Searching over 5,500,000 cases.

Buy This Entire Record For $7.95

Official citation and/or docket number and footnotes (if any) for this case available with purchase.

Learn more about what you receive with purchase of this case.


United States District Court, Northern District of Illinois, E.D

January 12, 1982


  Before Cudahy, Circuit Judge, and Grady and Bua, District

                            Rybicki I

The opinion of the court was delivered by: Cudahy, Circuit Judge.


In these consolidated reapportionment cases, three groups of plaintiffs challenge the validity, under the federal and Illinois constitutions and related law, of Illinois' 1981 state legislative redistricting plan (the "Commission Plan"). For the reasons set forth in this opinion, we reject the Rybicki plaintiffs' allegations, on behalf of Republican and suburban interests, of noncompactness, partisan unfairness and impermissible fracturing of counties (and other political subdivisions) and suburban communities. We accept, in part, the Crosby plaintiffs' claim, on behalf of black voters, that the Commission Plan unconstitutionally dilutes black voting strength. As a remedy for this unconstitutional dilution of the black vote, we adopt certain modifications to the Commission Plan, identified as Court Exhibits 1A, 2A, 7D and 7E (and related documents). We also approve as fair, adequate and reasonable a Settlement Agreement reached between the DelValle plaintiffs, on behalf of Hispanic voters, and the Commission defendants, and therefore approve certain further modifications to the Commission Plan, as stipulated in the Settlement Agreement.


Three groups of plaintiffs in these consolidated cases challenge the redistricting plan adopted by the Illinois Legislative Redistricting Commission (the "Commission") for the election of candidates to the Illinois General Assembly.*fn1 Plaintiffs in Rybicki v. State Board of Elections, No. 81 C 6030, allege that the Commission Plan fails to accord suburban voters equal protection of the laws by disproportionately concentrating voting power, and therefore legislative representation, in the City of Chicago. They also allege that the plan is politically unfair, contains numerous non-compact districts and indiscriminately fractures political subdivisions. Plaintiffs in Crosby v. State Board of Elections, No. 81 C 6093, allege that the Commission Plan intentionally discriminates against black voters by diluting their voting strength and providing white voters a disproportionate opportunity to elect candidates of their choice. Plaintiffs in DelValle v. State Board of Elections, No. 81 C 6052, allege that the Commission's redistricting effort similarly dilutes the voting power of Hispanics, thereby depriving them of a reasonable opportunity to elect representatives of their choice. All three complaints charge that the Plan violates the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, 42 U.S.C. § 1973 (1976), 42 U.S.C. § 1983 (1976), and Article I, § 2 and Article IV, § 3 of the 1970 Illinois Constitution.*fn2 Jurisdiction in each case is alleged under 28 U.S.C. § 1343 (1976) and the principles of pendent jurisdiction.

Defendants in all three cases are James Edgar, the Secretary of State of Illinois, who is charged under Article IV, § 3 of the 1970 Illinois Constitution, with publication of the legislative redistricting map; the Illinois State Board of Elections and its members who, pursuant to Ill.Rev.Stats. ch. 46, § 1A-8 (1979), are primarily responsible for the administration and supervision of elections in Illinois; and the Illinois Legislative Redistricting Commission (and its Democratic members individually), which is charged pursuant to Article IV, § 3 of the 1970 Illinois Constitution with the task of promulgating a redistricting plan in the event that the legislature fails to adopt such a plan.*fn3

On November 2, 1981, a three-judge court was convened pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2284(a) (1976) to hear these cases and, on November 23, all three cases were consolidated for expedited consideration. Trial was concluded on December 7, 1981, after the court had heard testimony from 25 witnesses and received into evidence more than 200 exhibits.

I. Facts

  A.  Procedural Background of the 1981 Legislature
      Redistricting in Illinois

Article IV, § 3 of the 1970 Illinois Constitution requires a redistricting of the Illinois General Assembly in the year following each federal decennial census. The Illinois Constitution provides the legislature with the first opportunity to adopt a plan that redistricts all legislative seats in the Illinois House and Senate in a manner such that an equal share of the population, under the most recent census, resides in each district.*fn4 If the legislature does not adopt a plan by June 30 of the first year following the census, an eight-member Legislative Redistricting Commission must be formed. The Speaker and Minority Leader of the Illinois House and the President and Minority Leader of the Illinois Senate each appoint two members to the Commission. The Commission may not include more than four members from one political party nor more than four members who hold seats in the General Assembly. The constitution further requires that the Commission complete a plan by August 10 of the year it is convened. If the Commission fails to agree on a plan, the Illinois Supreme Court provides the Secretary of State with the names of two persons from different political parties, one of whom is chosen by lot to become the ninth member of the Commission. The Commission then has until October 5 to file a redistricting plan approved by a majority of its members.

In view of the importance of legislative history to proof of a claim of intentional discrimination,*fn5 we set forth in some detail the background evidence of the redistricting efforts of both the legislature and the Commission.*fn6 During the first few months of 1981, the results of the federal census were delivered to ranking Illinois legislative and executive officials.*fn7 Figures in hand, the leaders of both parties immediately engaged the services of consultants to aid in both the development and political analysis of the possible redistricting plans. The political data utilized by both parties included voting results and patterns at the census tract level for a variety of legislative and state-wide races run from 1978 through 1980.

In the course of their preparations, the Democratic staff, under the direction of House Minority Leader Michael Madigan, solicited the views of all Democratic legislators. A number of black legislators told Madigan that blacks were underrepresented both in the legislature as a whole and in the party caucuses. A House Select Committee on Reapportionment also conducted public hearings to solicit the views of citizens in general. The Committee was advised at these hearings in Chicago of the desire of the black community for greater representation in the legislature.

By May, 1981, Republican legislators had created a plan which they introduced in the Illinois House. The Democrats had also succeeded in developing a plan which they submitted to the state Senate.*fn8 A major impediment to passage of both plans, however, was Madigan's fear that Governor Thompson, a Republican, would exercise his amendatory veto with respect to any plan presented to him. Consequently, neither plan passed and, in July, the Legislative Redistricting Commission was formed.*fn9

Before making his appointments, Madigan circulated among House Democrats a form requesting that they submit their recommendations for potential Commission appointees. Madigan stated that he had committed himself to the appointment of one member from a racial or ethnic minority. Although most of the black legislators recommended the appointment of Rep. Emil Jones, currently an Assistant Minority Leader, Madigan followed the advice of other black legislators, two of whom are plaintiffs in this case, and appointed a former State Representative and black community leader, Corneal A. Davis. Apart from Davis, there was no black or Hispanic representation on the Commission or on its staff.

The Democratic and Republican Commission members and their staffs worked separately and developed their own proposals. On the Democratic side, Madigan*fn10 and Martin Murphy (who is the Commissioner of Planning for the City of Chicago), worked on the Chicago and Cook County portions of their redistricting plan. Rep. Michael McClain, a Madigan appointee, drew the map for the so-called "collar counties" (which are those counties adjacent to Cook), while Senator James Donnewald busied himself with the downstate region. Commissioner Davis drew no district lines.

The Democratic Map*fn11 for Chicago and Cook County, which is the prototype for the map of those areas ultimately adopted by the Commission, was drawn according to a systematic procedure. The drafters began with the districts as they appeared in the 1971 redistricting map.*fn12 They intended to enlarge those districts that had lost population and shrink those that had gained. Throughout the process, Madigan solicited the views of all legislators, including black legislators, concerning various aspects of the map. The map was completed in rough form by the end of June. Although Madigan testified that he made no attempt to hide the Cook County map from various black legislators and community leaders and Hispanics, only Commissioner Davis had the opportunity to study the entire Chicago and Cook County portions of the map at this stage or at any time prior to its adoption as the Commission Plan on October 2, 1981.*fn13

Notwithstanding the fact that the Democrats had completed drafting the major portions of their map, the Commission held public hearings in Chicago on July 23, 1981, to obtain public suggestions for redistricting. A number of witnesses, including representatives of the black and Hispanic communities, presented their views on redistricting at these hearings. Several black witnesses testified that in the past blacks had fared poorly in the redistricting process; that percentage-wise the black population had increased in relation to the white population in Chicago between 1970 and 1980; and that any redistricting should accord blacks greater representation. The Hispanics pointed out that they had no representation in the General Assembly and urgently requested an opportunity to secure such representation. See Plaintiffs' Ex. 52.*fn14

Among the other witnesses who testified at the hearings were representatives of the villages of Oak Park and Evanston, as well as the Chicago neighborhood of Hyde Park. These communities, which had been fractured by prior redistricting, all requested that each be included in only one district. Although the protestations of black witnesses produced no changes in the draft plan, the drafters did revise the plan to accommodate the desires of these three geographical communities.

Unfortunately, the work of the eight-member Commission was doomed to failure from the start since neither side was willing seriously to negotiate with the other over various aspects of their respective plans. Whether this was due to the lack of mutual trust that permeated the legislative attempts at redistricting, the intransigence of both sides with respect to particular redistricting issues, the unwillingness of anyone to assume responsibility for a compromise or the Republicans' willingness to gamble on winning the draw for the ninth member is difficult to say. In any event, both sides stuck to their guns and, on August 9, the Democratic and Republican members of the Commission presented their respective plans for approval. With each side perceiving adverse political effects from the plan of the other side, the eight Commission members split along party lines on both proposals.

Pursuant to the constitutional procedure (of drawing by lot), former Governor Samuel Shapiro, a Democrat, was then selected to become the ninth member of the Commission on September 2, 1981. Governor Shapiro unsuccessfully urged a compromise between the Republican and Democratic Commission members before he ultimately acceded to the Democratic proposal.*fn15 On October 2 the Commission met to vote on what had then become known as the "Shapiro Plan."*fn16 The Republican Commissioners, now comprising an unenviable minority of four, criticized the plan as being unduly partisan and having a discriminatory impact on minorities in Chicago. Plaintiffs' Ex. 39 at 39-42. The Shapiro Plan was adopted by a vote of five to four, and it was officially filed with the Illinois Secretary of State on October 5, 1981.

B. General Considerations

We briefly describe the more salient features of the Commission Plan, together with an overview of the demographics of the State of Illinois before turning in detail to the evidence presented by the challengers and defenders of the Plan at trial. With respect to general characteristics, the Plan divides the State into 59 Senate districts, each of which is in turn divided geographically into two House districts.*fn17 The ideal population for each Senate district is 193,533. The total deviation of the Senate districts in the Commission Plan from this ideal is 1.59%, with an average deviation of .29%. The ideal population for each of the 118 House districts is 96,767. The total deviation from this ideal is 1.97%, with an average deviation of .42%.*fn18

A better understanding of the details of the Commission Plan and its impact on the plaintiffs in this case is facilitated by reviewing the demography of Illinois and, in particular, of metropolitan Chicago. Evidence presented at trial indicated that Illinois may, for reapportionment purposes, be divided into three or four areas: (1) Chicago, (2) Cook County outside Chicago, (3) the five counties adjacent to Cook (the "collar counties": DuPage, Kane, Will, McHenry and Lake), and (4) the remaining counties (i.e., the "downstate counties"). Of the 11,418,000 residents of Illinois, the 1980 census reveals that Chicago accounts for 3,005,000 (28%), Cook County (including Chicago) for 5,253,000 (46%), the collar counties for 1,849,000 (16%) and the downstate counties for 4,316,000 (38%). See Defendants' Ex. 121.

Chicago and Cook County constitute, of course, the largest urban and suburban center in Illinois. The collar counties are generally characterized as suburban and the downstate counties as rural. The tripartite (or quadrapartite) division of the state also generally correlates with political affiliation: Chicago is heavily Democratic while suburban Cook and the collar counties are predominantly Republican, as are many of the downstate counties.

Of the 5,253,190 residents of Cook County, 1,308,763 are black (21.5%). Approximately 84% of the Cook County black population resides in Chicago, where the blacks comprise nearly 40%, of the city's total population. The black population of Chicago is concentrated in two areas. The largest concentration is found in the South and Southeastern portions of Chicago, extending roughly from the city-center "Loop" area to Chicago's southernmost boundary. This area is, for the most part, over 85% black and it contains 792,000, or 66.2%, of the city's blacks. The area in question is commonly referred to as the South Side and is so denominated in this opinion. A smaller concentration of blacks exists in the West Central portion of Chicago, centered in the Austin neighborhood. It too is over 85% black and contains approximately 300,000 blacks or 23%, of Chicago's black population. This area has been frequently denominated the West Side in this litigation and is referred to as such in this opinion. Blacks also constitute a significant percentage of the population in and around the southern suburban municipalities of Harvey, Robbins and Markham. The concentration of blacks in this area of Cook County is not as high as on the South and West Sides, but it ranges from 35% to over 85%. The total black population in this area — 46,000 — is also relatively small. This southern area where blacks are concentrated has been denominated the South Suburban area.

