APPEAL FROM THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
Stone, Roberts, Black, Reed, Frankfurter, Douglas, Murphy, Jackson, Rutledge
MR. JUSTICE BLACK delivered the opinion of the Court.
A federal district court of three judges, one judge dissenting, set aside and permanently enjoined enforcement of an order of the Interstate Commerce Commission, 258 I. C. C. 559, on the ground that the findings were inadequate and that the Commission acted beyond its jurisdiction. 56 F.Supp. 670.*fn1 The case is here on direct appeal. 28 U. S. C. § 345.
At the request of the Secretaries of War and the Navy, the Interstate Commerce Commission instituted an investigation into the reasonableness of the fares of four carriers, transporting passengers by bus between points in the District of Columbia and nearby points in the State of Virginia, where are located certain military and naval offices and installments employing more than 40,000 government workers. More than half these workers live in the District so that the number of individual passenger trips to and from government work on the four motor lines is in excess of 31,000 per day. The fares of the different lines were not identical for performance of substantially the same interstate transportation, and dissatisfaction of
Army and Navy employees and officials had arisen on the ground that the charges of all the companies were excessive. The Commission, after a hearing, found some existing fares to be reasonable and others unreasonable. Its order required some of the rates to be reduced but permitted others to be increased.
A complicating factor arose from the distinctive type of business carried on by Capital Transit, one of the four companies transporting passengers to and from the Virginia government agencies. In addition to its District-Virginia bus service, it operated an urban and suburban transportation system, carrying passengers both by bus and streetcar. Since District terminals of all the bus companies were located in or adjacent to the central business sections, most government employees, in going to and returning from their work, were compelled to begin or complete their trips by utilizing buses or streetcars of Capital Transit. It accorded to its own bus and streetcar passengers, but denied to passengers on other Virginia buses, a privilege of transfers to and from some of its Virginia buses which lowered the total fares between District residences and their Virginia places of work. The Commission treated Transit Company's local bus and streetcar business as an integrated unit, and its findings, supported by evidence, show that its intra-company transfer practices were the equivalent of establishment by Transit of through interstate routes with joint rates to and from District residences to the Virginia points. Accordingly it ordered that analogous joint arrangements as to fares, including transfer privileges, be established between Transit and the other bus lines carrying passengers to and from Virginia government agencies. This, and other elements of the Commission order not passed on by the district court, were separately attacked here. In order that final disposition of the case may not be further delayed, we shall consider all questions argued before us.
any such municipality or municipalities . . ." Other parts of the same Section authorize the Commission to apply the Act to these zone activities, however, if it finds that (1) "such application is necessary" to carry out the national transportation policy declared in the Act, or (2) if the carrier is not "engaged in . . . intrastate transportation of passengers over the entire length of such interstate route." The Commission held that the four bus companies came within both these exceptions and therefore were not excluded from its jurisdiction. We need not consider whether they came within the second exception, because of our conclusion that the Commission's findings justified its order under the first exception. Those findings were that it was necessary for the Commission to exercise its jurisdiction in order to carry out the Act's declared policy, "to encourage the establishment and maintenance of reasonable charges for transportation services, without unjust discriminations, . . . to the end of developing, coordinating, and preserving a national transportation system . . . adequate to meet the needs of the commerce of the United States, of the postal service, and of the national defense." 54 Stat. 899.
On its second hearing the Commission heard evidence from employees of the Army and Navy as to dissatisfaction with the fares. The Secretaries of both War and Navy made complaints concerning the situation produced by the rate structure. A number of witnesses testified as to the dissatisfaction of employees with the prevailing rates. If evidence was necessary to prove that unreasonably high rates were calculated to disturb the morale of workers forced to pay them, and thus to impair the national defense program, there can be no doubt but that the findings of the Commission were well supported. It is to be remembered that these were interstate rates for interstate travel which applied almost exclusively to workers engaged in national defense. Neither the District
nor Virginia had power adequately to regulate the rates; nor had they attempted to do so. Their regulation was rightfully a matter of concern to Army and Navy Departments charged with the serious responsibility of conducting a war. The employees worked in the very center of activities essential in that cause. Congress unequivocally reserved to the Commission power to regulate reasonableness of interstate rates in the light of the needs of national defense. The findings of the Commission on this ...