Wright, Tamm and MacKinnon, Circuit Judges.
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIRCUIT
Station Corporation, Intervenors
On Motion to Dismiss Petition for Review of an Order of the Federal Communications Commission. 1976.CDC.232
Petitioner Community Broadcasting of Boston, Inc. (Community) seeks judicial review of an order of the Federal Communications Commission denying Community's petition to disqualify the law firm of Pierson, Ball & Dowd from representing intervenor RKO General, Inc. in proceedings before the agency. The FCC and RKO move to dismiss Community's petition for review on the ground that the agency's refusal to disqualify is an interlocutory order and therefore not reviewable at this stage of the litigation. *fn1 We are persuaded that policy considerations disfavoring "piecemeal litigation" *fn2 outweigh the potential costs of withholding appellate review until after final agency action. We therefore conclude that the order refusing to disqualify counsel is a non-appealable interlocutory order and dismiss Community's petition for review. I
The underlying agency action grows out of RKO's application to renew its television broadcast license for WNAC-TV in Boston and the competing applications filed by Community and intervenor Dudley Station Corporation. On December 30, 1975 Community petitioned the FCC to disqualify RKO's attorneys, PB&D, on the ground that one of the firm's partners, Dean Burch, had previously participated in preliminary rulings on the RKO application during his tenure as chairman of the FCC.
The facts surrounding the petition to disqualify are not in dispute. PB&D has continuously represented RKO and its predecessor companies in broadcast matters since 1945, and has participated in the present license renewal application since the date of filing on December 31, 1968, prior to Dean Burch's joining the FCC in October 1969. Burch left the FCC in March 1974 and joined PB&D in January 1975. Although at the time Burch joined the firm Community had long been embroiled in the licensing contest, Community first petitioned the agency for disqualification of PB&D on December 30, 1975. In affidavits submitted to the FCC Burch attested that he had not shared any confidential or inside FCC information with any member of the firm and, indeed, had no recollection of any such information.
On June 1, 1976 the FCC issued an extensive order denying Community's petition to disqualify PB&D. 59 F.C.C.2d 641. Thereafter, on June 15, the agency denied Community's petition for stay of its earlier order. On June 11, 1976 Community petitioned this court for review of the FCC order denying disqualification and moved for a stay of agency proceedings pending judicial determination of the appeal. On June 25, 1976 a division of this court denied Community's motion for a stay. Community's petition for rehearing en banc was denied on July 9, 1976. In moving to dismiss Community's petition for review, the FCC and RKO now raise a jurisdictional question that this court has never had an opportunity to address: whether refusal by an agency to disqualify counsel on ethical grounds should be subject to immediate judicial review. II
Pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2342(1) (1970) federal Courts of Appeals possess exclusive jurisdiction to review "final orders of the Federal Communications Commission . . .." The finality requirement of Section 2342(1) is the counterpart to that of 28 U.S.C. § 1291 (1970) which governs appeals from final orders of federal District Courts. Both provisions reflect the reasoned policy judgment that the judicial and administrative processes should proceed with a minimum of interruption. *fn3 To effectuate this common purpose, courts have permitted interlocutory appeals under both statutes only in exceptional cases, *fn4 a requirement that partakes of similar meanings in both contexts. *fn5 In analyzing whether to allow an appeal from the agency's order in the present case, therefore, we can freely look to decisions involving appeals from District Court orders denying motions to disqualify counsel. III
In order to ameliorate the harshness of the finality requirement of Section 1291, the Supreme Court fashioned, in Cohen v. Beneficial Industrial Loan Corp., 337 U.S. 541, 546-547, 69 S. Ct. 1221, 1226, 93 L. Ed. 1528 (1949), a "collateral order" exception to the finality rule. The Cohen exception allows immediate appeals from certain orders that do not fully and finally terminate the litigation between the parties. *fn6 The Supreme Court outlined several prerequisites to appeal from an interlocutory order. First, the order must be a final determination of a claim of right "separable from, and collateral to," the rights asserted in the main action. *fn7 Second, the order must present "a serious and unsettled question," rendering it "too important to be denied review." *fn8 Finally, an immediate appeal must be necessary to preserve rights that would otherwise be lost on review from final judgment. *fn9 In conclusion the Court in Cohen emphasized that the finality requirement should be given "practical rather than a technical construction." *fn10
The collateral order doctrine of Cohen has spawned a variety of approaches to the issue of appealability of orders denying motions to disqualify counsel. The Ninth Circuit has ruled that a disappointed litigant may not have immediate review of an order denying a motion to disqualify. *fn11 Nevertheless, in Cord v. Smith, 338 F.2d 516, 521-522 (9th Cir. 1964), clarified, 370 F.2d 418 (9th Cir. 1966), the Ninth Circuit treated the aborted appeal as a petition for a writ of mandamus and proceeded to rule on the merits of the disqualification claim.
The sequence of decisions by the Second Circuit highlights the conflicts generated by this question. In Fleischer v. Phillips, 264 F.2d 515, 516-517 (2d Cir.), cert. denied, 359 U.S. 1002, 79 S. Ct. 1139, 3 L. Ed. 2d 1030 (1959), the Second Circuit overruled an earlier case *fn12 in which it had held appealable a denial of a motion to disqualify. In an opinion by Chief Judge Clark the court in Fleischer distinguished between appeals from orders granting disqualification and those denying disqualification, *fn13 concluding that, for the sake of judicial economy, *fn14 immediate appeals would not be allowed in the latter situation.
The case of Silver Chrysler Plymouth, Inc. v. Chrysler Motors Corp., 496 F.2d 800 (2d Cir. 1974), marked a turning point in the tortuous history of Second Circuit cases. Sitting en banc, the court overruled Fleischer *fn15 and held that denials of motions to disqualify are immediately appealable under the Cohen doctrine. Echoing the concern of several other courts, *fn16 Silver Chrysler emphasized that an appeal from final judgment will come too late to undo the damage wrought by the continued participation of an attorney who should have been disqualified. *fn17 The Third, *fn18 ...