APPEAL from the Circuit Court of Madison County; the Hon.
JOSEPH J. BARR, Judge, presiding.
MR. JUSTICE HARRISON DELIVERED THE OPINION OF THE COURT:
Plaintiff John Basden appeals from a judgment entered by the circuit court of Madison County on a jury verdict in favor of defendant Kiefner Bros., Inc. On appeal he contends that (1) the trial court erred in failing to rule as a matter of law that defendant was in charge of the work under the Structural Work Act; (2) the defense of contributory negligence was erroneously presented to the jury; (3) the jury was improperly influenced by the presence during its deliberations of an entire contract rather than the exhibit in its excerpted form; (4) hearsay evidence was improperly admitted at trial; (5) the trial court erred by granting defendant's motion in limine; (6) the trial court improperly refused to give a requested jury instruction. We reverse and remand for a new trial.
Plaintiff was employed by Joe Dittrich, d/b/a Air Tite Window Company, as a carpenter. Mr. Dittrich had been hired as a subcontractor by Kiefner Bros. for the replacement of windows at certain schools, pursuant to a contract between the Board of Education, Shawnee Community District No. 84 as owner, and Kiefner Bros. as general contractor. The contract for renovation work at numerous schools included a school at Grand Tower, Illinois.
Plaintiff testified that on Sunday, June 29, 1975, he met Mr. Dittrich at the Air Tite office in Granite City, Illinois, to pick up a scaffold, torches, tarpaulin, and other necessary tools for the job. On Monday, June 30, plaintiff drove to Grand Tower and laid out the windows which had been shipped to the gymnasium jobsite, laid down the tarpaulin and erected the scaffold. Plaintiff stated that the scaffold was aluminum with rollers on the bottom, and was 7 feet high, 2 feet wide and 6 feet long. A plywood platform was placed across the top of the scaffold. The windows which were to be removed were 14 to 16 feet above the gymnasium floor according to plaintiff.
Plaintiff further testified that on Tuesday, July 1, 1975, he and Kevin Gordon began work at the site. Plaintiff had not seen any employee of Kiefner Bros. that morning although he sought one out. Plaintiff placed his own 12-foot aluminum extension ladder on top of the scaffold to reach the work area. Plaintiff said he wedged the ladder in a wall radiator between the floor and window on which he was working, with the top of the ladder sticking out of the window, but he did not tie down the ladder in any other way. He testified that he had been up three or four rungs of the ladder working for approximately two minutes when the entire scaffold flipped out from the wall, and he fell with the ladder beneath him, causing extensive injuries. Plaintiff stated that neither the ladder nor the scaffold was defective and that the scaffold was solid with no foreign substance on the wooden platform. This fall occurred at approximately 10 a.m.
Plaintiff testified to the extent of his injuries and the testimony of physicians and other witnesses was presented to establish damages. Mr. Edwin Kiefner, president of Kiefner Bros., testified for the defense as well as Wayne F. Meyer, the Kiefner Bros. superintendent on the site. Mr. Meyer testified that three jobsites were involved in the contract — McClure, Wolf Lake and Grand Tower, Illinois — and that work at all three sites was being performed simultaneously. Mr. Meyer said he had stopped at the other sites on the morning of July 1, and arrived at Grand Tower at approximately 10:30 a.m. Mr. Meyer did not see plaintiff, but observed the scaffold properly standing inside the gymnasium. He also testified on cross-examination that pursuant to the contract, with which he was familiar, he was the superintendent in charge of safety and the safety representative on the job. However, he said he never asked plaintiff about safety, the type of equipment he would use, or whether he would use a ladder. Following argument and instructions, the jury returned a verdict in favor of defendant, Kiefner Bros.
• 1 Appellant first contends that the trial court erroneously denied his motion for a directed verdict on the issue of "having charge of" the work at the close of plaintiff's case. Section 9 of the Structural Work Act provides:
"Any owner, contractor, sub-contractor, foreman or other person having charge of the erection, construction, repairing, alteration, removal or painting of any building * * * or other structure within the provisions of this act, shall comply with all the terms thereof * * *.
For any injury to person * * * occasioned by any wilful violations of this act, or wilful failure to comply with any of its provisions, a right of action shall accrue to the party injured, for any direct damages sustained thereby * * *." (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1975, ch. 48, par. 69.)
It is well-established that "having charge of" does not carry with it a precise definition.