A substantial Hispanic*fn19 population also resides in Illinois. The majority of Hispanics live in Chicago, where they number 422,061, or approximately 14% of the city's population. In general, the Hispanic population is not as highly concentrated as the black population. The Hispanic population is more dispersed than the black population, with Hispanics residing in various areas throughout Chicago. Notwithstanding this general dispersal, at least two major Hispanic aggregations are easily identified in Chicago, one on the Northwest Side and the other on the Southwest Side.

C. Evidence Adduced at Trial

1. The Rybicki Plaintiffs

The Rybicki plaintiffs submitted various testimonial and documentary evidence to support their claims of suburban vote dilution, lack of compactness of certain districts, excessive fracturing of political subdivisions and political unfairness.

Suburban Vote Dilution. The Rybicki plaintiffs argued that, based on changes in population between 1970 and 1980,*fn20 the collar counties are "entitled" to more and Chicago is "entitled" to fewer legislative districts than were accorded to these areas under the Commission Plan.

Under the 1971 redistricting plan, Chicago voters constituted part of the population in 20 Senate districts. Defendants' Ex. 12. Plaintiffs argue that in proportion to the City's 1980 population, the voters of Chicago should control or constitute a majority in 31 House districts and only 15.5 Senate districts. However, under the Commission Plan, Chicago voters "control" 35 House districts and 17 Senate districts.*fn21

Plaintiffs similarly observe that the number of districts controlled by collar county voters has not increased between 1970 and 1980, despite the population shifts from Chicago and Cook County to the collar counties evident in the 1980 census. Under the 1971 plan there were six Senate districts (then referred to as "Legislative" districts) entirely within the collar counties and five that overlapped into adjacent counties. Under the Commission plan, there are still six Senate districts wholly within the collar counties, but the number of overlap districts has increased to nine.*fn22

Compactness. The Rybicki plaintiffs allege that 15 House districts and 2 Senate districts are not compact.*fn23 The noncompactness of these districts is evident, according to plaintiffs, both under a visual analysis and as demonstrated by mathematical standards. In Schrage v. State Board of Elections, 88 Ill.2d 87, 58 Ill.Dec. 451, 430 N.E.2d 483 (1981), the Illinois Supreme Court invalidated former Commission House District 89, which extended 125 miles at its longest point and six miles at its narrowest, a length to width ratio of roughly 21:1. By comparison, Commission Senate District 19, the most egregious district on plaintiffs' list, extends 36 miles at its longest point and is two miles wide at its narrowest, a ratio of 18:1.*fn24

Defendants sought to minimize the significance of plaintiffs' compactness complaints by introducing examples of oddly shaped districts from the court-approved 1971 redistricting effort. See Defendants' Exs. 61 and 62. Moreover, the Commission's expert witness, Mr. Brace, testified that the irregular shapes appearing in the Commission Plan were necessitated in some circumstances to comply with the low (1%) population deviation standard employed as a goal by the Commission. Mr. Brace also stated that the desire to achieve some other redistricting goals, such as respect for the integrity of political subdivisions, communities of interest or natural boundaries contributed to the irregularly shaped districts. Plaintiffs attempted to rebut these arguments by presenting their own "Coalition Plan" which, they alleged, contained more compact districts.*fn25 But this alternative map also indicates the difficulty of achieving uniform compactness. The Coalition Map was drafted utilizing a less stringent population deviation standard;*fn26 nonetheless, as Defendants' Exhibit 62 demonstrates, even the Coalition Plan contains a number of highly irregular, elongated districts.*fn27

Political Fairness. The Rybicki plaintiffs also assert that the presence of noncompact districts is evidence of the Commission's intent to preserve a disproportionate number of Democratic incumbents. Moreover, plaintiffs allege that the extensive use of "overlap" districts designed to maintain the power of Chicago (and hence, the Democratic Party) by fracturing suburban areas, demonstrates the political unfairness of the Commission Plan. Defendants vigorously deny that the Commission Plan is politically unfair. Evidence submitted by the defendants indicated that historically, Illinois has been a "swing state" which elects Democrats and Republicans in equal numbers to legislative and executive offices. See Defendants' Exs. 23 and 24. In this connection, defendants analyzed the political effects of their map by examining past voting patterns for each census tract in every district.*fn28 On the basis of this analysis, defendants concluded that the Commission Plan would produce in the House 39 "firm" and 5 "soft" Democratic districts; 41 "firm" and 10 "soft" Republican districts; and 23 "swing" districts. In the Senate, it would produce 21 "firm" and no "soft" Democratic districts; 25 "firm" and 3 "soft" Republican districts; and 10 "swing" districts. Defendants observed that this alignment slightly favors the Republicans.*fn29

Fractured Counties. The Rybicki plaintiffs also introduced evidence demonstrating that the Commission Plan indiscriminately fractures political subdivisions. Representative Lee Daniels of DuPage County testified at length that fracturing can produce undesirable political consequences, particularly when a legislator is charged with representing areas that have divergent political interests. Representative Daniels pointed out that, even though Cook County and the collar counties have seemingly antagonistic interests on issues of transportation, taxation and education, nine Senate districts overlap between these two areas.

Witnesses for the Commission agreed that the fracturing of political subdivisions was not desirable; they disagreed, of course, as to how much fracturing was tolerable. The 1971 redistricting plan split 29 counties into two or more districts. Defendants' Ex. 75. Plaintiffs' evidence showed that the Commission Plan splits 48 counties into two or more districts, resulting in 122 separate fractures. Cook County outside Chicago is fragmented into nine parts, DuPage County into eight and Will County into seven. By comparison, the Coalition Plan splits 35 counties, resulting in 72 separate fractures.

Focusing more closely on the Chicago metropolitan area, we note that in the 1971 plan, eleven Senate districts were entirely within Chicago while nine overlapped into Cook County.*fn30 Two districts overlapped from Cook County into the collar counties. See Defendants' Exs. 9, 10. Under the Commission Plan, eight Senate districts are wholly within Chicago, eleven overlap into Cook County and seven overlap from Cook County into the collar region.*fn31

The alleged political result of overlapping districts in the metropolitan Chicago area is that a disproportionate number of seats are "controlled" by Chicago and Cook County voters. Defendant Commission members admitted at trial and in their depositions that they intended to achieve this result of widening the influence of Chicago voters.*fn32 Defendants suggest that, in the absence of overlapping districts in the Chicago and Cook County area, a redistricting plan grossly favors the Republican Party.

2. Crosby Plaintiffs

The Crosby plaintiffs introduced several types of evidence attempting to establish that the Commission Plan was the product of purposeful discrimination to dilute black voting strength and to unconstitutionally gerrymander districts in black population areas. Their proof may be categorized as evidence of (1) retrogression; (2) "packing" and "fracturing" of the black population; (3) movements of large racial populations in certain areas to preserve the incumbencies of white legislators; (4) "admissions" of certain Commission members; and (5) prior instances of discrimination allegedly practiced by the regular Democratic Party organization in Chicago.

Retrogression. The evidence showed that while the black population increased, both absolutely and especially in relation to the white population in Chicago and Cook County between 1970 and 1980,*fn33 the number of districts where black voters had a "meaningful" opportunity to elect a candidate of their choice did not increase appropriately. At the time of the 1971 redistricting, blacks constituted a majority in five Chicago Senate districts (21, 22, 24, 26 and 29). When the 1980 census figures are applied to the 1971 lines, blacks constitute a majority in six Senate districts (the former five districts plus district 28). Under the Commission Plan, blacks will constitute a majority in only five of the Commission Senate Districts (9, 12, 13, 16 and 17). Thus, although blacks increased in population, both absolutely and especially in relation to whites in Chicago between 1970 and 1980, they hold a majority in the same number of Senate districts as in 1971. Blacks are also a majority in one less Senate district than would have been the case had the current redistricting not occurred.

By contrast, white representation in districts where Chicago voters constitute at least part of the population has not diminished significantly. Under the 1971 district lines as applied to the 1980 census figures for districts wholly or partially located within Chicago, whites constitute a majority in 14 of the 19 Senate districts*fn34 even though they account for only 45.5% of the population in those districts.*fn35 The Commission Plan, under the 1980 census figures, results in whites being in the majority in 14 of 19*fn36 Senate districts wholly or partially located in Chicago. Although the white population of the City of Chicago has declined, the Commission Plan, which employs several more overlap districts than the 1971 plan, actually increased to 51.1% the white population in these Chicago-area districts, thus explaining, in part at least, why 14 of 19 districts are still populated by a majority of whites.

Packing and Fracturing. Packing and fracturing are the terms used by plaintiffs in this lawsuit to describe two somewhat different means of reducing the voting strength of a geographically unified minority group. Packing occurs when a minority group is concentrated into one or more districts so that it constitutes an overwhelming majority in those districts (and part of its vote is "wasted"). Fracturing occurs when a geographically unified minority group is unnecessarily split among a number of districts.

All five of the majority black Senate districts located in Chicago under the Commission Plan have black concentrations in excess of 80% of the total district population.*fn37 The black population is also highly concentrated in the 12 Chicago House districts in which blacks constitute a majority although black percentages in these districts are generally not as high as in the majority black Senate districts.*fn38

Plaintiffs also contend that the packing on the West and, in particular, on the South Side of Chicago was greatly furthered by drawing district lines which correspond to the racially segregated housing patterns evident in these areas. This South Side "wall," as plaintiffs refer to it, runs, for example, along the westernmost boundary of Commission House Districts 23 (94.33% black), 24 (98.43% black), 31 (98.44% black) and 34 (73.37% black), and separates these districts from predominantly white Commission House Districts 21 (4.03% black), 22 (4.18% black), 28 (9.27% black) and 29 (11.56% black).

Both fracturing and packing are allegedly evident in the voting districts on the West Side. Of the 300,000 blacks who reside on the West Side, approximately 160,000 reside in Commission House Districts 17 and 18, both of which are over 80% black. The rest of the black population is distributed among Commission House Districts 11, 19 and 20, which have black populations of 48%, 72% and 18%, respectively.*fn39 Defendants, of course, presented various reasons not related to packing and fracturing for the existence of district lines tracing racial boundaries on the South and West Sides, which will be discussed infra.

During the course of this litigation, the Crosby plaintiffs presented several alternative plans that they claim would more fairly and equitably promote the interests of black voters in Chicago. The Coalition Plan, which was offered as a completely packaged alternative to the Commission Plan, contains districts which incorporate more white areas into black-controlled districts, thereby enhancing black voting strength. By creating districts which overlap from black areas into neighboring white areas the Coalition Plan produces five Senate districts on the South Side with black populations ranging from 70% to 85%. (There are four majority black Senate districts on the South Side under the Commission Plan.) The Coalition Plan would also avoid alleged packing and fracturing of the black population on Chicago's West Side, by creating two black Senate districts (with black populations of 66% and 84%) and four black House districts (with black populations of 65%, 67%, 72% and 96%). (There is one black Senate district and three black House districts in this area under the Commission Plan.)

After trial was completed, another plan, denominated the "Crosby Plan," was presented to the court as an offer of proof. This plan reconfigures most of the Commission Senate and House districts located within Chicago and Cook County by allegedly reducing the coincidence of racial and electoral boundaries and increasing the number of districts in which blacks constitute a majority of the population.

Movements of Racial Populations To Preserve White Incumbencies. Plaintiffs presented evidence of racial population shifts in several districts, allegedly motivated by the desire to preserve the incumbencies of various white legislators or potential white candidates on both the South and West Sides. These districts included Commission Senate District 14, where incumbent Senator Jeremiah Joyce resides, Commission Senate District 18, where incumbent Senator Glenn Dawson resides, and various West Side districts, particularly Commission Senate District 8, home of Senator Philip Rock and Commission House District 15, which is part of Senate District 8. A detailed analysis of these population movements, which we regard as very significant, is included in Section III infra.

Alleged Admissions of Defendants. The drafters of the Commission Plan acknowledged that, at the time they drew the Map, they were aware of the relationship between legislative districts and racial demographics in the City of Chicago. Throughout the line drawing process, the drafters possessed color coded maps reflecting the location and the degree of concentration of blacks and Hispanics in metropolitan Chicago. Extensive population statistics reflecting the percentages of minority groups as well as statistics showing their population growth between 1970 and 1980 were also available to the Commission.

Representative Madigan who, together with Commissioner Murphy, drew the Chicago portion of the plan, stated that he studied the maps and that he was aware of the percentages of blacks placed in each district.*fn40 Representative Madigan and Commissioner Murphy also testified that racial factors, including the existence of racial feeling antagonistic to blacks in some South and Southwest Side white communities, were taken into account in drawing the district boundaries. See Tr. at 1432 (remarks of Rep. Madigan); 1838-39 (remarks of Comm'r Murphy). Neither Madigan nor Murphy indicated, however, that any district lines were drawn for the purpose of diluting black voting strength.

