Appeal from the Superior Court of Cook County; the Hon. WALKER
BUTLER, Judge, presiding. Judgment affirmed.
MR. PRESIDING JUSTICE FRIEND DELIVERED THE OPINION OF THE COURT.
Plaintiff sought a declaratory judgment, injunctive and other relief against defendants, the Village of Oak Lawn, its officials, and Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, a designer and builder of elevated water tanks, after the village had let a contract for the repair of its water tower to the Bridge and Iron Company. Plaintiff had submitted a lower bid or quotation for this work and brought his complaint on the sole ground that municipal contracts let to other than the lowest bidder were "in violation of the Statutes of the State of Illinois, Smith-Hurd Ill. Rev Stats, ch 24, § 23-100." The Bridge and Iron Company moved to dismiss the complaint on the theory that it did not state a cause of action in that the statute does not impose a duty on municipal corporations to require competitive bidding on repair contracts of this type. On the date set for hearing on the motion to dismiss, plaintiff of his own volition sought and obtained leave to file his amended complaint instanter which set forth essentially the same allegations as the original complaint except that instead of alleging that the award of the contract to the defendant Chicago Bridge and Iron Company was in violation of statute plaintiff alleged that the mere letting of a contract to a higher bidder constituted fraud. Again defendants filed a motion to dismiss for the reason that the amended complaint did not state a cause of action. At the hearing on the motion, plaintiff argued that the mere allegation in his complaint that the contract was not awarded to the lowest bidder created a question of fact for the jury on the issue of fraud. This contention was rejected and, plaintiff electing to stand on his amended complaint, the court "ordered, adjudged and decreed that:
"1. The Amended Complaint herein be, and it hereby is, dismissed with prejudice and without further leave to amend, upon the motion of defendants, Village of Oak Lawn and the individual Trustees thereof;
"2. The motion of defendant, Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, for summary judgment be, and it hereby is, granted and judgment be, and it hereby is, entered for defendants.
"3. The costs of the defendants herein be paid by plaintiff."
It being conceded that there is no duty imposed by statute or otherwise upon municipal corporations to let a contract for the repair of municipally owned property upon competitive bidding or to let such a contract only to the lowest bidder, the question to be determined is whether the court properly decided the amended complaint to be insufficient at law to state a cause of action, and whether the record, consisting of the pleadings and various documents and affidavits, justified the court in entering summary judgment for the Bridge Company.
Briefly summarized, the amended complaint alleged that plaintiff and his wife Ruth, co-partners doing business as Bacon Manufacturing Company, were residents of the Village of Oak Lawn and were solicited on November 4, 1960 by various officials of the village to submit a quotation for certain repairs on the Oak Lawn water tower; that pursuant to such solicitation his company received from the village officials a copy of a letter dated June 19, 1959, addressed to the Village of Oak Lawn by the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, which contained an inspection report setting forth the type and degree of repairs required as to the water tower (a copy of this letter was attached and incorporated by reference as a part of the amended complaint). Plaintiff further alleged that pursuant to the request of the village officials he submitted a bid to furnish labor and materials, as required, at the price of $6775; that on November 12, 1960 he received a letter from the village manager advising him that the village president and board of trustees had awarded the contract to the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company; and that upon inquiry he learned that the Bridge Company's contract price was approximately $11,150, a figure far in excess of his bid for the same work.
Plaintiff charged fraud in only two paragraphs of his amended complaint, and in the most general terms; those two paragraphs read as follows:
"10. The contract entered into between the Chicago Bridge & Iron Company and the Village of Oak Lawn is fraudulent. That as some evidence of the fraudulent nature of the transaction referred to is the immense proportionate difference between the bid submitted by Bacon Manufacturing Company in the amount of $6,775 and that of Chicago Bridge & Iron Company approximating $11,150.
"13. That the entire actions of the defendants are fraudulent, capricious and in total disregard of their public responsibilities."
[2-4] The law is well settled in this State that a party charging fraud must allege facts which, if taken to be true or established by competent evidence, would constitute fraud. In Carroll v. Caldwell, 12 Ill.2d 487, 147 N.E.2d 69 (1957), the court said (p 494):
"Fraud is never presumed and can be alleged or proved, both at law and in equity, only by allegation and proof of facts constituting the fraud. (Anderson v. Anderson, 339 Ill. 400; 19 ILP, Fraud, sec 36). Statements by way of general conclusions of fraud are not sufficient in a pleading. The allegations relied upon by the plaintiff, conditioned as they are on what the defendant may or may not have believed, amount to no more than an argumentative conclusion of fraud and are thus not sufficient to charge the actual fraud necessary to raise a constructive trust. . . ."
To the same effect is Owens v. Green, 400 Ill. 380, 392-393, 81 N.E.2d 149 (1948), which is relied on in Chicago Heights v. Public Service Co. of Northern Illinois, 345 Ill. App. 393, 103 N.E.2d 519 (1952), where the court ...