Appeal from the Circuit Court of Cook County; the Hon. Albert
Green, Judge, presiding.
JUSTICE RIZZI DELIVERED THE OPINION OF THE COURT:
Plaintiff, The Packaging House, Inc., appeals from an order denying its motion for a preliminary injunction to enforce a restrictive covenant in an employment agreement that plaintiff had with defendant, Marvin Hoffman. We reverse and remand with directions that a preliminary injunction be entered to enforce the agreement.
Plaintiff is a corporation involved in the design and sale of displays and packaging that are made to customer specifications. Although plaintiff does not do any of the actual design or packaging work, plaintiff has developed special detailed working relationships with certain designers and manufacturers which enable plaintiff to provide a full range of packaging design and display services to its customers.
Most of plaintiff's customers are located in Chicago, Minneapolis, New York and Cincinnati. In the Chicago area, there are approximately 30,000 potential customers for plaintiff's services. Plaintiff has a total of 350 active, mostly longstanding customers.
Plaintiff's customer list is marked "Confidential." The list is kept on plaintiff's premises under lock and key. A security system is provided for the location where the customer list is kept. The keys to that location are available only to certain officers and employees of plaintiff. Plaintiff also keeps its costs and pricing information in a secured and confidential manner.
Plaintiff has approximately 17 employees, including 10 salesmen. All the salesmen have signed employment agreements containing a restrictive covenant prohibiting solicitation of plaintiff's customers by a severed employee for 18 months. Defendant was employed by plaintiff as a salesman for about 8 1/2 years. During the course of his employment, defendant signed an agreement which states:
(a) Upon the termination of this Employment Agreement for any reason whatsoever and for a period of eighteen (18) months thereafter, Employee shall not, directly or indirectly, either as an individual or on his own account, or as an employee, agent, salesman, or member of any person, corporation or firm or otherwise, provide services, call upon, solicit, enter into, or engage in the business conducted by Employer, with any account of Employer, which has purchased items from Employer within an eighteen (18) month period prior to the termination of employment, whether such account is brought into Employer's business by Employee or not * * *.
(b) The Employee further acknowledges that the foregoing restrictions placed upon him are necessary and that in the event his employment with the Employer should terminate for any reason, he will be in a position to earn a livelihood without violating the foregoing restrictions, and that it has been made clear to him on behalf of the Employer that his ability to earn a livelihood without violating such restrictions is a material condition to his employment or continuation of his employment by Employer.
Disclosure of Information.
(a) The Employee recognizes and acknowledges that all knowledge and information which he may acquire in the course of his employment hereunder relating to the business, developments, activities or products of Employer or the business affairs of any individual or firm doing business with Employer, such as, but not limited to, customer and supplier lists, cost and selling prices for specific customers, customers' needs and requirements, identity of manufacturing sources and product designs, and all inventions, ideas, discoveries, creations, developments, improvements, designs and processes so acquired (hereinafter collectively referred to as `inventions') are the valuable property of Employer and shall be held by the Employee in confidence and trust for the sole benefit of Employer.
On August 24, 1982, defendant terminated his employment with plaintiff and began soliciting business from plaintiff's accounts, utilizing plaintiff's suppliers and taking orders from plaintiff's customers. Defendant used plaintiff's confidential information to solicit plaintiff's accounts. Plaintiff instituted the present action to enforce the restrictive covenant signed by defendant.
Basically, defendant claims that plaintiff's motion for a preliminary injunction was properly denied because plaintiff does not possess an exclusive or near-permanent relationship with its customers, there is no evidence that defendant acquired trade secret information, and the trial court's discretion to deny the preliminary injunction was not abused. We reject defendant's arguments.
Ordinarily, an employer has no proprietary interest in its customers. However, an employer can utilize a restrictive covenant to protect itself from the disadvantageous use of confidential information revealed to an employee during the course of his employment. In addition, the protection of established clientele from takeover by a former employee is a legitimate interest of an employer. Thus, neither the existence nor the misuse of a trade secret is required to enforce a ...