History of Civil Rights Violations in Chicago. To strengthen the inference of intentional discrimination against blacks, the Crosby plaintiffs introduced evidence of past racial discrimination by the City of Chicago and, allegedly, by the City's regular Democratic organization. In particular, plaintiffs pointed to several lawsuits involving the Chicago Police*fn41 and Fire Departments,*fn42 the Chicago Housing Authority,*fn43 and the Board of Education*fn44 in which the city defendants were either found to have discriminated against blacks or entered into consent decrees which recognized the existence of racial bias within the agency. Plaintiffs noted that the heads of all three city agencies are appointed by the Mayor (inevitably a Democrat). Plaintiffs also introduced evidence of the new Chicago ward map, which they asserted to be biased, and which furnished a guide in some instances for the challenged legislative redistricting.

Interests of Blacks and Hispanics. Defendants introduced evidence indicating that the Democratic Party has strongly espoused the cause of blacks in Illinois. They noted that the Democratic Party has sponsored and passed civil rights legislation, social welfare legislation and legislation providing for bilingual education — all matters of special concern to blacks and Hispanics. Blacks in Illinois are overwhelmingly Democratic.

3. DelValle Plaintiffs.

The DelValle plaintiffs alleged that the Commission Plan intentionally dilutes Hispanic voting strength by fracturing the two largest Hispanic concentrations in Chicago among several House and Senate districts. The evidence presented at trial revealed that Representative Madigan and Commissioner Murphy were aware of the dilutive impact of the relevant districts on the Hispanic community. The Commission witnesses justified their choice of district lines by arguing that the Commission Plan accommodated projected migration patterns of Chicago Hispanics and, thus, that the challenged districts will eventually maximize Hispanic voting strength. As a result of directions from the court to the Commission and negotiations between the Hispanic plaintiffs and the Commission defendants, a Settlement was reached between these parties on January 7, 1982. The Hispanic plaintiffs believe that this Settlement Agreement provides Hispanics residing in both the Pilsen — Little Village (Mexican-American) area and the Humboldt Park — West Town (Puerto Rican) area a fair and reasonable (and, in fact, the best achievable) opportunity to elect candidates of their choice to the Illinois General Assembly.*fn45

  II. Complaint of the Rybicki Plaintiffs: Compactness,
      City-Suburban Overlap, and Political Fairness

The Rybicki plaintiffs allege that the Commission Plan unlawfully discriminates against suburban voters in the Chicago area, that the Plan contains noncompact districts, that political subdivisions are unnecessarily fractured and that the Plan is not politically fair.*fn46 We first consider the claims of noncompactness under Illinois law before considering the claims of discrimination against suburban voters and political fairness under the appropriate federal constitutional standards. We also consider fracturing of political subdivisions under the appropriate law.

A. Compactness

Art. IV, § 3(a), Ill. Const. (1970), provides that "[l]egislative districts shall be compact, contiguous and substantially equal in population."*fn47 The substance of this provision was first incorporated into the Illinois Constitution of 1870, and the drafters of the Illinois Constitution of 1970 reincorporated the provision into the current constitution. See 6 Record of Proceedings, Sixth Illinois Constitutional Convention, 1352-53 (1972). Although seldom interpreted by the Illinois courts, see, e.g., People ex rel. Woodyatt v. Thompson, 155 Ill. 451, 40 N.E. 307 (1895); People ex rel. Scott v. Grivetti, 50 Ill.2d 156, 277 N.E.2d 881 (1971) cert. denied, 407 U.S. 921, 92 S.Ct. 2460, 32 L.Ed.2d 806 (1972), this provision was most recently construed by the Illinois Supreme Court in Schrage v. State Board of Elections, 88 Ill.2d 87, 58 Ill.Dec. 451, 430 N.E.2d 483 (1981), a case arising out of the redistricting plan presently under challenge. In Schrage, the Illinois Supreme Court considered a challenge under this provision to one representative district (the 89th) created by the Commission Plan. In the course of invalidating the Commission Plan with respect to this district (and, concomitantly, to the 90th representative district), the court adopted an "eyeball" standard to determine if a given district met the compactness requirement:*fn48

    It is possible to establish a mathematically
  precise standard of compactness. . . . However,
  we find it unnecessary to adopt such a procedure
  in this case. Rather, we can rely on a visual
  examination of the questioned district as other
  courts have done. . . .

    A visual examination of Representative District
  89 reveals a tortured, extremely elongated form
  which is not compact in any sense. . . . Nor were
  the plaintiffs able to advance any reason which
  might possibly justify such a radical departure
  from the constitutional requirement of
  compactness in this case.

Schrage, 88 Ill.2d at 98, 58 Ill.Dec. 451, 430 N.E.2d 483.

Plaintiffs have directed our attention to numerous districts which allegedly lack compactness.*fn49 Several other witnesses identified districts that, in their opinion, represented such shapes as a "microscope" or a "Buddha" and thus lacked compactness. Finally, plaintiffs have also directed our attention to examples of legislative districts found to be noncompact in cases other than Schrage but interpreting similar requirements of compactness. See, e.g., Preisler v. Doherty, 365 Mo. 460, 284 S.W.2d 427 (1955); State ex rel. Barrett v. Hitchcock, 241 Mo. 433, 146 S.W. 40 (1912); In re Sherill, 188 N.Y. 185, 81 N.E. 124 (1907).*fn50

We have examined the districts described by plaintiffs as noncompact and conclude that under the principles articulated in Schrage, none of the districts in the Commission Plan reveal "a tortured, extremely elongated [or other] form which is not compact in any sense." Schrage, 88 Ill.2d at 98, 58 Ill.Dec. 451, 430 N.E.2d 483. In reaching this conclusion, we are, of course, mindful that the compactness standard is recognized by Illinois as a means to "improv[e] legislative representation through seeking to insure that districts are not gerrymandered," 6 Record of Proceedings, Sixth Illinois Constitutional Convention 1353 (1972) (Report of the Legislative Comm.). Consistent with this goal, the Illinois Supreme Court reemphasized in Schrage that the constitutional compactness standard cannot be ignored. Schrage, at 96, 58 Ill.Dec. 451, 430 N.E.2d 483. We clearly recognize the importance of the compactness standard not only because Illinois law and its interpretation by Illinois courts is controlling on this issue but also because we agree with the underlying policies and ideals on which Schrage is based. Nevertheless, we are aware of the various difficulties involved in drawing legislative districts and the constraints imposed by the one- person, one-vote standard, the imperatives of census tract data, the desire to follow natural, ecological and political boundaries, and the competing demands of incumbents, voters and the courts.

Bearing in mind these considerations, we note that no other districts in the Commission Plan are as relatively noncompact as Commission House Districts 89 and 90 (before their modification by the Illinois Supreme Court in Schrage).*fn51 Indeed, although plaintiffs identified many districts in the Commission Plan as noncompact, a quick perusal of the plaintiffs' alternative Coalition Plan reveals that it contains districts also comparatively lacking in strict compactness. This comparison with the Coalition Plan is significant because it reveals the problems with compactness which pervade many approaches to similar redistricting problems. Thus, we decline to invalidate the Commission Plan, or any of its individual districts, as lacking in compactness in the sense required by the Illinois Constitution.

  B.  Fracturing Political Subdivision Boundaries, Overlap
      Between Urban and Suburban Districts and Suburban Vote

Plaintiffs contend that the Commission Plan unduly fractures or splits political subdivisions in Illinois, especially counties.*fn52 By drawing districts which "overlap" a county line, plaintiffs argue that the defendants violated their own criteria of keeping political subdivisions and their concomitant communities of interest intact within the same legislative district.*fn53 The most vehemently criticized fracturing noted in the Commission Plan involves districts that "overlap" between the City of Chicago and Cook County. There was also strong criticism of the number of districts which "overlap" between Cook County and the "collar" counties.*fn54 According to the plaintiffs, the net effect of districts which overlap from Chicago into the suburbs is the impermissible minimization of the voting strength of suburban residents (who are predominantly Republican voters in contrast to the predominantly Democratic voters residing in Chicago). This alleged minimization of suburban voting strength assertedly violates the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection.

Although they do not deny that their plan in fact fractures many political subdivisions, several Commission members testified that two of their guiding criteria in designing districts were to minimize the number of fractures and to maintain communities of interest. Defendants argue that the Commission Plan does not unduly violate these redistricting criteria. Defendants also concede that they intentionally created districts that overlap between Chicago and surrounding areas in Cook County and between Cook County and the collar counties. The bulk of the overlap districts between Chicago and its suburbs were created, according to the Commission members, by generally following the district lines from the 1971 districting plan, with adjustments where necessary to add or subtract population to meet the population equality standard. Moreover, defendants concede that a major motivating factor for creating overlap districts was to enhance and maximize the influence of Chicago, its voters and the Democratic party in the General Assembly. We address first the question of alleged indiscriminate fracturing of political subdivision boundaries before considering the claim of suburban vote dilution under the Fourteenth Amendment.

Plaintiffs argue that the "overlap" district lines, as well as other district lines which indiscriminately fracture municipal, township and county boundaries, impermissibly split recognized communities of interest by indiscriminately fracturing political subdivision boundaries. As evidence of this, plaintiffs point to various examples of alleged divergence of interest between the residents of Chicago and suburbanites, or between residents of one county (particularly Cook County) or of a group of counties and residents of neighboring counties.*fn55 Although this argument has some force, plaintiffs have not cited any legal authority which would require (or authorize) us to invalidate the Commission Plan on such a ground.*fn56 In fact, the 1970 Illinois Constitution did not reenact those provisions of the 1870 Constitution that required districts outside Cook County to "be bounded by county lines unless the population of any county entitled it to more than one representative district." Art. IV, § 7, Ill. Const., (1970) (repealed).*fn57 Moreover, districts that overlap between Chicago and suburban Cook County were approved by the Illinois Supreme Court in People ex rel. Scott v. Grivetti, 50 Ill.2d 156, 277 N.E.2d 881, 888 (1971), cert. denied, 407 U.S. 921, 92 S.Ct. 2460, 32 L.Ed.2d 806 (1972), and the Democratic Commission members relied on that decision when they drafted their plan. Cf. In re Illinois Congressional Districts Reapportionment Cases, No. 81 C 3915, slip op. at 24-25 (N.D.Ill. Nov. 23, 1981), aff'd sub nom. McClory v. Otto, 454 U.S. 1130, 102 S.Ct. 985, 71 L.Ed.2d 284 (1982) (approving Congressional redistricting that creates districts which overlap between Chicago and suburbs).*fn58 Thus, we are unwilling to condemn the Commission Plan merely because it fractures a number of political subdivision lines or creates districts that overlap between Chicago and its surrounding suburbs.*fn59

The Rybicki plaintiffs also allege that the Commission Plan's overlapping Chicago/suburban districts impermissibly dilute the votes of suburban residents. These overlap districts were carefully designed, plaintiffs contend, so that most of them contain a majority of Chicago residents.*fn60 The voting strength of the suburban residents of these districts is allegedly diluted because the districts are controlled by the majority Chicago voters and their political organizations.*fn61

Although this argument has appeal, we reject it for two reasons — one grounded in policy, the other in the Constitution. The Rybicki plaintiffs' argument can be reduced to the simple proposition that the Commission intentionally failed to increase the number of "suburban" districts*fn62 even though Chicago lost population and the suburbs gained population during the 1970's. The Coalition Plan espoused by the Rybicki plaintiffs would cure this alleged infirmity by reducing the number of overlap districts, thereby increasing the number of districts located wholly outside Chicago. This shift would reduce the number of districts "controlled" by Chicago voters. Of course, at the heart of the Rybicki plaintiffs' claim seems to be the concept that Chicago voters are the highly disciplined "agents" of that city's political interests (including the interests of its dominant political organizations) — and that these interests are in major part inimical to the interests of suburban voters. We think there may be some reality to this concept although the record is quite uninformative on the subject in general. We also believe that the concept may exaggerate the submissiveness of Chicago voters and the gross antagonism of City and suburban interests. It is not disputed that, on some questions, some residents of Chicago may support positions strongly in conflict with those supported by their suburban counterparts. But to extrapolate from this modest assumption to a rule that Chicago residents must be excluded from any district including suburban residents is unsupported either by logic or by the record before us. The extreme parochialism in legislative districting seemingly espoused by the Rybicki plaintiffs is not required by law and has some tendency to derogate the intelligence and independence of the average modern voter. We think this approach may be somewhat more reflective of traditionally hallowed concepts than of current reality.

