Castle, Chief Judge, Knoch, Senior Circuit Judge, and Fairchild, Circuit Judge.
Defendant appeals from his conviction on Counts II and III of a three-count indictment charging him with crimes against the revenue. Count I charged defendant and Jennie Alioto with conspiring to defraud the Government by impeding the lawful functions of the Internal Revenue Service in the assessment and collection of income taxes. Counts II and III charged defendant with income tax evasion for the years 1959 and 1960 by filing false and fraudulent tax returns, in violation of 26 U.S.C. § 7201.
Defendant and Miss Alioto, as co-defendants, filed motions for relief from prejudicial joinder, to dismiss Count I of the indictment, for a Bill of Particulars on Counts II and III, and to suppress certain evidence, copies thereof, leads derived therefrom, and information secured thereby resulting from a search and seizure of Miss Alioto's apartment, conducted under an illegal search warrant.*fn1 After the Government filed a Bill of Particulars, defendant's motion for a further Bill of Particulars was denied. The trial was then transferred from the Eastern District of Wisconsin to the Southern District of Illinois, Southern Division, for trial as to Balistrieri only. An amended Bill of Particulars was filed shortly after the trial began, reducing the alleged beginning and end net worth figures, and thus the increases in the net worth of defendant and his wife during the relevant period by over 50%.
The Government's case was presented on the "net worth theory" whereby income for the relevant period is proved by showing that the defendant's net worth increased during the period. Thus, rather than having to prove the exact source or sources of the income, the defendant may be convicted of income tax evasion upon a showing that his net worth was unaccountably higher at the end than at the beginning of the tax period, and that the increase was not due to non-taxable sources, such as gifts, loans, or inheritance. In the instant case, the Government sought to bolster its net worth evidence with evidence of the likely sources of income.
Shortly before trial, defendant moved to suppress evidence obtained by electronic eavesdropping of defendant's office, after defendant had discovered a hidden microphone installed behind his office paneling. On the date when the trial was scheduled to begin, the Government attorneys disclosed to the trial judge that the Government had three categories of F.B.I. reports obtained by admittedly illegal electronic eavesdropping. These reports concerned conversations overheard from devices placed in Miss Alioto's apartment from October 3, 1961 through June 8, 1962, in defendant's office from March 9, 1964 through June 3, 1965, and in the office of Dominic Frinzi, one of defendant's attorneys, from April 22, 1963 through October 2, 1963.
A substantial amount of testimony on this matter was heard by the court outside the presence of the jury. Defendant moved to dismiss the indictment on the ground that it was obtained through use of the information acquired by means of the illegal electronic eavesdropping, and this motion was denied. The court also denied motions for acquittal and motions that the eavesdropping information was inflammatory and deprived defendant of a fair grand jury. The court did, however, compel election by the Government to proceed on Counts II and III, and not on Count I, apparently in recognition of tainted evidence used in the first count.
Upon a verdict of guilty on Counts II and III, defendant was sentenced to two years imprisonment and fined $5000 on each count, the prison terms to run concurrently.
On appeal, defendant attacks the adequacy of the Government's evidence in meeting its burden of proving that the trial evidence was free from taint, the sufficiency of the evidence used to prove the "net worth theory" of tax evasion, the trial court's denial of defendant's motion for mistrial based upon the prosecutor's improper cross-examination of a witness, the trial court's refusal to answer the request of the jury for clarification of instructions, alleged improper arguments to the jury by the prosecutor, and an alleged breach of the attorney-client and accountant-client privilege.
The main contested issue concerns the Government's proof that its evidence was free from taint of the illegal searches and seizures and electronic eavesdropping.
During 1961, in the initial stages of the Internal Revenue Service investigation of defendant, the I.R.S. had, through the Postal Inspector in Milwaukee, requested that "mail covers"*fn2 be conducted on defendant's address and on various corporations which the I.R.S. believed were conneccted with defendant. Among these were the Downtowner (a tavern) and Gallagher's Steak House (a restaurant). On July 7, 1961, the I.R.S. received a mail cover report which disclosed that a first class letter addressed to Midwest Scrap Metal Company at the address of the Downtowner was delivered. The return address -- Post Office Box 1205 -- was later determined to be the First Wisconsin National Bank of Milwaukee. On August 7, 1961, another mail cover report showed that a letter from Altex Corporation, a scrap metal dealer, was sent to Gallagher's Steak House. Lead cards were made and filed for each of these leads.
Contrary to the findings made by the district court at the close of the testimony regarding the alleged tainted evidence, defendant contends that the evidence relating to Midwest Scrap Metal Company, upon which the Government relied as establishing a source of unreported income, was discovered only as the result of information extracted from the records illegally seized in Miss Alioto's apartment and as the result of the subsequent search by the F.B.I., and not by the independent leads obtained by the exploitation of the information extracted from the mail covers and lead cards by the I.R.S. On all issues regarding the alleged tainted evidence, the Government conceded that it had the burden of proving that its evidence was free from taint.*fn3
With respect to the Midwest Scrap Metal Company evidence, the Government sought to meet this burden by demonstrating that the lead was discovered independently of and prior to the searches, as the result of the mail covers conducted in the summer of 1961. In following up the mail cover leads, the Government contends that it was led to the Altex Corporation. From the records of Altex followed other leads and evidence regarding Midwest and its connection with defendant. We find that the district court did not err in holding that the Midwest leads were obtained independently of the searches. The two lead cards disclosed that the address of Midwest, a dealer in scrap metal, was the same as the address of a business in which defendant was known to have an interest (the Downtowner), and that Altex, a seller of scrap metal, sent a letter to another business in which defendant had an interest (Gallagher's). It is reasonable to conclude that these two leads were logically tied together by the revenue agents, before the searches took place, to link Altex with Midwest and thus provide an important step in the investigation. Therefore, although the evidence obtained in the illegal searches would have led to the same link between Altex and Midwest which in turn led to the other evidence, some of which was admitted into evidence at trial, the initial lead was obtained independently of and prior to the search.
In Silverthorne Lumber Co. v. United States, 251 U.S. 385, 392, 40 S. Ct. 182, 64 L. Ed. 319, 24 A.L.R. 1426 (1920), Mr. Justice Holmes, speaking for the Court, stated the policy behind the Fourth Amendment:
"The essence of a provision forbidding the acquisition of evidence in a certain way is that not merely evidence so acquired shall not be used before the court but that it shall not be used at all. Of course this does not mean that the facts thus obtained become sacred and inaccessible.If knowledge of them is gained from an independent source they may be proved like any others, but the knowledge ...