Application for Enforcement of an Order of the National Labor Relations Board.
Fairchild, Chief Judge, and Tone and Wood, Circuit Judges.
This case is before the court on an application by petitioner, National Labor Relations Board, pursuant to § 10(e) of the National Labor Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. § 160(e), for enforcement of its order of June 30, 1976,*fn1 against the Bell Company (hereinafter referred to as Bell), Richard Balestrieri as agent for Bell, Paul Moskowitz as receiver for Bell, and Richard Balestrieri, doing business as Endurall Products (hereinafter referred to as Endurall).
Enforcement of the NLRB's order against Richard Balestrieri, doing business as Endurall Products, depends upon whether Endurall is the alter ego of Bell. If so, Endurall is accountable for Bell's violations of the National Labor Relations Act and is subject to the terms of the contract between Bell and the union representing Bell's employees. For the following reasons, we find that Endurall was not the alter ego of Bell and that enforcement of the NLRB's order must be denied.*fn2
Because of our decision, we need not summarize facts relating to the underlying dispute between Bell and the United Brotherhood of Carpenters Council of Milwaukee County and Vicinity, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, AFL-CIO (hereinafter referred to as the union). A brief summary of the relevant facts follows.
Bell manufactured and installed formica and laminated plastic countertops and cabinets. Bell employed nine employees and operated subject to an area wide collective bargaining contract since 1956.
Bell was owned by four brothers: James, Giuseppi, Dominic and Anthony Balestrieri. The four brothers comprised the Board of Directors for the company. A fifth brother, John, was not an owner of Bell but acted as general manager for Bell until two years prior to the termination of Bell's operations.
In 1973, John Balestrieri's son, Richard, was elected president of Bell. As time went on, Richard Balestrieri assumed greater control of Bell's operation. At the same time, supervision by John and Anthony Balestrieri decreased.
Richard Balestrieri's authority to run the company was in some respects limited. Richard had authority to hire employees but did not possess absolute authority to fire employees. Although he was authorized to bid on jobs, he was required to seek approval from the owners of Bell for large jobs. Similarly, approval for large capital expenditures was also required. In addition, major labor grievances were required to be submitted to the Board of Directors. Finally, the terms of Richard's employment were set by the owners of the company.
On June 16, 1975, the Board of Directors sent Richard Balestrieri a letter requesting his resignation as president of Bell because the company had been losing money. Richard Balestrieri submitted his letter of resignation on June 23, 1975. On June 19, 1975, James Balestrieri announced that Bell was ceasing operations because of financial losses. Bell's operations terminated on June 27, 1975, and all employees were discharged.
Thereafter, Richard Balestrieri proceeded to set up Endurall Products. Bonny Austin, who was Richard Balestrieri's secretary at Bell and who now works for Endurall, invested $5,000 in the new company. In addition, Richard's father, John Balestrieri, permitted his life insurance policy to be used as collateral for a $15,000 loan advanced to Endurall by the M & I West Suburban Bank. Endurall also purchased two pieces of equipment from Bell by assuming the remaining payments in the amount of $6,000 owed by Bell on a chattel mortgage held by the bank. In addition, Endurall purchased Bell's old equipment, inventory and supplies for an amount greatly discounted from the original purchase price. There was, however, no clear evidence as to present fair market value of this equipment. Endurall for less than one month initially operated out of Bell's old premises. This property was owned by Bel-Cor, a real estate holding company controlled by Anthony and John Balestrieri. Anthony and John Balestrieri through Bel-Cor allowed Endurall to use this property rent free for this period of time. By the end of the month, Endurall moved to new premises.
Endurall began operation on July 7, 1975. With some variation, the products manufactured by Endurall were similar to the products which Bell made. In addition, many of the customers served by Endurall had been customers of Bell. Richard Balestrieri circulated a letter to Bell's customers informing them of Bell's closing and requesting that they look to Endurall for their formica needs. Similarly, most of Endurall's suppliers had been suppliers of Bell. Endurall completed work on several projects initially begun by Bell. A minority of Endurall's employees are ex-Bell employees.
Endurall refused to honor the collective bargaining agreement entered into by Bell and the union. Richard Balestrieri's offer to negotiate a new ...