Our conclusion is not at odds with the Constitution. The Rybicki plaintiffs argue that any dilution of the votes of suburban residents by their inclusion in a Chicago majority district violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Although acknowledging that no clearly apposite Supreme Court (or even lower court) precedent directly supports this assertion, the plaintiffs argue that the Court has recognized that, in addition to racial or ethnic minorities, political groups of any nature may also assert a claim of unconstitutional vote dilution.*fn63 We decline to give the dicta or separate opinions cited by plaintiffs such an authoritative interpretation, especially in light of refusals by the Supreme Court to accord to political or other identifiable groups the same Fourteenth Amendment protections in the electoral context as are accorded to racial and ethnic minorities. As Justice White, writing for the majority, explained in Whitcomb v. Chavis, 403 U.S. 124, 91 S.Ct. 1858, 29 L.Ed.2d 363 (1971):

    The District Court's holding, although on the
  facts of this case limited to guaranteeing one
  racial group representation, is not easily
  contained. It is expressive of the more general
  proposition that any group with distinctive
  interests must be represented in legislative
  halls if it is numerous enough to command at
  least one seat and represents a majority living
  in an area sufficiently compact to constitute a
  single-member district. This approach would make
  it difficult to reject claims of Democrats,
  Republicans, or members of any political
  organization in Marion County who live in what
  would be safe districts in a single-member
  district system but who in one year or another,
  or year after year, are submerged in a one-sided
  multi-member district vote. There are also union
  oriented workers, the university community,
  religious or ethnic groups occupying identifiable
  areas of our heterogeneous cities and urban

403 U.S. at 156, 91 S.Ct. at 1875-76 (footnotes omitted). Accord, City of Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U.S. 55, 78 n. 26, 100 S.Ct. 1490, 1506 n. 26, 64 L.Ed.2d 47 (1980). See also Cousins v. City Council of Chicago, 466 F.2d 830, 844-45 (7th Cir.), cert. denied, 409 U.S. 893, 93 S.Ct. 85, 34 L.Ed.2d 181 (1972); Graves v. Barnes, 343 F. Supp. 704, 733-34 (W.D.Tex. 1972), aff'd in part and rev'd in part sub nom. White v. Regester, 412 U.S. 755, 93 S.Ct. 2332, 37 L.Ed.2d 314 (1973).

C. Political Fairness

A great deal of testimony was introduced at trial about the "political fairness" of the Commission Plan (and the Coalition Plan as well). The Rybicki plaintiffs argue that "[u]nder the guise of political fairness, the Democratic Commission members have drawn a map which sacrifices compactness and the integrity of political subdivisions for the preservation of incumbency." Rybicki Post Trial Brief at 26. We have already concluded that the Commission Plan neither lacks compactness nor impermissibly ignores the integrity of political subdivisions. We now conclude that what the Rybicki plaintiffs call the Commission's "overt political gerrymandering," Rybicki Post Trial Brief at 27, similarly does not require us to invalidate the Commission Plan.

As a prerequisite to our consideration of this issue, we note that partisan politically-based challenges to redistricting and reapportionment may be nonjusticiable. See WMCA, Inc. v. Lomenzo, 382 U.S. 4, 86 S.Ct. 74, 15 L.Ed.2d 2 (per curiam), aff'g 238 F. Supp. 916 (S.D.N.Y. 1965); Cousins v. City Council of Chicago, 466 F.2d 830, 844-45 (7th Cir.), cert. denied, 409 U.S. 893, 93 S.Ct. 85, 34 L.Ed.2d 181 (1972). Although plaintiffs seem ambivalent in their approach to political end- result as a test of fairness, they do contend that the Democratic-controlled Commission improperly designed districts to maximize the number of Democrats likely to be elected to the Illinois General Assembly. Nevertheless, we consider the political fairness issue here because it is inexorably linked to the questions of compactness and the integrity of political subdivision boundaries, see Wendler v. Stone, 350 F. Supp. 838, 841 (S.D.Fla. 1972) (Roettger, J., dissenting), and because the fairness question may require us to interpret the Court's decision in Gaffney v. Cummings, 412 U.S. 735, 93 S.Ct. 2321, 37 L.Ed.2d 298 (1973).

Plaintiffs' political fairness argument is premised upon the assertion that the Commission members, although claiming to have created a districting plan that fairly represents the balance between Republican and Democratic political strength in Illinois, purposefully designed districts that maximized Democratic voting strength while minimizing and fracturing Republican voting power. Plaintiffs also assert that the Commission purposefully "gerrymandered" districts "to enhance the ability of Democratic incumbents . . . to get reelected." Rybicki Post Trial Brief at 27.

Aside from the questions of detailed techniques, such as the alleged creation of noncompact districts and the dilution of the suburban vote (which we have discussed, supra), plaintiffs apparently assert the broader proposition that the end-result of these efforts — an overall bias toward a Democratic legislature — is constitutionally impermissible. We note, however, that the Rybicki plaintiffs never presented evidence of what result in detail they expected from the Commission Map. The Commission, on the other hand, did adduce such evidence.

We believe that plaintiffs' argument with respect to the fairness of political result misconstrues the Supreme Court's decision in Gaffney v. Cummings, 412 U.S. 735, 93 S.Ct. 2321, 37 L.Ed.2d 298 (1973). In Gaffney, a state redistricting plan was consciously designed, in "the spirit of `political fairness,'" to "achieve a rough approximation of the statewide political strengths of the Democratic and Republican Parties." 412 U.S. at 752, 93 S.Ct. at 2331. The challengers in Gaffney contended, however, that the plan was "nothing less than a gigantic political gerrymander, invidiously discriminatory under the Fourteenth Amendment." 412 U.S. at 752, 93 S.Ct. at 2331 (footnote omitted).

The Court, in rejecting the challengers' claim, intimated that a plan, in order to pass muster, did not necessarily have to be wholly "politically fair" in end-result or designed with total even-handedness to reflect the respective strengths of political parties in a state. Even a plan that reflected some partisan leanings on the part of its drafters should not be invalidated solely because the drafters of the plan indulged some partisan political biases. Based in part on Gaffney, we do not think it the function of the courts to attempt to totally depoliticize a process so inherently political as districting. As Justice White, speaking for the majority in Gaffney, explained:

    We are quite unconvinced that the
  reapportionment plan offered by the three-member
  Board violated the Fourteenth Amendment because
  it attempted to reflect the relative strength of
  the parties in locating and defining election
  districts. It would be idle, we think, to contend
  that any political consideration taken into account
  in fashioning a reapportionment plan is sufficient
  to invalidate it. Our cases indicate quite the
  contrary. . . . The very essence of districting is
  to produce a different — a more "politically fair"
  — result than would be

  reached with elections at large, in which the
  winning party would take 100% of the legislative
  seats. Politics and political considerations are
  inseparable from districting and
  apportionment. . . . The reality is that
  districting inevitably has and is intended to have
  substantial political consequences.

412 U.S. at 752-53, 93 S.Ct. at 2331-32 (emphasis supplied).

We believe that the Gaffney decision in no sense mandates the invalidation of the Commission Plan solely on the grounds that Commission members considered partisan political advantage when drafting the Plan.*fn64 In any event the Commission presented extensive evidence to demonstrate that its Plan, like the plan approved in Gaffney, would achieve a fair representation of the two major parties in Illinois based upon past election results. Indeed, under the Commission Plan, the Republican party may control more relatively secure seats in the General Assembly than the Democratic party.*fn65 Cf. In re Congressional Districts Reapportionment Cases, No. 81 C 3915, slip op. at 21-22 (N.D.Ill. Nov. 23, 1981), aff'd sub nom. McClory v. Otto, 454 U.S. 1130, 102 S.Ct. 985, 71 L.Ed.2d 284 (1982) (Otto plan preferable because it approximates statewide political strength of two major parties). The Court's admonition in Gaffney is, we believe, equally applicable here: "[J]udicial interest should be at its lowest ebb when a State purports fairly to allocate political power to the parties in accordance with their voting strength and, within quite tolerable limits, succeeds in doing so." 412 U.S. at 754, 93 S.Ct. at 2332.

Notwithstanding the asserted and apparent statewide balance between the two major parties achieved by the Plan, plaintiffs still contend that the Commission Plan must fail because it was intentionally designed to produce in end-result a maximum Democratic party representation. This argument, however, does not, as we have suggested, rise to the level of a Constitutional contention. Although the Court in Gaffney refused to abstain entirely from judicial scrutiny of a state redistricting plan motivated in part by political factors, the Court expressly limited the permissible scope of the challenge to such a plan:

  What is done in so arranging for election, or to
  achieve political ends or allocate political
  power, is not wholly exempt from judicial
  scrutiny under the Fourteenth Amendment. As we
  have indicated, for example, multimember
  districts may be vulnerable, if racial or
  political groups have been fenced out of the
  political process and their voting strength
  invidiously minimized. Beyond this, we have not
  ventured far or attempted the impossible task of
  extirpating politics from what are the essentially
  political processes of the sovereign States.

412 U.S. at 754, 93 S.Ct. at 2332 (emphasis supplied) (citations omitted). It would be equally absurd for us to attempt to take the politics out of legislative redistricting. Plaintiffs do not assert, nor can they assert, that the Democratic-controlled Commission attempted to fence out or invidiously minimize Republican voting strength in Illinois. Similarly, we do not, in general, find fault with the efforts of Democratic Commission members to protect incumbent Democratic legislators. Indeed, the Supreme Court has expressly indicated that a redistricting plan is not per se invalid merely because the drafters considered the effect of district lines on incumbents of either party. See White v. Weiser, 412 U.S. 783, 791, 93 S.Ct. 2348, 2352, 37 L.Ed.2d 335 (1973); Burns v. Richardson, 384 U.S. 73, 89 n. 16, 86 S.Ct. 1286, 1295 n. 16, 16 L.Ed.2d 376 (1966).*fn66 Plaintiffs have not persuaded us that attempts by the Democratic-controlled Commission to protect some of its members or other Democratic incumbents would invidiously minimize Republican voting strength.

In sum, we do not believe that the role of courts in addressing alleged unfairness to political parties is equivalent to their role in evaluating unfairness to racial and ethnic minorities. The major political parties (absent "fencing out" or invidious minimization) are presumed to have the capacity to protect their own interests in the political process. The federal courts are not in business to compensate for political errors, misfortunes or strokes of fate, which may leave political parties at some temporary disadvantage. The case for judicial action on behalf of blacks and Hispanics is significantly different.

We conclude that the Commission Plan is not invalid because the Commission members considered (within limits) partisan advantage when drawing district lines.*fn67

  III.  Complaint of the Crosby Plaintiffs. Dilution of Black
        Voting Strength

The Crosby plaintiffs have alleged that the Commission unconstitutionally discriminated against black voters in this redistricting by intentionally diluting their voting strength and thereby denying them a fair electoral opportunity. These plaintiffs contend that the Commission Plan is a product of racial gerrymandering designed to limit the participation of blacks and Hispanics in the Illinois electoral process and to protect various white incumbents whose districts have become, in the 1970-1980 period, heavily populated by blacks and Hispanics.*fn68 According to the Crosby plaintiffs, the white leaders of the Chicago Democratic organization purposefully set out to undermine the vote of the black electorate and were successful in their efforts under the Commission Plan.*fn69

A. Fifteenth Amendment and the Voting Rights Act

First, we address the question whether, if proven, plaintiffs' claims of vote dilution are properly cognizable under the Fifteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment. Although an answer to this question may not emerge with blinding clarity from the Supreme Court's recent decision in City of Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U.S. 55, 100 S.Ct. 1490, 64 L.Ed.2d 47 (1980), we think that decision furnishes the most authoritative guide to the matter. In Bolden, the four plurality justices (Justices Stewart, Burger, Powell and Rehnquist), in considering the constitutionality of the at-large system of elections required by the commission form of government in Mobile, Alabama, held that the Fifteenth Amendment "prohibits only purposefully discriminatory denial or abridgment by government of the freedom to vote `on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude,'" and that this constitutional prohibition "does not entail the right to have Negro candidates elected." 446 U.S. at 65, 100 S.Ct. at 1498. Relying on the district court's explicit finding "that Negroes in Mobile `register and vote without hindrance,'" the four-justice plurality held that both "the District Court and the Court of Appeals were in error in believing that the appellants invaded the protection of [the Fifteenth] Amendment in the present case." 446 U.S. at 65, 100 S.Ct. at 1498.*fn70 We believe that under Bolden, plaintiffs' allegations of racial gerrymandering in the instant case, which do not implicate the rights of minority group members to register and vote without hindrance, but can only entail the asserted right to have candidates favored by the protected groups elected, similarly fail to invade the province of the Fifteenth Amendment.

Accordingly, the black plaintiffs in this case cannot recover under either the Fifteenth Amendment or under Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1973 (1976), which the Bolden Court held to be equivalent in basic content and effect to the Fifteenth Amendment. City of Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U.S. at 60-61, 100 S.Ct. at 1495- 96; see McMillan v. Escambia County, 638 F.2d 1239, 1242 n. 8 (5th Cir.), cert. dismissed, 453 U.S. 946, 102 S.Ct. 17, 69 L.Ed.2d 1033 (1981).

