Appeal from the Circuit Court of Cook County; the Hon. Thomas
R. Rakowski, Judge, presiding.
JUSTICE GOLDBERG DELIVERED THE OPINION OF THE COURT:
Gross Valentino Printing Company (plaintiff) brought this action against Frederick S. Clarke, doing business as Cinefantastique (defendant), based on an alleged breach of contract. Defendant asserted three affirmative defenses: lack of consideration, fraudulent or innocent misrepresentation, and business compulsion.
Plaintiff moved for summary judgment. Both plaintiff and defendant filed depositions in support of their theories. The trial court granted plaintiff's motion with regard to the first and third defenses and allowed defendant to amend its pleadings with regard to the affirmative defense of fraud. Plaintiff then renewed its motion for summary judgment. After a hearing, the trial court granted plaintiff's motion and entered judgment of $5,116.20 for plaintiff. Defendant appeals.
Defendant publishes a magazine. After discussion, in July of 1979, plaintiff sent defendant a letter for printing the magazine including a price quotation of $6,695. Defendant accepted the terms. On August 8, 1979, the parties met to discuss the layout. The parties' depositions diverge as to the substance of that meeting. Because plaintiff was the movant for summary judgment, "the court will construe the pleadings, depositions, admissions and affidavits strictly against the movant and liberally in favor of the opponent" to determine if the summary judgment was proper. Kolakowski v. Voris (1980), 83 Ill.2d 388, 398, 415 N.E.2d 397.
According to defendant's deposition, he brought materials for printing the magazine to plaintiff's office on August 8, 1979. Defendant discussed problems concerning the layout with an agent of plaintiff corporation. The agent told defendant the job could still be done "in house" despite the problems. He also told defendant the price would remain the same over the next six issues of the magazine.
Defendant also stated the parties had a telephone conversation on August 14, 1979. Defendant was informed the job "was going to cost more than we thought." Plaintiff's agent told defendant the higher cost was incurred because plaintiff had to "send the stripping out." Defendant did not inform plaintiff's agent he wanted to get another printer because defendant did not believe he could meet his deadline if he changed printers. Defendant was also afraid plaintiff would not return defendant's materials if defendant argued about the price. Those materials were necessary for continued printing of defendant's magazine.
Defendant also deposed that sometime thereafter plaintiff sent defendant a letter dated August 15, 1979. The letter specified the same work as represented in the parties' earlier contract. However the price was increased to $9,300. Defendant made no objection to this increase until a later date.
On August 30, 1979, plaintiff delivered the first 5,000 magazines to defendant. Defendant signed the purchase order reflecting the new price and paid plaintiff $4,650 on account of the purchase. Defendant subsequently received the complete shipment of 15,000 magazines. However, on October 28, 1979, defendant informed plaintiff he would not accept the price increase.
The parties agree that the sufficiency of defendant's first affirmative defense of lack of consideration depends on the determination of whether the transactions at issue are subject to the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1981, ch. 26, par. 1-101 et seq.). Under the UCC a modification of an existing contract "within this Article needs no consideration to be binding." (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1981, ch. 26, par. 2-209(1).) The parties also agree that the applicability of the UCC depends on the determination of whether they contracted for "goods" or "services."
The UCC defines "goods" as (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1981, ch. 26, par. 2-105(1)):
"`Goods' means all things, including specially manufactured goods, which are movable at the time of identification to the contract for sale other than the money in which the price is to be paid, investment securities (Article 8) and things in action. `Goods' also includes the unborn young of animals and growing crops and other identified things attached to realty as described in the section on goods to be severed from realty (Section 2-107)."
The parties have not cited, and our research has not disclosed, any case in Illinois in which the court specifically applied the above definition to printed magazines. However, in Colony Press, Inc. v. Fleeman (1974), 17 Ill. App.3d 14, 308 N.E.2d 78, we dealt with the printing and sale of advertising leaflets. ...