APPEAL from the Circuit Court of Lake County; the Hon. FRED H.
GEIGER, Judge, presiding.
MR. JUSTICE LINDBERG DELIVERED THE OPINION OF THE COURT:
Rehearing denied March 27, 1980.
The sole issue presented by this appeal is whether the trial court's refusal to clarify a point of law for the jury resulted in substantial prejudice to the defendant.
Defendant, Graylan Morris, was charged with the offense of burglary (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1977, ch. 38, par. 19-1(a)) at the home of Joseph Bakshis in North Chicago. Defendant was found guilty as charged following a trial by jury.
Defendant had been apprehended while attempting to drive away from the Bakshis home. Subsequent police investigation disclosed that defendant had Bakshis' bank book in his possession. Defendant indicated that he had found it. The police discovered that the back door latch of the home had been broken and a window had been removed from the living room. Additionally, Bakshis' stereo set had been stacked up at the front door and several of the bedroom dresser drawers had been pulled out.
During the course of the trial, a latent print examiner testified that Morris' palm print had been found on the living room window which had been removed from the Bakshis home. However, defendant's cross-examination of several of the police officers disclosed that the side of the window containing the palm print may not have been dusted until several days after the burglary. During that time, the window had been located in the same room where defendant was being questioned. Thus, defendant had the opportunity to place a palm print on the window subsequent to the burglary. He so testified at the sentencing hearing.
Defendant's mother and stepfather testified that defendant had been shot three times on September 13, 1977. One of the bullets was removed, but the other two remained in his body. Three discs from his back were also removed. Subsequent to the shooting, defendant walked with a limp. Moreover, police officers investigating the Bakshis burglary testified that defendant had complained of pain and had requested some medicine and a cane. Consequently, some doubt may have been raised in the jury's mind as to defendant's ability to lift the heavy stereo set or to attempt an entry of the home through the living room window.
Finally, an investigating officer testified that, upon questioning, Morris stated that he and Chris Armstrong had both been at the scene of the Bakshis burglary. Morris stated that Armstrong went to the rear of the home while Morris waited. After several minutes Morris searched, unsuccessfully, for Armstrong at the rear of the home. Morris then returned to his automobile and was stopped by the police. Armstrong was also charged with the Bakshis burglary, but was no longer in custody at the time of defendant's trial.
Following closing arguments the jury received the instructions. The jury was properly instructed as to the elements of burglary. (Illinois Pattern Instructions, Criminal, Nos. 14.05, 14.06 (1968) (hereinafter IPI).) Over objection of defense counsel, the jury was given People's instruction No. 10 allowing them to infer the defendant's participation in the burglary from his unexplained possession of recently stolen property. (See IPI Criminal No. 13.21.) No accountability instruction was offered by the State, and the jury was not instructed as to accountability. See IPI Criminal No. 5.04.
During the course of the deliberations the jury sent the trial judge a note with the following question:
"If a person comes into possession of property obtained illegally by another can he be presumed guilty of burglary even though he, himself, may never have illegally entered the building or removed the property?"
The trial court answered:
"Not a proper question! You must decide the case on the instructions as given."
The jury returned a verdict of guilty on the charge of burglary. The defendant failed to file a post-trial motion as required under section 116-1 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1977, ch. 38, par. 116-1.) The defendant was subsequently sentenced to a term ...