Appeal from the Appellate Court for the Third District; heard
in that court on appeal from the Circuit Court of Peoria County,
the Hon. Charles Wilson, Judge, presiding.
JUSTICE CLARK DELIVERED THE OPINION OF THE COURT:
Rehearing denied January 28, 1983.
This action was brought by S.J. Groves & Sons Company against the State of Illinois in the circuit court of Peoria County on February 23, 1981, for an alleged breach of contract. The trial court granted a motion to dismiss filed by the State, finding that it lacked subject matter jurisdiction to entertain this action. An appeal was filed with the appellate court, where the decision of the circuit court was reversed (103 Ill. App.3d 538). The appellate court held that the State, in entering into a contract for highway construction, consented to be sued on that contract. We granted the defendant's petition for leave to appeal (73 Ill.2d R. 315(a)). We now reverse the appellate court and find that the circuit court properly dismissed the action.
Section 4 of article XIII of the 1970 Constitution abolished sovereign immunity. It provides: "Except as the General Assembly may provide by law, sovereign immunity in this State is abolished."
Pursuant to section 4 of article XIII the legislature enacted Public Act 77-1776 (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1979, ch. 127, par. 801), which provides that the State may not be made a defendant or a party in any court except as set forth in the Court of Claims Act (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1979, ch. 37, par. 439.1 et seq.). Public Act 77-1776 became effective on January 1, 1972, the same date section 4 of article XIII was to become effective (Ill. Const. 1970, Transition Schedule, sec. 1(e)). As this court said in Sass v. Kramer (1978), 72 Ill.2d 485, the legislature, "acting under the authority of the 1970 Constitution, specifically prohibited making the State of Illinois a defendant or party in any court." 72 Ill.2d 485, 490.
Section 8(b) of the Court of Claims Act (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1979, ch. 37, par. 439.8(b)) gives the Court of Claims exclusive jurisdiction over contract claims brought against the State of Illinois:
"The court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine the following matters:
(b) All claims against the state founded upon any contract entered into with the State of Illinois." Ill. Rev. Stat. 1979, ch. 37, par. 439.8(b).
The roots of sovereign immunity lie in the common law of England. The State of Illinois adopted the common law of England as it existed "prior to the fourth year of James the First." (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1979, ch. 1, par. 801). In early English common law no action could be maintained against the Crown. (11 Halsbury's Laws of England par. 1401, at 743 (4th ed. 1976).) And as the United States Supreme Court pointed out in Feres v. United States (1950), 340 U.S. 135, 139, 95 L.Ed. 152, 157, 71 S.Ct. 153, 156:
"While the political theory that the King could do no wrong was repudiated in America, a legal doctrine derived from it that the Crown is immune from any suit to which it has not consented was invoked on behalf of the Republic and applied by our courts> as vigorously as it had been on behalf of the Crown."
No suit could be brought against the King because no court could have jurisdiction over him. 1 W. Blackstone, Commentaries 242. The reasoning behind the sovereign being exempt from suit is that "there can be no legal right as against the authority that makes the law on which the right depends." (Kawananakoa v. Polyblank (1907), 205 U.S. 349, 353, 51 L.Ed. 834, 836, 27 S.Ct. 526, 527.) A petition of right developed for claims against the Crown as the sovereign began to assent to proceedings asserting legal or equitable rights in its own courts>. (See 11 Halsbury's Laws of England par. 1411, at 747 (4th ed. 1976); 9 W. Holdsworth, A History of English Law 22 (1926).) While the petition could not compel the sovereign to satisfy a debt (Thomas v. Queen (1874), L.R. 10 Q.B. 31), the Bankers case in 1699 ((K.B. 1699) 87 Eng. Rep. 500) allowed for the satisfaction of contractual debt through the petition. (Bankers deprived of their credit had been granted annuities by King Charles II under a covenant binding the King and his successors. Because the annuities were not being paid, the bankers sued by a petition of right for the debt owed them by the Crown.)
In the United States, sovereign immunity has been justified as a rule which embodies a policy that protects the State from interference in its performance of the functions of government and preserves its control over State coffers. Block, Suits Against Government Officers and the Sovereign Immunity Doctrine, 59 Harv. L. Rev. 1060, 1061 (1946).
Section 26 of article IV of the 1870 Illinois Constitution prevented the State from being subject to suit. Delegates to the constitutional convention expressed hesitancy at allowing the State to be exposed to an adversary proceeding in a court of law. (See 6 Record of Proceedings, Sixth Illinois Constitutional Convention 647 (hereinafter cited as Proceedings).) There was an expression among the delegates that an administrative hearing would protect the State against exaggerated claims while allowing for more flexibility than would be available under the rules of procedure in a court of law. See 6 Proceedings 647.
A Commission of Claims was created in 1877 to hear claims against the State (1877 Ill. Laws 64) with awards to be presented to the General Assembly for a final determination. The Act of 1877 was amended and expanded in 1889 and ...