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People v. Hill





APPEAL from the Circuit Court of Cook County; the Hon. BENJAMIN S. MACKOFF, Judge, presiding.


Defendant, John T. Hill, was charged by indictment with the offense of delivery of a controlled substance (to wit: less than 30 grams of heroin), in violation of section 401(b) of the Illinois Controlled Substances Act (Ill. Rev. Stat. 1973, ch. 56 1/2, par. 1401(b)). Upon a jury trial, defendant was found to be guilty as charged. Judgment was entered on the verdict and defendant was sentenced to serve a term of confinement of 1 to 5 years in the Illinois State Penitentiary.

From entry of the judgment of conviction defendant appeals and contends: (1) that the trial court erred in denying defense counsel's request for a sidebar conference; (2) that the trial court erroneously instructed the jury regarding the definition of circumstantial evidence; (3) that the prosecution improperly presented its case to the jury; and (4) that the evidence properly adduced at trial was insufficient to establish defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.

A review of such evidence establishes that at approximately 9 p.m. on October 13, 1974, Chicago police officers Richard Johnson and Willie Anderson were preparing to make a "controlled buy" of narcotics and, to this end, were maintaining an undercover surveillance of an apartment building located at 7420-7434 South Colfax Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. This complex was described as a three-storied, "U"-shaped building overlooking a central courtyard. Several entrances to the building front on the courtyard. Officers Johnson and Anderson testified that the object of their surveillance was the third-floor apartment to which access was to be gained from the building's center entrance. There was some dispute as to the street address of this entrance. At trial, Officer Johnson identified the address as 7426 South Colfax Avenue. At the preliminary hearing on this matter, Johnson stated that the address was 7450 South Colfax Avenue. It appears that the address listed on both the police report and the search warrant obtained by the officers was 7424 South Colfax Avenue.

The officers were assisted on this occasion by an informant identified as Ray Jefferson, also known as Roy Jefferson and Raymond Hilliard. Officer Johnson indicated that he had not met the informant before the night of the "controlled buy." Johnson also testified that he had previously received information concerning this investigation from another unidentified individual.

During the course of their 30-minute surveillance, the officers observed 6 or 7 people enter the center entrance and approach the third floor. Several of these people remained but a few minutes and then left the building. Officer Johnson testified that he recognized one such individual and knew him to have been arrested in connection with "narcotics."

Thereafter, Officer Anderson marked five $10 bills by initialing them in a corner and gave these bills to Officer Johnson. Both officers and the informant entered the center hallway of the courtyard building. Officer Johnson and the informant proceeded to the third-floor apartment. Johnson and the informant were admitted to the apartment and the informant told the occupant that Officer Johnson "wanted to make a buy." Johnson gave the occupant the previously marked bills and received a small tin foil packet in exchange. As Officer Johnson opened the packet the seller informed Johnson that "[i]t's really good stuff."

Officer Johnson identified defendant, John T. Hill, as the person from whom he purchased the tin foil packet and its contents. Hilliard did not testify at trial. Officers Johnson and Anderson drove to police facilities where they conducted a field test upon the substance contained in the packet. Defendant was arrested the following evening in the vicinity of 7450 South Colfax Avenue. No marked currency was recovered.

Robert Boese, a chemist and coordinator of the criminalistics division of the Chicago Police Department, testified that he performed various tests upon the substance contained in the packet purchased by Officer Johnson and concluded that the substance contained "ciacetyl morphine," commonly known as heroin.

Defendant did not testify in his own behalf. Defendant's sole witness was Michael Smith, an investigator from the Office of the Cook County Public Defender. Smith testified that he took photographs, introduced by defense counsel, showing the structure located at 7450 South Colfax Avenue and the courtyard building located at 7420-7436 South Colfax Avenue. On cross-examination, Smith indicated that he had taken additional photographs of the courtyard building. Smith testified that he could see no addresses on the building. On redirect examination, Smith stated that the addresses were on the building but that the addresses did not "show-up" on the photographs.

Defendant initially contends that the trial court erred in giving the jury a definitional instruction of circumstantial evidence since defendant maintains that only direct evidence was presented against him. The trial court advised the jury in accord with IPI Criminal Instruction No. 3.02 as follows:

"Circumstantial evidence is the proof of facts or circumstances which give rise to a reasonable inference of other facts which tend to show the guilt or innocence of the defendant. Circumstantial evidence should be considered by you together with all the other evidence in the case in arriving at your verdict."

• 1 Of itself, the instruction is innocuous. Defendant failed to establish that he suffered any prejudice in this regard, that the instruction was misleading or that it lead the jury improperly to speculate that there were irrelevant facts proved which might authorize a conviction. (People v. Williams (1977), 52 Ill. App.3d 81, 367 N.E.2d 167.) Indeed, Officer Johnson testified that he observed several visitors enter defendant's apartment building and remain for a matter of minutes, including an individual whom the officer believed was involved in narcotics. Such circumstantial evidence would suggest, albeit not conclusively establish, that these visitors were actual or prospective purchasers of illicit drugs. See People v. Isenberg (1977), 52 Ill. App.3d 426, 367 N.E.2d 364.

Defendant also contends that the prosecution improperly elicited from Officer Johnson testimony to the effect that Johnson was qualified to conduct field tests to determine if a substance was heroin and that the officer had conducted such tests in the instant case. The officer's testimony that the test was for "heroin" and that it "came up positive" was stricken as an improper ...

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