APPEAL from the Circuit Court of Macoupin County; the Hon.
PAUL C. VERTICCHIO, Judge, presiding.
MR. JUSTICE CRAVEN DELIVERED THE OPINION OF THE COURT:
This is an appeal from trial, without jury, resulting in a judgment for the plaintiffs of $19,400 with costs of suit, against Country Mutual Insurance Company, and an order thereafter entered denying defendant's motion after judgment.
Plaintiffs owned and operated a farm seven miles west and one mile north of Palmyra in Macoupin County, Illinois. The farm was used for the raising of hogs. Plaintiffs claim damages for the loss by death from suffocation of 485 hogs of the value of $19,400 in a controlled environmental building on said farm, October 1, 1969, allegedly incurred as a direct loss of vandalism and malicious mischief. Defendant had issued an insurance policy covering such hogs for direct loss from vandalism and malicious mischief. The trial court in a bench trial entered judgment for plaintiffs and denied defendant's post trial motion.
Defendant contends on appeal there was no evidence, either direct or circumstantial, of "malicious mischief" as that term is defined by law; that the court cannot infer or presume the commission of a felony from the mere fact that a loss to property has occurred; and that there is a difference in the quantum of proof required when an insurance policy defines "Vandalism and Malicious Mischief" to mean willful or malicious physical injury as distinguished from one defining "Vandalism and Malicious Mischief" to mean only the willful and malicious destruction of the property covered.
Plaintiffs contend that the hogs died when the electricity on which the swine barn ventilation system was dependent was terminated when an unknown person pulled the master switch, and that this act by its nature was intentional, deliberate, malicious and wilfull.
The evidence produced was that Gale Cole and his father, George, as farmers, raised hogs on Gale's farm; that the nearest farm house is about a half a quarter away; that the hogs were raised in controlled environment buildings, on a platform, farrowed in one building, and then put into a finishing building where they are fed to marketing condition. There were pens on both sides of an aisle in the buildings, and below the pens were pits for manure distribution through slats at the back of the building. Feed augers and vents allow fresh air to be admitted above the pens. By use of electrically operated fans, air is taken from the top of the roof, pulled over the pens and blown out over the pit exhaust or side. There were no windows in the buildings, and when the system was operating properly, doors were kept closed.
All of the electrical power was furnished by M.J.M. electrical cooperative.
The residence of Gale Cole is about 150 or 200 feet from the nearest hog building (the finishing building), and south of that is the farrowing building. Other buildings in the area are a feed mill, elevator, grain bins and others, forming a part of the entire hog operation.
A master switch controlled all of the electricity to the farm. It was on a utility pole located 80 to 90 feet south-westerly from the finishing building. Testimony varied as to the height of this switch from the ground from 7 1/2 feet to 5 1/2 or 6 feet. The switch was built with a set screw in a bracket. When the lever of the switch was up and behind the set screw, the only way to cut off power was to pull the lever out past the set screw, and then pull the lever all the way down. The power is on when the switch is up and behind the screw an off when the lever is all the way down. However, the power stays on with the lever beyond the set screw and until the lever is halfway down.
Robert Kinser, a veterinarian, testified that when the electricity was off, the fans would not go and there would be no ventilation; that heat produced from the animals causes a marked increase in temperature, rising rapidly; and that this would produce insufficient oxygen or an excess amount of CO
, whereby the animals would be in trouble in about 30 minutes. He further testified that the lack of oxygen, humidity and gas causes a nervousness, creating more heat, humidity and gas, whereby the animals ultimately suffocate. He said the animals would be in trouble and die in an hour.
Raymond Hood, a retired college professor, testified he made tests to determine the amount of force necessary to pull the switch and he determined it would take 6 to 10 pounds to push it out and pull it down. He further testified that the switch could not be thrown unless some person threw it. On cross-examination, he testified that with the lever out from behind the set screw, 1 to 2 pounds of pressure would be required to pull the switch.
Gale Cole testified that he had tested the pressure required to move the lever from behind the screw to a downward position and determined it takes about 35 pounds at a 45° angle. He further testified that when the lever is out beyond the screw position it takes approximately 2 pounds of pressure to pull the switch to "off".
The electrical system was hooked up to a siren and the siren goes off when the power goes off. The siren was in the ...