affidavit that Richard felt compelled to say the Pledge because of the embarrassment and loss of friends he suffered by refusing to participate in a ceremony led by his principal and participated in by all his classmates. See Re-Amended Complaint, paras. 8, 11-13, 20 and Affidavit of Robert Sherman, paras. 8, 10. These allegations may not ultimately constitute a violation of plaintiffs' rights under the First and Fourteenth Amendments, but they are sufficient to confer standing on the Shermans to bring this action.
Defendant Hartigan next argues that plaintiffs' complaint should be dismissed because "plaintiffs' claims are not ripe for adjudication." Defendant Hartigan's Memo. at 6. Again relying on the affidavits stating that no school official has punished Richard for refusing to say the Pledge, defendant Hartigan concludes that "there is no 'threat that the challenged law will be enforced against' any of the plaintiffs." Id. This again ignores plaintiffs' claim that defendants' leading of the Pledge, pursuant to the statute, is a means of compelling recitation of the Pledge. This argument, even if it does not ultimately prevail, shows plaintiffs' claims are ripe for adjudication.
Finally, defendant Hartigan argues that this court should abstain from adjudicating plaintiffs' claims because the statute at issue has not been interpreted by any Illinois court and a ruling by an Illinois court may modify or moot the constitutional issue plaintiffs pose. However, "the doctrine of abstention, under which a District Court may decline to exercise or postpone the exercise of its jurisdiction, is an extraordinary and narrow exception to the duty of a District Court to adjudicate a controversy properly before it. Abdication of the obligation to decide cases can be justified under this doctrine only in the exceptional circumstances where the order of the parties to repair to the State court would clearly serve an important countervailing interest." County of Allegheny v. Frank Mashuda Co., 360 U.S. 185, 188-89, 3 L. Ed. 2d 1163, 79 S. Ct. 1060 (1959). "The paradigm of the 'special circumstances' that makes abstention appropriate is a case where the challenged state statute is susceptible of a construction by the state judiciary that would avoid or modify the necessity of reaching a federal constitutional question." Babbitt v. United Farm Workers, 442 U.S. 289, 306, 60 L. Ed. 2d 895, 99 S. Ct. 2301 (1979).
Defendant Hartigan maintains that this case is appropriate for abstention because "an Illinois Court could very well determine that the statutory provision is simply not mandatory, thereby avoiding a resolution of the constitutional questions plaintiffs raise." Defendant Hartigan's Memo. at 13. The court disagrees that such a ruling by an Illinois court would obviate the need to decide the constitutional question posed by plaintiffs. According to the affidavits submitted by defendants, the statute currently is being applied in a non-mandatory way. Defendants are not openly forcing Richard Sherman to stand, recite or participate in the Pledge. Yet, as the court has noted several times, plaintiffs maintain that having the Pledge led by the principal daily is inherently coercive and therefore violative of plaintiffs' rights. Thus, even if an Illinois court interprets the statute to exempt children who cannot say the Pledge for religious or political reasons, the court would still have to resolve the question of whether school officials' leading of the Pledge, pursuant to the statute, results in unconstitutional coercion. Because abstention would not avoid the necessity of reaching the constitutional issue and would simply add delay to a case that has already been pending for almost two years, the court will not abstain from deciding plaintiffs' claims.
For the aforementioned reasons, defendant Hartigan's motion to dismiss is denied.
A status hearing will be held on September 11, 1990 at 9:30 a.m.