B. Fourteenth Amendment

The primary issue in this case is thus whether the Crosby plaintiffs' vote dilution claim entitles them to any relief under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Bolden, of course, held that voting strength dilution challenges to legislative apportionments "could violate the Fourteenth Amendment if their purpose were invidiously to minimize or cancel out the voting potential of racial or ethnic minorities." 446 U.S. at 66, 100 S.Ct. at 1499.*fn71 The Bolden Court went on to hold that, to sustain a voting strength dilution claim, a "plaintiff must prove that the disputed plan was `conceived or operated as [a] purposeful devic[e] to further racial . . . discrimination.'" 446 U.S. at 66, 1499 (quoting Whitcomb v. Chavis, 403 U.S. 124, 149, 91 S.Ct. 1858, 1872, 29 L.Ed.2d 363 (1971)). Thus, we must determine whether plaintiffs here have demonstrated that the Commission Plan was purposefully designed to foster racial discrimination. Before we make this determination, however, several preliminary questions concerning the nature of evidence acceptable to prove purposeful discrimination and the appropriate burdens of proof must be addressed.

1. Nature of Evidence and Burdens of Proof

In Bolden "[t]here were five clear votes (Stewart, Burger, Powell, Rehnquist and Stevens, JJ.) against the proposition that discriminatory impact alone is sufficient in vote dilution cases." McMillan, 638 F.2d at 1243 (emphasis supplied). In reaching this conclusion, the Bolden Court relied upon Washington v. Davis, 426 U.S. 229, 96 S.Ct. 2040, 48 L.Ed.2d 597 (1976); Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., 429 U.S. 252, 97 S.Ct. 555, 50 L.Ed.2d 450 (1977); and Personnel Administrator of Massachusetts v. Feeney, 442 U.S. 256, 99 S.Ct. 2282, 60 L.Ed.2d 870 (1979) as illustrative of the requirement that a plaintiff must demonstrate purposeful discrimination in order to prevail under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Bolden plurality also relied on previous electoral discrimination cases such as White v. Regester, 412 U.S. 755, 93 S.Ct. 2332, 37 L.Ed.2d 314 (1973), and Whitcomb v. Chavis, 403 U.S. 124, 91 S.Ct. 1858, 29 L.Ed.2d 363 (1971), to support their discriminatory purpose rationale. We agree that a discriminatory purpose must be shown in this case for plaintiffs to sustain a claim of racial vote dilution violative of the Fourteenth Amendment.

In Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., 429 U.S. 252, 266, 97 S.Ct. 555, 564, 50 L.Ed.2d 450 (1977), the Court noted that "[d]etermining whether invidious discriminatory purpose was a motivating factor demands a sensitive inquiry into such circumstantial and direct evidence of intent as may be available." The Fifth Circuit recently summarized the evidentiary sources alluded to in Arlington Heights which are useful for assessing the existence of purposeful discrimination as follows:

  (1) the historical background of the action,
  particularly if a series of actions have been
  taken for invidious purposes; (2) the specific
  sequence of events leading up to the challenged
  action; (3) any procedural departures from the
  normal procedural sequence; (4) any substantive
  departure from normal procedure, i.e., whether
  factors normally considered important by the
  decision-maker strongly favor a decision contrary
  to the one reached; and (5) the legislative
  history, especially where contemporary statements
  by members of the decisionmaking body exist.

McMillan, 638 F.2d at 1243.

The Supreme Court's opinion in Arlington Heights also demonstrates that in order to establish a Fourteenth Amendment violation, a plaintiff need not prove that the challenged action was motivated solely by a purpose to discriminate:

  Rarely can it be said that a legislature or
  administrative body operating under a broad
  mandate made a decision motivated solely by a
  single concern, or even that a particular purpose
  was the "dominant" or "primary" one. In fact, it is
  because legislators and administrators are properly
  concerned with balancing numerous competing
  considerations that courts refrain from reviewing
  the merits of their decisions, absent a showing of
  arbitrariness or irrationality. But racial
  discrimination is not just another competing
  consideration. When there is a proof that a
  discriminatory purpose has been a motivating factor
  in the decision, this judicial deference is no
  longer justified.

Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., 429 U.S. at 265-66, 97 S.Ct. at 563-64 (emphasis supplied) (footnotes omitted).

Similarly, it seems clear that Bolden does not require that the purpose to discriminate be the only underlying purpose for the challenged redistricting decisions. The plurality opinion in Bolden relied upon Arlington Heights and Davis for its interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment, and as indicated above, Arlington Heights specifically rejects the "sole purpose" test. Justice Stevens' apparent contrary view garnered no support from other Justices.*fn72

The more challenging question is whether the analysis of Mt. Healthy City School District Board of Education v. Doyle, 429 U.S. 274, 97 S.Ct. 568, 50 L.Ed.2d 471 (1977), is appropriately applied to mixed motive redistricting cases such as the one at bar. Under the principles of Mt. Healthy (decided the same day as Arlington Heights), if plaintiffs are able to show that a discriminatory purpose was one of the factors in the redistricting, the burden shifts to the defendant Commissioners to demonstrate that the same redistricting would have occurred even if a discriminatory purpose had not motivated the Commissioners. In the case at bar, the Crosby plaintiffs argue vigorously that the Mt. Healthy analysis is inappropriate while defendants, relying on Givhan v. Western Line Consolidated School District, 439 U.S. 410, 99 S.Ct. 693, 58 L.Ed.2d 619 (1979); Wren v. Jones, 635 F.2d 1277 (7th Cir. 1980); and Nekolny v. Painter, 653 F.2d 1164 (7th Cir. 1981), as well as Mt. Healthy itself, argue with equal vigor that the Mt. Healthy analysis applies.

Defendants further contend that the applicable burden of proof in voting dilution cases has been modified by the Supreme Court's recent decision in Texas Department of Community Affairs v. Burdine, 450 U.S. 248, 101 S.Ct. 1089, 67 L.Ed.2d 207 (1981). They argue that under Burdine, once defendant Commissioners have articulated a legitimate, non-discriminatory reason for the challenged redistricting plan, the burden shifts back to plaintiffs to demonstrate that defendants' purported explanation is merely a pretext for intentional discrimination.

We agree that the principles of Mt. Healthy are applicable to the instant case. The Supreme Court in Arlington Heights explicitly noted and approved the application of the Mt. Healthy burden of proof standard to race discrimination claims:

  Proof that the decision by the Village was
  motivated in part by a racially discriminatory
  purpose would not necessarily have required
  invalidation of the challenged decision. Such
  proof would, however, have shifted to the Village
  the burden of establishing that the same decision
  would have resulted even had the impermissible
  purpose not been considered. If this were
  established, the complaining party in a case of
  this kind no longer fairly could attribute the
  injury complained of to improper consideration of
  a discriminatory purpose. In such circumstances,
  there would be no justification for judicial
  interference with the challenged decision. But in
  this case respondents failed to make the required
  threshold showing. See Mt. Healthy City Board of
  Education v. Doyle, post, [429 U.S.] p. 274 [97
  S.Ct. 568, 50 L.Ed.2d 471].

429 U.S. at 270-71 n. 21, 97 S.Ct. at 566 n. 21. And although Arlington Heights is not itself a vote dilution case, it furnishes a controlling precedent for intentional discrimination as a necessary element of racial vote dilution. See City of Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U.S. at 66-68, 100 S.Ct. at 1499-1500.

Applying the Mt. Healthy analysis to the instant case involves the following analytical steps. First, plaintiffs must establish a prima facie case of purposeful vote dilution under the principles established in White v. Regester, Arlington Heights and Bolden. Assuming that plaintiffs are able to make such a prima facie showing, the burden would then shift to the defendant Commissioners to establish that the redistricting in question would have occurred even absent the purpose to dilute minority voting strength. Thus, following the scheme of Wren v. Jones, 635 F.2d 1277, 1285-86 (7th Cir. 1980), once plaintiffs have demonstrated that racial discrimination substantially influenced the redistricting process, the defendant Commissioners must persuade the court, by a preponderance of the evidence, that they would have arrived at the same decisions and adopted the same redistricting scheme even absent the prohibited racial motivation.

We acknowledge that once plaintiffs have established a prima facie case, the Mt. Healthy analysis places upon defendants the heavy burden of demonstrating that the same redistricting process would have occurred, even in the absence of any prohibited motive. We also recognize that in the context of very complex reapportionment decisions the discharge of such a burden may be exceedingly difficult. But we also believe that under Bolden, establishment by plaintiffs of their prima facie case is quite difficult. Therefore, we feel strongly that once plaintiffs have sustained a prima facie claim, it is not unreasonable to shift to defendants the burden of showing that the same decision would have been reached even absent the influence of any discriminatory purpose.

We do not agree with the defendants' further contention that the three-part burden of proof test set forth in Texas Department of Community Affairs v. Burdine, 450 U.S. 248, 101 S.Ct. 1089, 67 L.Ed.2d 207 (1981), is applicable to the instant case. Burdine involved not a constitutional mixed-motive question, but a claim of disparate treatment under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.*fn73 The three-part burden of proof analysis articulated in Burdine, although appropriate for ascertaining the one "true reason" for a particular employment-related action, does not deal with the problem of evaluating mixed-motive decisions made by a multi-member legislative or administrative body. In the latter context, unlike in Burdine, the role of plaintiffs' prima facie case is not to "eliminate the most common nondiscriminatory reasons for the plaintiff's rejection," 450 U.S. at 254, 101 S.Ct. at 1094, but to establish the influence of at least some impermissible purpose in the decision-making process. Once this has been established, the judicial task becomes one of determining whether the relevant state actors would have arrived at the same decision even absent the effect of that admittedly improper purpose. We believe that the two-part burden of proof test articulated in Mt. Healthy and Arlington Heights, rather than the "pretext" analysis employed in Burdine, is most appropriate to this task.

   2. Evidence of Purposeful Vote Dilution on Chicago's South
                         and West Sides

With respect to the Crosby plaintiffs' claims, we believe that purposeful dilution of black voting strength, in several significant instances, has been demonstrated in the instant case. First, under the 1980 census as applied to the 1971 Chicago area legislative redistricting lines, blacks constitute a majority in six Senate districts (former districts 21, 22, 24, 26, 28 and 29). Under the 1980 census as applied to the Commission Plan, blacks will constitute a majority in only five Chicago area Senate districts (Commission Senate Districts 9, 12, 13, 16 and 17). This simple statistic is evidence of retrogression*fn74 from which a strong inference of a purpose to dilute may be drawn.*fn75 In addition, Dr. Amy Tsui, a sociologist and demographer from the University of Chicago, testified that in her opinion, implementation of the Commission Plan would result in a lessening — or retrogression — of the voting strength in Senate districts presently held by Chicago area blacks under the 1971 redistricting plan.

More precise and identifiable indications of a purpose to dilute may be found in the actions of the redistricting Commissioners with respect to Senate Districts 14 and 18 of the Commission Plan. Under the Commission Plan, black voting strength in former Senate District 28 under the 1971 district boundaries has been fractured by the creation of Commission Senate District 14, the district in which white incumbent Senator Jeremiah Joyce resides. Under 1970 census figures, District 28 was 73.8% white and 21.6% black. Under 1980 census figures, the black population of District 28 is now 106,830, making the district approximately 57.7% black and 39% white. To reach the ideal population for a Senate district, after the 1980 census, present District 28 had to be increased by approximately 8,000 persons.

The Commission, in the course of adding the necessary 8,000 persons to District 28, removed 34,000 blacks from that District and added 42,000 whites, thereby reducing the black population percentage in the newly created Commission district to 38%.*fn76 The result of this shift in racial populations, apparently to preserve Senator Joyce's incumbency, was to dilute the voting strength of the nearly 73,000 blacks who remained in Commission Senate District 14 after the shift in populations. It may, of course, be argued that this manipulation of racial populations in the district was accomplished for the purpose of maintaining the incumbency of a white Senator and was not necessarily indicative of an intent to discriminate against blacks qua blacks. We believe, however, that under the peculiar circumstances of this case, the requirements of incumbency are so closely intertwined with the need for racial dilution that an intent to maintain a safe, primarily white, district for Senator Joyce is virtually coterminous with a purpose to practice racial discrimination. Cf. McMillan v. Escambia County, 638 F.2d 1239, 1245 (5th Cir.), cert. dismissed, 453 U.S. 946, 102 S.Ct. 17, 69 L.Ed.2d 1033 (1981), ("[T]he desire to retain one's incumbency unaccompanied by other evidence ought not to be equated with an intent to discriminate against blacks qua blacks.") (emphasis supplied).*fn77

Similarly, black voting strength in former Senate District 30 under the 1971 district boundaries has been diluted in the course of creating Commission Senate District 18, the district in which white incumbent Senator Glenn Dawson resides. Under 1970 census figures, District 30 was 73.2% white and 26.1% black. Under 1980 census figures District 30 would be 46% white, 45.1% black and 8.9% Hispanic. The black population in District 30 is currently 85,997. To reach ideal population for a Senate district, after the 1980 census, District 30 had to be increased by approximately 2,000 persons.

