CERTIORARI TO THE CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SECOND CIRCUIT.
MR. JUSTICE BREWER, after stating the case, delivered the opinion of the court.
By section 1 of Article 12 of the constitution of Kansas a certain definite liability is cast upon each stockholder in other than railway, religious and charitable corporations. This liability is for the dues of the corporation and to an amount equal to the stock owned by him. The word "dues" is one of general significance, and includes all contractual obligations. Whether broad enough to include liabilities for torts, either before or after judgment, is not a question before us, and upon it we express no opinion. The words, "shall be secured," are not merely directory to the legislature to make provision for such liability, but of themselves declare it. To this extent the constitution is self-executing. Willis v. Mabon, 48 Minnesota, 140. The discretion of the legislature extends beyond this, as indicated by the clause "and such other means as shall be provided by law." A failure of the legislature to create courts or prescribe modes of procedure may, it is true, make ineffective this constitutional provision, but does not destroy the liability; nor is it created by the act of the legislature
prescribing the mode of its enforcement. This is the obvious meaning of the constitutional provision. "The simplest and most obvious interpretation of a constitution, if in itself sensible, is the most likely to be that meant by the people in its adoption." Lamar, Justice, in Lake County v. Rollins, 130 U.S. 662, 671.
But this constitutional provision does not stand alone. The legislature of Kansas has acted on the subject-matter, and the constitution and the statutes are to be taken together, as making one body of law; and it serves no good purpose to inquire what rights and remedies a creditor of a corporation might have or what liabilities would rest upon a stockholder if either constitution or statutes stood alone and unaided by the other.
In section 32 of chapter 23 of the General Statutes of that State, passed before the organization of the corporation referred to, the legislature prescribed the mode of enforcing this constitutional liability, and if such were needed declared to what extent it could be enforced. It may be either by motion in a case in which judgment has been rendered against the corporation and execution thereon returned unsatisfied, or by a direct action by the plaintiff in such judgment. Neither remedy can be made effectual in the courts of Kansas against a stockholder unless by due service of process he is brought within the jurisdiction of such courts. Wilson v. Seligman, 144 U.S. 41; Howell v. Manglesdorf, 33 Kansas, 194, 199.
Whatever else may be said about the remedy it is direct, certain and available to every creditor of a corporation, and leaves to the stockholders the adjustment between themselves of their respective individual shares of the corporate obligations. In view of the present tendency to carry on business through corporate instrumentalities and the freedom from personal liability which attends ordinary corporate action, it cannot be said that this limited additional remedy is open to judicial condemnation.
The liability which by the constitution and statutes is thus declared to rest upon the stockholder, though statutory in its origin, is contractual in its nature. It would not be doubted that if the stockholders in this corporation had formed a partnership,
the obligations of each partner to the others and to creditors would be contractual, and determined by the general common law in respect to partnerships. If Kansas had provided for partnerships, with limited liability, and these parties, complying with the provisions of the statute, had formed such a partnership, it would also be true that their obligations to one another and to creditors would be contractual, although only in the statute was to be found the authority for the creation of such obligations. And it is none the less so when these same stockholders organized a corporation under a law of Kansas, which prescribed the nature of the obligations which each thereby assumed to the others and to the creditors. While the statute of Kansas permitted the forming of the corporation under certain conditions, the action of these parties was purely voluntary. In other words, they entered into a contract authorized by statute.
Flash v. Conn, 109 U.S. 371, is much in point. In that case a corporation was organized in the State of New York, under an act of legislature, which contained this provision:
"SEC. 10. All the stockholders of every company incorporated under this act shall be severally individually liable to the creditors of the company in which they are stockholders, to an amount equal to the amount of stock held by them respectively, for all debts and contracts made by such company, until the whole amount of capital stock fixed and limited by such company shall have been paid in, and certificate thereof shall have been made and recorded as prescribed in the following section."
An action was brought in Florida against one of the stockholders, and on error to this court it was held that the stockholder was ...