"The term `having charge of' is a generic term of broad import, and although it may include supervision and control, it is not confined to it. As was said of the word `charge' in People v. Gould, 345 Ill. 288, 323: `The word does not necessarily include custody, control or restraint, and its meaning must be determined by the associations and circumstances surrounding its use. "To have charge of" does not necessarily imply more than to care for or to have the care of.' Thus, while the actual exercise of supervision and control over the work and the persons doing it, or the retention of the right to so supervise and control, may be factors bearing on the ultimate factual question of whether an owner is `in charge,' they are not necessary or conclusive factors, nor is either made a sine qua non for liability under the statute. Rather, consistent with its beneficient purpose of preventing injury to persons employed in the extra-hazardous occupation of structural work, the thrust of the statute is not confined to those who perform, or supervise, or control, or who retain the right to supervise and control, the actual work from which the injury arises, but, to insure maximum protection, is made to extend to owners and others who have charge of the erection or alteration of any building or structure." (Larson v. Commonwealth Edison Co. (1965), 33 Ill.2d 316, 321-22, 211 N.E.2d 247.)
Rather, we must look to the totality of the circumstances to determine if Kiefner Bros. had charge of the work at the Grand Tower school (Norton v. Wilbur Waggoner Equipment Rental & Excavating Co. (1979), 76 Ill.2d 481, 490, 394 N.E.2d 403), and decide whether all the evidence, when viewed most favorably to Kiefner Bros., so overwhelmingly favors appellant that no contrary finding could ever stand. See Pedrick v. Peoria & Eastern R.R. Co. (1967), 37 Ill.2d 494, 510, 229 N.E.2d 504.
The agreement entered into between the Board of Education, Shawnee Community District No. 84, as owner, and Kiefner Bros., as contractor, entitled "Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Contractor," provided for the "General Contract Work on the Renovation Work" pursuant to architectural plans and other documents. One of these other documents, "General Conditions of the Contract for Construction," provided among the following:
"4.3 SUPERVISION AND CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES
4.3.1 The Contractor shall supervise and direct the Work, using his best skill and attention. He shall be solely responsible for all construction means, methods, techniques, consequences, and procedures and for coordinating all portions of the Work under the Contract.
4.9.1 The Contractor shall employ a competent superintendent and necessary assistants who shall be in attendance at the Project site during the progress of the Work. The superintendent shall be satisfactory to the Architect, and shall not be changed except with the consent of the Architect, unless the superintendent proves to be unsatisfactory to the Contractor and ceases to be in his employ. The superintendent shall represent the Contractor and all communications given to the superintendent shall be as binding as if given to the Contractor. Important communications will be confirmed in writing. Other communications will be so confirmed on written request in each case.
10.1 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROGRAMS
10.1.1 The Contractor shall be responsible for initiating, maintaining and supervising all safety precautions and programs in connection with the Work.
10.2 SAFETY OF PERSONS AND PROPERTY
10.2.1 The Contractor shall take all reasonable precautions for the safety of, and shall provide all reasonable protection to prevent damage, injury or loss to:
1. all employees on the Work and all other persons who may be affected thereby;
2. all the Work and all materials and equipment to be incorporated therein, whether in storage on or off the site, under the care, custody or control of the Contractor or any of his Sub-contractors or Sub-sub-contractors; and
3. other property at the site or adjacent thereto, including trees, shrubs, lawns, walks, pavements, roadways, structures and utilities not designated for removal, relocation or replacement in the course of construction.
10.2.2 The Contractor shall comply with all applicable laws, ordinances, rules, regulations and lawful orders of any public authority having jurisdiction for the safety of persons or property or to protect them from damage, injury or loss. He shall erect and maintain, as required by existing conditions and progress of the Work, all reasonable safeguards for safety and protection, including posting danger signs and other warnings against hazards, promulgating safety regulations and notifying owners and users of adjacent utilities.
10.2.5 The Contractor shall designate a responsible member of his organization at the site whose duty shall be the prevention of accidents. This person shall be the Contractor's superintendent unless otherwise designated in writing by the Contractor to the Owner and the Architect." (Emphasis added.)
These sections were admitted as plaintiff's evidence and portions of these provisions were also read to the jury.
Also, Edwin K. Kiefner, president of Kiefner Bros., Inc., testified under section 60 of the Civil Practice Act (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1979, ch. 110, par. 60) as follows:
"Q. * * * You were the general contractor on the job for the projects of the Shawnee Community District?
Q. One in particular was the Grand Tower school?
Q. You had a subcontractor, Air Tite, and maybe one other one on the job?