In the course of adding the approximately 2,000 persons necessary to bring District 30 to ideal population, the Commission increased the white population in what is now Commission Senate District 18 by nearly 30,000 and decreased the black population by over 40,000 persons. Under the Commission Plan, Commission Senate District 18 will be approximately 60.4% white, 23.4% black and 16.2% Hispanic. The voting strength of the 45,000 blacks left in Commission Senate District 18 has thus been dissipated. As explained earlier, we believe that these shifts in racial population, even if undertaken for the immediate purpose of providing a safe Senate seat for white Senator Dawson, are so closely linked to a desire to minimize black voting strength that they constitute strong evidence of a discriminatory purpose.*fn78

Much of the black population that was formerly in the districts of Senators Joyce and Dawson has been moved into a new district, Commission Senate District 17, which replaces former Senate District 29 under the 1971 redistricting plan. Former Senate District 29 was represented by black Senator Charles Chew; he now resides in Commission Senate District 16 together with black Senator James Taylor, and there is no incumbent Senator in District 17 under the Commission Plan. Blacks are unnecessarily concentrated in Commission Senate District 17,*fn79 and the resultant "packing" of black votes wastes such votes. See Beer v. United States, 425 U.S. 130, 154 n. 12, 96 S.Ct. 1357, 1370 n. 12, 47 L.Ed.2d 629 (1976) (Marshall, J., dissenting) ("Is it not as common for minorities to be gerrymandered into the same district as into separate ones?"); Nevett v. Sides, 571 F.2d 209, 219 (5th Cir. 1978), cert. denied, 446 U.S. 951, 100 S.Ct. 2916, 64 L.Ed.2d 807 (1980) ("compartmentalizing or fencing out a group" constitutes unconstitutional gerrymandering). See also Note, Constitutional Challenges to Gerrymanders, 45 U.Chi.L.Rev. 845, 846 and n. 8 (1978) ("concentrating a voting block into one district of nearly unanimous opinion . . . wastes" the votes of the supermajority). This unnecessary packing represents intentional dilution of the black vote.*fn80

Again we believe that the immediate purpose of these movements of racial populations was primarily to preserve the incumbencies of two white Senators. But this process was so intimately intertwined with, and dependent on, racial discrimination and dilution of minority voting strength that purposeful dilution has been clearly demonstrated in the construction of Commission Senate Districts 14, 17 and 18.*fn81

On Chicago's West Side there is also evidence of racial vote dilution primarily with respect to the black population in Commission Senate District 8, and also to a degree in Senate Districts 9 and 10. Black voting strength in former Senate District 18 under the 1971 redistricting plan has been fractured by the creation of Commission Senate District 8, in which white incumbent Senator Philip Rock resides. Under 1970 census figures, former Senate District 18 was 90% white and 9.2% black. Under 1980 census figures, the black population of District 18 is 68,763 or approximately 36.7% of the District's population. To reach ideal population for a Senate District under the Commission Plan, District 18 had to be increased by approximately 6,000 persons. In the course of increasing former District 18 by the required 6,000 persons, the Commission added nearly 56,000 whites to what is now Commission Senate District 8, and removed over 51,000 blacks.*fn82 Commission Senate District 8 is now about 86% white, 9% black and 5% Hispanic.*fn83 The black population removed from former Senate District 18 did not, of course, disappear into thin air. The Commission had to find a new district for these blacks, and they found such a district close by — already heavily populated by blacks. Former Senate District 21, represented by black Senator Earlean Collins, contained, under the 1980 census, a black majority of 79%. The Commission redrew this district, now denominated Senate District 9 under the Commission Plan, by including some of the blacks removed from former Senate District 18. This Commission drafting exercise resulted in a further packing of black voting strength in Commission Senate District 9, increasing the black population to 81.4% of the district's total population. Some of those black voters whose votes were not wasted by being packed into Senate District 9 found that they were now fractured from the rest of the black community by their inclusion in Commission House District 11 (48.3% black). The remainder were included in Commission House District 19 (72.7% black).

The Commission also apparently succeeded in halting and reversing growing black voting strength in another Senate district represented by white incumbents. Former Senate District 19 under the 1970 district boundaries is represented by white Senator Edward Nedza. In 1980, the population breakdown in this district by race was 26% white, 35% black and 39% Hispanic. The corresponding Commission Senate District 6, in which white Senators Nezda and Steven Nash now live, has an increased white population of 47% with a reduced black population of 24% and an Hispanic population of 29%.

The Commission points with some pride to Commission Senate District 10, a "majority minority" district*fn84 in which white incumbent Senator John D'Arco resides, as evidence that the Commission did not dilute minority voting strength on the West Side. Although the Commission did not substantially alter either the population percentages or the boundaries of this district, the Commission's actions with respect to District 10 do not necessarily contradict the pattern of purposeful vote dilution at the expense of black citizens. The Commission's own witnesses readily admitted that it was unlikely that a black or Hispanic would be slated by the regular Democratic organization in this district. Hence, it is improbable that a black or Hispanic candidate could win an election against the white incumbent even though whites account for only 20% of the district's population. The split "majority minority" simply could not be expected to elect a candidate from within its own ranks against an organization-backed white incumbent.*fn85

Thus, 158,129 of the approximately 300,000 blacks residing in Chicago's West Side have been packed into Commission Senate District 9 consisting of two concentrated Commission House Districts 17 and 18. The remaining population has been fractured, primarily among Commission House Districts 11, 15 and 19. Under the Commission Plan, therefore, West Side blacks will have a decisive majority only in Senate Commission District 9 from which they will presumably be able to elect a Senator of their choice. They will have decisive majorities only in House Districts 17, 18 and 19 from which they will presumably be able to elect Representatives of their choice. The net effect of these racial population changes has been the purposeful dilution of the black voting strength on the West Side by at least one House District.*fn86

      3. Election Districts and Racially Segregated Housing

Plaintiffs also argue strenuously that the boundary lines for Commission House Districts 17 and 18 on the West Side and Commission House Districts 23, 24, 25, 31, 33 and 34 on the South Side trace in great measure the boundaries of the heavy black concentrations in Chicago. They argue, inter alia, that these lines create a racially-defined "wall" around the residentially-segregated black communities in Chicago, thereby appearing to confer an official governmental sanction on the residential racial segregation which exists in Chicago.

At the outset, we reject plaintiffs suggestion that any consideration of racial factors in the districting process automatically constitutes invidious discrimination under the Fourteenth Amendment. The Supreme Court in United Jewish Organizations, Inc. v. Carey, 430 U.S. 144, 97 S.Ct. 996, 51 L.Ed.2d 229 (1977) ("UJO") explicitly held that consideration of race in legislative apportionment did not constitute a per se violation of either the Fourteenth or the Fifteenth Amendment. In UJO, a group of Hasidic Jews challenged a New York reapportionment plan which split the Hasidic community among several state legislative districts, on the ground that racial considerations played a major role in the plan's formulation and adoption. In upholding the plan, the Supreme Court stated:

  Contrary to petitioners' first argument, neither
  the Fourteenth nor the Fifteenth Amendment
  mandates any per se rule against using racial
  factors in districting and apportionment. Nor is
  petitioners' second argument valid. The permissible
  use of racial criteria is not confined to
  eliminating the effects of past discriminatory
  districting or apportionment.

430 U.S. at 161, 97 S.Ct. at 1007 (emphasis supplied).

Although the Court's opinion in UJO relied in part on the fact that the New York plan was adopted in order to comply with the non-dilution requirements of Section 5 of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, at least five Justices agreed that the challenged redistricting plan, and the explicit consideration of race it embodied, would be valid "[w]hether or not the plan was authorized by or was in compliance with § 5 of the Voting Rights Act." 430 U.S. at 165, 97 S.Ct. at 1009 (Opinion of White, J., joined by Stevens, J. and Rehnquist, J.). See also 430 U.S. at 179, 97 S.Ct. at 1016-17 (Stewart, J., joined by Powell, J., concurring in the judgment). As Justice White explained:

    It is true that New York deliberately increased
  the nonwhite majorities in certain districts in
  order to enhance the opportunity for election of
  nonwhite representatives from those districts.
  Nevertheless, there was no fencing out of the
  white population from participation in the
  political processes of the county, and the plan
  did not minimize or unfairly cancel out white
  voting strength.

430 U.S. at 165, 97 S.Ct. at 1010. Justice Stewart in his concurring opinion invoked a similar rationale:

  The petitioners' contention is essentially that
  racial awareness in legislative reapportionment
  is unconstitutional per se. Acceptance of their
  position would mark an egregious departure from the
  way this Court has in the past analyzed the
  constitutionality of claimed discrimination in
  dealing with the elective franchise on the basis of

    The petitioners have made no showing that a
  racial criterion was used as a basis for denying
  them their right to vote, in contravention of the
  Fifteenth Amendment. . . . They have made no
  showing that the redistricting scheme was
  employed as part of a "contrivance to segregate";
  to minimize or cancel out the voting strength of
  a minority class or interest; or otherwise to
  impair or burden the opportunity of affected
  persons to participate in the political process.

430 U.S. at 179, 97 S.Ct. at 1017.

The Supreme Court's analysis in UJO indicates that plaintiffs here must do more than show that racial considerations have played some role in the drawing of voting lines on the South Side. In addition, they must demonstrate that the state used its redistricting authority as part of a "contrivance to segregate" or that the challenged line or lines were designed to minimize or dilute the voting strength of minority voters.

With respect to the Crosby plaintiffs' vote dilution claims (which are the primary claims advanced in this case), the most relevant district lines are the lines drawn along the western edge of areas that are 85% or more percent black on the South Side of Chicago. The challenged South Side district lines are pertinent here insofar as they arguably contribute to the "packing" of the black population. Plaintiffs' contention is that black voters are "packed" into South Side Senate and House districts, thus maintaining a situation where blacks comprise a very high percentage of the population in a number of these districts. According to the "packing" theory, black votes are "wasted" to the extent that black population percentages greatly exceed the percentage — suggested to be 65% —*fn87 needed in voting districts to elect black candidates. Thus, the argument is that if the South Side district lines did not correspond so closely to black residential patterns, substantial white populations from such areas as Bridgeport, Canaryville, Marquette Park and Marquette Manor could be included as minorities in the black-controlled districts, thereby increasing the power of black votes. The Coalition Plan presented by the plaintiffs illustrates this potential by creating more South Side districts in which there is a substantial white minority but where the black percentage exceeds 65% — the percentage presumed adequate for control. Plaintiffs therefore argue that the South Side district lines must be redrawn in order to alleviate "packing" and its concomitant vote dilution and, in effect, to increase black voting power by including a more substantial white population base in majority black districts.

As we have indicated, plaintiffs in this case must demonstrate purposeful vote dilution in order to prevail. City of Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U.S. 55, 100 S.Ct. 1519, 64 L.Ed.2d 47 (1980). Moreover, we must be convinced, under the Mt. Healthy standard, that different electoral boundary lines would have been drawn in the absence of a discriminatory purpose. We find that the evidence before us fails to establish a substantial purpose on the part of the defendants to dilute the black vote on the South Side through "packing". Cf. Canton Branch, N.A.A.C.P. v. City of Canton, 472 F. Supp. 859, 868 (S.D.Miss. 1978). Even had such a purpose been established, moreover, we think that defendants have demonstrated that the South Side districts would have been drawn as they were even absent any motive to dilute black voting strength. See Mt. Healthy City School District Board of Education v. Doyle, 429 U.S. 274, 97 S.Ct. 568, 50 L.Ed.2d 471 (1977).

Defendants explain the congruence of electoral and racial boundaries on bases other than those involving purposeful vote dilution. For example, Representative Michael Madigan, who drew the districts, testified that he actively considered the interests of black Representatives in fashioning the challenged South Side boundaries.*fn88 In addition, a number of black South Side legislators testified that the inclusion of neighboring white areas in their districts would place them in political peril and might lead to the nomination of a white in the Democratic primary. Success in the Democratic primary is tantamount to election in both the predominantly black and the predominantly white districts in this area.*fn89 Some of these black legislators also testified to the difficulty or impossibility of their campaigning effectively in adjacent white neighborhoods, and some testified that they did not believe they could effectively represent white voters in adjacent areas.*fn90 The record also contains evidence of racial animosity in white areas such as Bridgeport and Canaryville, which are adjacent to the "wall" separating black and white residential areas on the South Side.

