Before WILBUR K. MILLER, PRETTYMAN and BAZELON, Circuit Judges.
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIRCUIT.
Date Decided: June 15, 1950.
DECISION OF THE COURT DELIVERED BY THE HONORABLE JUDGE MILLER
WILBUR K. MILLER, Circuit Judge.
The appellant, Robert D. Elder, was honorably discharged from the United States Army after active service in World War I.1 He passed a competitive civil service legal examination in September, 1942, and on August 1, 1943, was employed as an attorney in the Department of Agriculture. Although he had had at all times an efficiency rating of "good" or better, he was notified on May 29, 1947, that, as a part of a reduction in force made necessary by lack of funds, he would be dismissed as of June 30, 1947. He sued on June 5, 1947, to enjoin the Secretary of Agriculture from discharging him, claiming the right to be retained because of the statutory preference given to veterans. After his dismissal he continued his effort, by amended and supplemental complaint, to obtain an adjudication that he had been wrongfully discharged and should be reinstated. The Secretary moved for summary judgment, with respect to which affidavits were filed by both sides. The District Court in granting the motion said:
"It seems clear that plaintiff was a war service appointee and did not have a permanent Civil Service status. His separation was effected in full compliance with the applicable statutes and regulations. Upon consideration of such facts plaintiff may not succeed."
Elder appeals. He claims that by passing a competitive civil service legal examination and by serving a probationary period of one year, he attained a classified civil service status and that under statutory provision2 he had an absolute right not to be discharged, dropped or reduced in rank or salary in the event of a reduction in force. He further maintains that, even if he had not acquired classified civil service status, he had under these statutes a preference in retention and reinstatement which had been violated.
The Secretary replies that appellant was a war service appointee whose tenure was limited to the duration of World War II and six months thereafter, and that he had not attained the classified civil service status he claims. He asserts that Elder was properly classified in group B-1 under the Civil Service Commission regulations governing the retention preference of veterans in a reduction in force;3 that those regulations are valid under § 12 of the Veterans' Preference Act of 1944 and that the appellant's dismissal was in accord with the regulations. The Secretary claims the proviso of § 4 of the Act of 1912 does not apply to war service appointees.
The first question then is whether Elder had reached or become entitled to classified (competitive) civil service status.
Executive Order No. 9063, issued February 16, 1942 (3 Code Fed.Regs., Cum.Supp.1943, 1091), authorized the Civil Service Commission to adopt such special procedures and regulations as it might deem necessary to avoid delay in recruiting employees during the war emergency. The President expressly provided, however, that persons appointed under such special procedures to positions subject to the Civil Service Act and the Commission's rules should not thereby acquire a classified (competitive) civil service status, but, in the Commission's discretion, might be retained for the duration of the war and six months thereafter.
Pursuant to this Executive Order, the Civil Service Commission prepared and adopted the War Service Regulations effective March 16, 1942 (5 Code Fed.Regs. § 18.3, Cum.Supp.1943), setting up special procedures of the sort and for the purpose contemplated by the Order. The subsequent appointment of attorneys was governed by the regulations of the Board of Legal Examiners of the Civil Service Commission, which contained the following (5 Code Fed.Regs. § 17.1, Cum.Supp.1943):
"(g) All appointments to attorney and law clerk-trainee positions shall be for the duration of the present war and for six months thereafter, unless otherwise specifically limited to a shorter period, and shall be made subject to the satisfactory completion of a trial period of one year Such appointment shall be affected under Executive Order No. 9063 of February 16, 1942, (Title 3, supra ), and persons thus appointed will not thereby acquire a classified Civil Service status. No person shall be appointed unless (1) he has qualified by passing an appropriate examination prescribed by the Board or, (2) in case of special emergency, the Board has authorized his appointment subject to subsequent examination. Such appointments shall in other respects be governed by the requirements and procedures prescribed by these Regulations. This paragraph shall become effective March 16, 1942."
Since the foregoing was the regulation in effect at the time the appellant was appointed, his acceptance of employment necessarily was subject to the terms thereof. Nothing occurred later to change the nature of his status or tenure. It follows that throughout the period of his employment he was a war service appointee with tenure limited to the duration of the war and a period of six months thereafter, entitled to the preference given by law to veterans in that status.
Elder's preference does not arise from the proviso of § 4 of the Act of 1912 because the application of that section is confined by its terms to those having classified civil service status.But he has preference under the Veterans' Preference Act of ...