Appeal from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division. No. 75 C 2565 - Frank J. McGarr, Judge.
Before Fairchild, Chief Judge, and Pell and Tone, Circuit Judges.
This is an appeal from a dismissal of the plaintiffs' class action complaint as moot. We reverse the decision of the district court.
There are two sets of facts that are critical for an understanding of the issues raised in this appeal. The first is the rather complex set of facts alleged by the complaint. The second is the much more straightforward chronology of the proceedings and events below that led to the dismissal of the complaint.
At the time the complaint was filed the Illinois Department of Public Aid (IDPA) classified food stamp recipients into two categories, "assistance" households and "non-assistance" households. An "assistance" household was one in which each member of the household received some form of cash assistance. The DeBrowns, plaintiffs here, were an "assistance" household until July 1, 1975. A "non-assistance" household was any other household. The plaintiffs became a "non-assistance" household on July 1, 1975, because, although the notice they received from the agency did not say so, their oldest son, Barry, had become 18 and was therefore to be excluded from the family AFDC grant. The complaint alleges that in May, 1975 the DeBrowns received a notice from the IDPA informing them that because of the change in their household status, their food stamp benefits would be terminated on July 1, 1975 and that they would have to reapply if they wished to continue to participate in the food stamp program. The food stamp benefits were terminated as scheduled. The DeBrowns reapplied but had not yet received benefits when the complaint was filed on August 1, 1975. The complaint alleges that this "gap" in food stamp benefits is the result of the defendants' policy and practice of terminating benefits whenever there is a change in household status, regardless of whether or not, as in the DeBrowns' case, the IDPA knows that the family will continue to be eligible for the program. The plaintiffs allege that this procedure violates several constitutional and statutory requirements and seek compensatory, injunctive, and declaratory relief for themselves and for a class they seek to represent of all current or future public assistance households who have been, or may in the future, be subject to a similar termination because of a change in the classification of the household.
On July 1, 1975, Barry DeBrown's medicaid benefits were also terminated, allegedly without notice of any kind. The plaintiffs assert that this occurred pursuant to the defendants' policy and practice of automatically terminating the medicaid benefits of any dependent child when that child is terminated from the AFDC family grant because he or she has turned 18 and is not attending school. This policy and practice is alleged to be in violation of the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and applicable federal law and regulations, which provide eligibility criteria for medicaid benefits which are somewhat less restrictive than the Illinois procedures applied to AFDC eligibility, and under which Barry DeBrown would have remained eligible for medicaid benefits. Barry DeBrown seeks injunctive and declaratory relief on his own behalf and as the representative of a class of dependent children, age 18 to 20, whose medicaid benefits are terminated because they are no longer eligible for AFDC, but who nonetheless remain eligible for medicaid.
II. THE PROCEEDINGS BELOW
The plaintiffs received notice in the end of May, 1975 that their food stamp benefits were being terminated on July 1, 1975. On that date both their food stamps and Barry DeBrown's medicaid coverage were terminated. On July 7, 1975 the DeBrowns reapplied for food stamps and applied for medicaid for Barry. As of August 1, 1975, the date the complaint was filed, the DeBrowns had not yet received their July food stamps and Barry had not received a medicaid card.
On August 6, 1975, the plaintiffs filed a motion for class certification. On August 8, 1975, plaintiffs filed a motion for a temporary restraining order and/or preliminary injunction. On the same day the defendants restored the DeBrowns' eligibility for food stamps; granted retroactive food stamp benefits for July; and restored Barry's medicaid benefits. The plaintiffs then withdrew their application for preliminary relief. On November 13, 1975, the defendants moved to dismiss the complaint for, Inter alia, mootness. On February 17, 1976 the district court granted the motion to dismiss, finding that the court lacked jurisdiction because the defendants' reinstatement of benefits to the plaintiffs ended the controversy between the parties. On April 28, 1976, the district court entered another order denying the plaintiffs' motion to vacate, alter, or amend the February judgment, specifically holding that the complaint was not within the "capable of repetition, yet evading review" exception to the mootness doctrine. This appeal followed.
The "capable of repetition, yet evading review" exception to the mootness doctrine is well established. Sosna v. Iowa, 419 U.S. 393, 95 S. Ct. 553, 42 L. Ed. 2d 532 (1975); Gerstein v. Pugh, 420 U.S. 103, 95 S. Ct. 854, 43 L. Ed. 2d 54 (1975). In concluding that the exception was not applicable to this case, the district court considered neither the possibility that the DeBrowns could again be subject to a "gap" in food stamp benefits, nor the fact that a motion for class certification was pending when the defendants provided the benefits sought by the named plaintiffs. Instead, the district court concluded that the exception applied ...