Some of these reasons, of course, recognize the existence of racial animus or ill-feeling as a factor deterring the inclusion of white areas in highly-concentrated black districts. But such recognition by no means establishes a purpose to dilute the black vote. Cf. Johnson v. Board of Education of Chicago, 604 F.2d 504 (7th Cir. 1979), vacated for possible mootness, 449 U.S. 915, 101 S.Ct. 339, 66 L.Ed.2d 162 (1980), opinion reinstated, 664 F.2d 1069 (7th Cir. 1981). Obviously, this court cannot and does not condone racial animosity or ill-feeling between the races on the South Side of Chicago. But we think it our obligation to confine the present inquiries to the issues of voting dilution which are the basis of the complaint in this case. It is true that the "packing" of black votes on the South Side in highly concentrated black areas tends to "waste" the black vote. But it is also true that considerably greater dilution of the black vote could presumably have been achieved by "fracturing" parts of the black areas into minority fragments attached to neighboring white majority districts, so that the voters in these fragments would lose the opportunity to elect a candidate of their choice.*fn91

At certain points in this litigation, plaintiffs have suggested that the drawing of district boundaries which track racially segregated housing patterns tends to stigmatize racial minorities and to infringe upon the associational rights of minority voters. However, the record in this case is barren of any indication that black voters on the South Side are, or feel themselves to be, stigmatized by the challenged electoral boundaries, or that such voters would prefer to be associated, for voting purposes, with predominantly white neighborhoods such as Bridgeport and Canaryville. Indeed, the only testimony offered at trial concerning the allegedly stigmatizing effects of South Side voting districts was the statement of Representative Carol Moseley-Braun, a black legislator representing portions of Hyde Park and the South Side lakefront.*fn92 While we acknowledge the importance of Representative Braun's concerns, and have carefully considered her testimony, we believe that in the particular context of redistricting, the desirability of perfectly integrated voting districts must be balanced against the ability of blacks and other minority groups to elect candidates of their choice to the relevant political bodies. In this regard, we note that at-large voting systems, which theoretically offer the maximum degree of integration, or "color-blindness," are generally regarded as disadvantageous to minorities and have been repeatedly attacked on the ground that they unconstitutionally dilute black voting strength.*fn93 Our point here is not that racial polarization and stigma are unimportant concerns, but merely that in the particular context of legislative reapportionment, a purely color-blind (or integrationist) approach is likely to impede rather than enhance minority participation and effectiveness in the political process.

There is thus little or no direct evidence in the record that the alleged South Side "wall" was drawn for the purpose of diluting black voting strength. Certainly, we find it more difficult to infer such a purpose from the existence of the line than to infer such a purpose (as we have above) from the manipulation of racial populations in Commission Senate Districts 9, 14, 17 and 18.*fn94 Moreover, it seems clear to us that the challenged districts would have been drawn as they were without any reference to a purpose to dilute the black vote even if such a purpose were presumed or proven. Nothing is before us to suggest that the challenged electoral boundaries are, in and of themselves, invidiously discriminatory. Apart from questions of dilution and so far as this record discloses, a vote cast on the predominantly black South Side is precisely equal in weight to one cast in Bridgeport.

We also note that any adverse impact of the South Side district lines from the point of view of voting dilution would necessarily be felt by the black community as a whole in the City of Chicago as a result of the "wasting" of votes which would otherwise be available to form additional black majority districts. Such a dilutive effect is thus not specific to blacks living near the alleged "wall," who in fact have the opportunity to vote for and elect candidates of their choice. Moreover, as suggested above, a more marked dilutive effect on the black vote would have been achieved by running fingers from the white communities to the West into the concentrated black area so as to fracture the black vote and, in effect, cancel it out in majority white districts. Such a configuration would no doubt suggest purposeful dilution of the black vote much more clearly than the existence of a line which tracks, in part, the division between predominantly black and predominantly white communities.*fn95

In addition to their vote dilution argument, we understand plaintiffs to contend that the South Side district lines represent illegal racial gerrymandering of the sort condemned in Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 364 U.S. 339, 81 S.Ct. 125, 5 L.Ed.2d 110 (1960). We recognize that allegations of racial gerrymandering present a suspect circumstance requiring close judicial scrutiny, and that such gerrymandering, to the extent it exists, carries strong connotations of invidious racial discrimination. As the Supreme Court has repeatedly indicated, however, the gravamen of a racial gerrymandering claim is the deliberate "fencing out" of a racial or ethnic minority — that is, the exclusion or "canceling out" of such group's political influence in the relevant governmental unit. No such exclusionary purpose or effect has been demonstrated in the instant case.

Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 364 U.S. 339, 81 S.Ct. 125, 5 L.Ed.2d 110 (1960) presents the paradigmatic example of unconstitutional racial gerrymandering. In Gomillion, the Alabama legislature had redrawn the boundaries of the City of Tuskegee, altering its shape from a square to a "strangely irregular twenty-eight-sided figure." 364 U.S. at 341. Plaintiffs in Gomillion alleged that the redefined municipal boundaries eliminated all but four or five of the city's 400 black voters without eliminating a single white voter. The Supreme Court held that plaintiffs' allegations, if proven, clearly established invidious racial discrimination under the Fifteenth Amendment.*fn96 The Supreme Court's holding relied heavily on the exclusionary aspect of Alabama's boundary redrawing scheme:

  The result of the Act is to deprive the Negro
  petitioners discriminatorily of the benefits of
  residence in Tuskegee, including, inter alia, the
  right to vote in municipal elections.

    These allegations, if proven would abundantly
  establish that Act 140 was not an ordinary
  geographic redistricting measure even within
  familiar abuses of gerrymandering. If these
  allegations upon a trial remained uncontradicted
  or unqualified, the conclusion would be
  irresistible, tantamount for all practical
  purposes to a mathematical demonstration,
  that the legislature is solely concerned with
  segregating white and colored voters by fencing
  Negro citizens out of town so as to deprive them of
  their pre-existing municipal vote.

364 U.S. at 341, 81 S.Ct. at 127 (emphasis supplied).

In Wright v. Rockefeller, 376 U.S. 52, 84 S.Ct. 603, 11 L.Ed.2d 512 (1964), plaintiffs also alleged racial gerrymandering in the drawing of election districts. In their complaint, the Wright plaintiffs claimed that a New York state reapportionment statute, which divided Manhattan into four electoral districts, violated the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments by "establish[ing] irrational, discriminatory and unequal Congressional Districts in the County of New York and [by] segregat[ing] eligible voters by race and place of origin." 376 U.S. at 53, 84 S.Ct. at 604. Arguing before a three-judge district court, counsel for plaintiffs in Wright further contended that the challenged redistricting scheme presented "`a case of ghettoizing the Island of Manhattan' so as `to create a white Congressional district and a non-white Congressional district.'" 376 U.S. at 54, 84 S.Ct. at 604. Despite these allegations, and despite the presentation of considerable evidence indicating that racial factors had played some role in the redistricting process, both the three-judge district court and the Supreme Court rejected plaintiffs' constitutional attack.*fn97 The Supreme Court, in its opinion, expressly contrasted the invidious racial gerrymandering at issue in Gomillion v. Lightfoot, and emphasized the lack of an exclusionary motive behind the New York state redistricting scheme:

    We accept the District Court's finding that
  appellants have not shown that the challenged
  part of the New York Act was the product of a
  state contrivance to segregate on the basis of
  race or place of origin. That finding was crucial
  to appellants' case as they presented it, and for
  that reason their challenge cannot be sustained.

376 U.S. at 58, 84 S.Ct. at 606.

The Supreme Court's decision in United Jewish Organizations, Inc. v. Carey, 430 U.S. 144, 97 S.Ct. 996, 51 L.Ed.2d 229 (1977), also underscores the element of exclusion or "canceling out" necessary to support a claim of unconstitutional racial gerrymandering. The Court in UJO held that a redistricting body may properly take race into account so long as its redistricting plan does not "slur or stigma[tize]" any racial group, and does not "fence out" a racial or ethnic group from the political process, or "minimize or unfairly cancel out" that group's voting strength. 430 U.S. at 165, 97 S.Ct. at 1009-10.*fn98 Similarly, in Gaffney v. Cummings, 412 U.S. 735, 93 S.Ct. 2321, 37 L.Ed.2d 298 (1973), the Supreme Court recognized that redistricting plans may be vulnerable to constitutional attack "if racial or political groups have been fenced out of the political process," 412 U.S. at 754, 93 S.Ct. at 2332, or if district lines have been used "to minimize or cancel out the voting strength of racial or political elements of the voting population." 412 U.S. at 735, 93 S.Ct. at 2322 (quoting Fortson v. Dorsey, 379 U.S. 433, 439, 85 S.Ct. 498, 501, 13 L.Ed.2d 401 (1965)). Conversely, the Gaffney Court held that

  [C]ourts have [no] constitutional warrant to
  invalidate a state plan, otherwise within
  tolerable population limits, because it
  undertakes, not to minimize or eliminate the
  political strength of any group or party, but to
  recognize it and, through districting, provide a
  rough sort of proportional representation in the
  legislative halls of the State.

412 U.S. at 754, 93 S.Ct. at 2332. See also United Jewish Organizations, Inc. v. Carey, 430 U.S. at 168, 97 S.Ct. at 1011.

We believe that the instant case presents a situation much more akin to that in Wright and UJO than to the situation in Gomillion v. Lightfoot. Unlike the boundary adjustment in Gomillion, the South Side redistricting at issue here was not designed to "fence out" blacks or to impede their participation in Chicago politics. Nor do the challenged district lines "slur or stigmatize" a racial minority. Moreover, as was the case in Wright v. Rockefeller, black politicians representing the affected districts have testified in support of the challenged district lines and have expressed their discomfort with plaintiffs' proposed alternatives. See note 90 supra. Under these circumstances, we do not believe that the South Side redistricting represents either an unconstitutional racial gerrymander or an impermissible attempt to minimize or cancel out black voting strength.

Moreover, we believe there is a fundamental tension between plaintiffs' apparent desire for color-blind redistricting on Chicago's South Side, and the voting dilution theory which lies at the heart of plaintiffs' constitutional challenge in the instant case. Cf. Whitcomb v. Chavis, 403 U.S. 124, 156 n. 34, 91 S.Ct. 1858, 1875 n. 34, 29 L.Ed.2d 363 (1971). Voting dilution claims, including this one, are premised at least in part on the frankly race conscious theory of racial bloc voting — the idea that black voters will vote overwhelmingly for black candidates while white voters will support non-minority candidates. Indeed, the main focus of the Crosby plaintiffs' claims here is that there have been intentional efforts to minimize the impact of black bloc voting.

We thus find it difficult to accept plaintiffs' argument that the drawing of district lines which track, in some measure, the boundaries of racially identified communities is tantamount to government sponsored segregation. The immediate effect of the alleged districting "wall" in the instant case is that black voters residing in the vicinity of the wall will have the opportunity to vote for and elect candidates of their choice — precisely the opportunity sought in this case. Absent a showing of racial vote dilution or the fencing out of minority voters, we do not believe black voters are being denied equal protection merely because their districts contain few white residents who may share the opportunity to vote for the same legislative candidates. As we emphasized earlier, under the Commission Plan, a vote cast on the black South Side has precisely the same weight as a vote cast in Bridgeport. We do not foreclose the possibility that under some circumstances, the drawing of election district lines which track racially segregated housing patterns could amount to state imposed segregation and thus constitute invidious discrimination under the Fourteenth Amendment. See Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 364 U.S. 339, 81 S.Ct. 125, 5 L.Ed.2d 110 (1960); Wright v. Rockefeller, 376 U.S. 52, 59-62, 84 S.Ct. 603, 606-08, 11 L.Ed.2d 512 (1964) (Douglas, J., dissenting). We merely hold that such circumstances have not been demonstrated in the instant case.*fn99

4. Other Evidence of Racial Discrimination

The Crosby plaintiffs presented other, more general, evidence which they allege demonstrates a discriminatory purpose on the part of the Commission. We have considered this evidence, as summarized below, but we do not find it dispositive in resolving the issues presented in this case. We think, however, that it is at least consistent with our findings and with the remedies we have provided.

First, the plaintiffs directed the court's attention to their alternative Coalition Plan. They suggest that the assertedly simple, compact districts of the Coalition Plan provide a more meaningful opportunity for black and Hispanic voters to elect candidates of their choice than the "strange configurations" characteristic of districts in the Commission Plan. Although the existence of alternative patterns of redistricting does not, standing alone, support an inference of discriminatory purpose, the Coalition Plan does demonstrate the feasibility of avoiding retrogression of black voting strength through the creation of additional voting districts in which blacks will have a meaningful opportunity to elect a candidate of their choice. The Coalition Plan is thus of some, albeit limited, probative value in establishing purposeful dilution of black voting strength in at least some of the Commission's districts. Cf. Cousins v. City Council of Chicago, 466 F.2d 830, 843-44 (7th Cir.), cert. denied, 409 U.S. 893, 93 S.Ct. 85, 34 L.Ed.2d 181 (1972).

Plaintiffs also contend that the drafters' use of anticipated ward boundaries in the City of Chicago, which are alleged to be discriminatory, tend to establish intentional racial discrimination. Since ward boundaries have not been adjudicated to be discriminatory, we cannot conclude that the relation of legislative lines to ward lines is any more than marginally relevant to racial dilution by the legislative redistricting at this time. Moreover, alleged retrogression in the wards (which we understand to be a plausible basis of challenge to them) does not necessarily infect legislative districts, since legislative district lines only partially correspond to ward lines.

Plaintiffs have also cited as evidence of purposeful dilution "[t]he pattern of the racial discrimination in which the Democratic organization has long engaged in Cook County, through the Chicago Police Department, the Chicago Housing Authority, the Chicago Board of Education, the Chicago Public Library, and the Chicago Park District." Crosby Post Trial Brief at 3. Plaintiffs allege that the heads of each of these governmental bodies is appointed by the Mayor (and requires the concurrence of the Chicago City Council), and that these offices have long been controlled by the Democratic organization. We recognize that employment or other discrimination has been alleged and/or proven in many of these City activities. We are also aware that racial prejudice continues to manifest itself throughout the City of Chicago and in that City's Democratic organization, as well as throughout many other leading organizations in Illinois and the United States (including the courts). We believe that these perceptions are worthy of consideration in evaluating the issue of purposeful dilution of voting strength, and we have considered them fully in making our assessment. An analysis of the relevant Supreme Court precedents, however, convinces us that such general evidence of discrimination, not directly related to electoral participation, is, in itself, insufficient to establish purposeful vote dilution under the Fourteenth Amendment.

In City of Mobile v. Bolden 446 U.S. 55, 100 S.Ct. 1490, 64 L.Ed.2d 47 (1980), the Supreme Court explicitly disapproved the district court's reliance on racial discrimination in municipal employment and in the dispensing of public services to support a finding that the City's at- large electoral system violated the Fourteenth Amendment. Acknowledging that the Equal Protection Clause proscribes purposeful racial discrimination by any unit of state government, the Supreme Court plurality nonetheless held that "evidence of discrimination by white officials . . . is relevant only as the most tenuous and circumstantial evidence of the constitutional validity of the electoral system under which they attained their offices." 446 U.S. at 74, 100 S.Ct. at 1503 (footnote omitted). The Supreme Court in Bolden also rejected the lower court's reliance on past official discrimination as evidence of present discriminatory intent:

  [T]he District Court and the Court of Appeals
  supported their conclusion by drawing upon the
  substantial history of official racial
  discrimination in Alabama. But past
  discrimination cannot, in the manner of original
  sin, condemn governmental action that is not in
  itself unlawful. The ultimate question remains
  whether a discriminatory intent has been proved
  in a given case. More distant instances of
  official discrimination in other cases are of
  limited help in resolving that question.

446 U.S. at 74, 100 S.Ct. at 1503.

The Supreme Court in Bolden was careful to distinguish its earlier decision in White v. Regester, 412 U.S. 755, 93 S.Ct. 2332, 37 L.Ed.2d 314 (1973), in which the Court had held that multi-member legislative districts in Texas unconstitutionally diluted the voting strength of black and Hispanic voters.*fn100 The Bolden Court characterized the system attacked in White v. Regester as one in which "the political processes leading to nomination and election were not equally open to participation by the group[s] in question." 446 U.S. at 68-69, 100 S.Ct. at 1500 (quoting 412 U.S. at 766, 93 S.Ct. at 2339).

In analyzing the problems before it in White v. Regester, the Supreme Court underscored the district court's reference to the history of official racial discrimination in Texas, which had at times touched the rights of Negroes to register, vote, and otherwise participate in democratic processes. The district court had also found that

  since Reconstruction days, there had been only
  two Negroes in the Dallas County delegation to
  the Texas House of Representatives and that these
  two were the only two Negroes ever slated by the
  Dallas Committee for Responsible Government
  (DCRG), a white-dominated organization that is in
  effective control of Democratic Party candidate
  slating in Dallas County.

412 U.S. at 766, 93 S.Ct. at 2339. Moreover, the district court had noted that the DCRG "did not need the support of the Negro community to win elections in the county, and it did not therefore exhibit good-faith concern for the political and other needs and aspirations of the Negro community." 412 U.S. at 766-67, 93 S.Ct. at 2339-40 (footnote omitted). Finally, the district court had pointed out "that as recently as 1970 the [DCRG] was relying upon `racial campaign tactics in white precincts to defeat candidates that had the overwhelming support of the black community.'" 412 U.S. at 767, 93 S.Ct. at 2340 (quoting 343 F. Supp. at 727). Based upon this and other evidence the district court had concluded that "`the black community has been effectively excluded from participation in the Democratic primary selection process,' and was therefore generally not permitted to enter into the political process in a reliable and meaningful manner." 412 U.S. at 767, 93 S.Ct. at 2340 (quoting 343 F. Supp. at 726).

The district court in White v. Regester reached similar conclusions with respect to the Mexican-American community in Bexar County. Indeed, the district court found that the typical Mexican-American suffered a cultural and language barrier that severely impeded his participation in political life, and that this "`cultural incompatibility . . . conjoined with the poll tax and the most restrictive voter registration procedures in the nation have operated to effectively deny Mexican-Americans access to the political processes in Texas even longer than the Blacks were formerly denied access to the white primary.'" 412 U.S. at 768, 93 S.Ct. at 2340 (quoting 343 F. Supp. at 731).

Although racism certainly exists in the City of Chicago and in that City's Democratic organization, the record before us does not disclose a history of overt and systematic electoral discrimination comparable to that identified by the district court in White v. Regester. For example, Illinois has never had a white primary or a poll tax. Moreover, unlike the organization previously in control of the Democratic Party in Dallas County, the Democratic organization in the City of Chicago depends upon the support of the black community to win elections and must, therefore, be at least somewhat responsive to the needs and aspirations of black voters. The record in the instant case does not suggest that causes helpful to blacks have been ignored by the Democratic organization; in fact, just the opposite seems to be the case. The Democratic Party in Illinois has been a principal exponent of civil rights legislation and of social legislation important to blacks. It has also supported bilingual education, an issue of particular importance to Hispanics. In sum, there has been no systematic exclusion of either blacks or Hispanics from the Illinois political process comparable to the history referred to in White v. Regester.

On the other hand poor socio-economic conditions, unemployment, low voter registration and the like afflict both the black and the Hispanic communities in Chicago to an extent which may be comparable to that presented in White v. Regester. We conclude, therefore, that while plaintiffs' general evidence of racial discrimination in the City of Chicago supports our present findings of purposeful vote dilution, we place greater reliance on such specific factors as retrogression in black legislative representation and the manipulation of racial populations in the interest of white incumbents to demonstrate purposeful racial vote dilution than we do on the general acts and attitudes of city and state officials.

  IV. Complaint of the DelValle Plaintiffs: Dilution of
      Hispanic Voting Strength

At trial, the DelValle plaintiffs presented evidence in an effort to prove
that the Commission purposefully diluted Hispanic voting strength. There are approximately 425,000 Hispanics residing in the City of Chicago, comprising 14% of the City's total population. Although not nearly as concentrated as the blacks, the majority of Chicago's Hispanic population reside in two large aggregations, referred to at trial as the Northwest Hispanic group (primarily Puerto Ricans residing in the West Town and Humboldt Park neighborhoods) and the Southwest Hispanic group (primarily Mexican-Americans residing in the Pilsen and Little Village neighborhoods).*fn101 The DelValle plaintiffs contended that although Commissioner Murphy and Representative Madigan were aware of these sizable Hispanic population centers, they intentionally fractured both Hispanic communities by dividing each community among four separate legislative districts. Murphy and Madigan justified their decision by claiming that these districts were designed to accommodate future growth and migration patterns which they allege are characteristic of these Hispanic communities. Commissioner Murphy analogized this justification to buying a snowsuit for a young child — purchasing a suit several sizes larger than the growing child's present dimensions is warranted in order to allow the child to grow into the suit and thus prolong its use.

The Hispanics challenged this explanation by noting that no other racial, ethnic or political group was fitted to "snowsuit" districts and that the Commission's actions served to exacerbate existing underrepresentation of Hispanic interests in the General Assembly.*fn102 The DelValle plaintiffs adduced considerable additional evidence concerning further unsuccessful efforts to alert the Commission to their needs, changes in proposed districts to their detriment based on incumbent and other influences, the depressed socio-economic condition of their constituency and various other factors tending to show vote dilution.

During and after the trial and at the urging of the court, representatives of the Commission and the DelValle plaintiffs developed several alternative configurations for the districts in the two Chicago Hispanic communities. Negotiations between the parties (fortified by instructions from the court as to modifications of the Commission Plan) eventually resulted in a settlement proposal, embodied in Court Exhibits 7D and 7E, which was accepted by both the Commission and the DelValle plaintiffs.*fn103 Under the resulting Hispanic Settlement Agreement, Hispanics will constitute approximately 71% of the population in Commission House District 20, encompassing the Pilsen and Little Village neighborhoods.*fn104 The DelValle plaintiffs believe that Hispanic residents of this area will now have a meaningful opportunity to elect a candidate of their choice to the Illinois legislature. On Chicago's Northwest Side, Hispanics will constitute approximately 63% of the population in Commission House District 9 and 50% of the population in Commission House District 10. Commission Senate District 5, which encompasses these two House districts, will contain an Hispanic population of approximately 56%. The DelValle plaintiffs believe that the Settlement Agreement similarly accords Hispanics residing in this area the best achievable opportunity to elect candidates of their choice.

Under all the circumstances, we find that the Hispanic Settlement Agreement is fair, adequate and reasonable to Hispanics and affords them a fair opportunity to elect candidates of their choice to the General Assembly. Under the Settlement Agreement there is no purposeful dilution of the Hispanic vote. We further find that the Hispanic Settlement is fair to other minorities whose voting power is allegedly subject to dilution. In addition, we find that the Settlement Agreement is fair to the Commission and to all the voters of the State of Illinois, and is in accordance with state and federal constitutional standards. We therefore accept and approve those portions of Court Exhibit Plans 1A, 7D and 7E (together with other supporting documents that relate to redistricting of the House Districts 9, 10 and 20 and related districts) as a reasonable settlement of the DelValle claims. The changes produced by the Hispanic Settlement Agreement have been incorporated into the Plan and Map for the State of Illinois approved by this opinion.

V. Remedy

We have held that the Commission Plan unconstitutionally dilutes the voting strength of blacks in two areas: first, in Commission Senate Districts 8 and 9 (Commission House Districts 15, 17 and 18) on Chicago's West Side; and second, in Commission Senate Districts 14, 17 and 18 (Commission House Districts 27, 28, 33, 34, 35 and 36) on Chicago's South Side. Our work is not finished, however, with this finding of liability. In redistricting and reapportionment cases, the Supreme Court has instructed us to provide for a remedy that cures the unconstitutional aspects of a redistricting plan.*fn105 See, e.g., Connor v. Finch, 431 U.S. 407, 414-15, 97 S.Ct. 1828, 1833-34, 52 L.Ed.2d 465 (1977); Mahan v. Howell, 410 U.S. 315, 330-33, 93 S.Ct. 979, 987-89, 35 L.Ed.2d 320 (1973); Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533, 584-87, 84 S.Ct. 1362, 1393-94, 12 L.Ed.2d 506 (1964); Roman v. Sincock, 377 U.S. 695, 710-11, 84 S.Ct. 1449, 1458-59, 12 L.Ed.2d 620 (1964). See also Robinson v. Commissioners Court, 505 F.2d 674 (5th Cir. 1974); Graves v. Barnes, 408 F. Supp. 1050 (W.D.Tex. 1976). Because our finding of liability is limited to two relatively small groups of districts, we believe that the remedy should be designed to ameliorate the effects of unconstitutional vote dilution in those two areas. Cf. White v. Regester, 412 U.S. 755, 93 S.Ct. 2332, 37 L.Ed.2d 314 (1973) (approving district court order that disestablished multi-member districts in two Texas counties).*fn106

During the course of trial, the Commission, pursuant to direction of the court, prepared several plans (denominated as the Court Exhibit Plans) to incorporate adjustments to the original Commission Plan. Those adjustments were specifically directed at the districts we have now identified as the products of unconstitutional dilution of black voting strength.*fn107 We believe that the adjustments to the Commission Plan embodied in Court Exhibits 1A (South Side black objections), 2A (suburban objections) and 7B (West Side black objections and Hispanic settlement), together with their supporting documents, computer printouts and metes and bounds descriptions, adequately purge the Commission Plan of unconstitutional vote dilution and other errors without upsetting the broader contours of the Plan which have passed our close scrutiny.*fn108

To recapitulate, the remedy we have adopted eradicates the unconstitutional dilution of black voting strength by increasing by one Senate and one House district the number of voting districts in which blacks will have a meaningful opportunity to elect a candidate of their choice to the Illinois General Assembly. We have also approved as fair a Settlement Agreement that provides Hispanic voters residing on both the Northwest and Southwest Sides of Chicago a meaningful opportunity to participate in state electoral politics. Finally, we have accepted certain modifications in the Map proffered by the Commission for the Chicago suburbs.

The court therefore enters the following ORDER:

The foregoing memorandum opinion is hereby adopted as findings of fact and conclusions of law in this proceeding. It is therefore ordered that the State Board of Elections put into effect the Commission Plan, as amended by Court Exhibits 1A, 2A, 7B, 7D and 7E.*fn109 It is further ordered that said plan of reapportionment govern the election of Representatives and Senators to the Illinois General Assembly, beginning with the 1982 primary and general elections and continuing thereafter until these districts are again reapportioned in accordance with law.*fn110

Buy This Entire Record For $7.95

Official citation and/or docket number and footnotes (if any) for this case available with purchase.

Learn more about what you receive with purchase of this case.