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decided: November 8, 1897.



Author: Shiras

[ 168 U.S. Page 161]

 MR. JUSTICE SHIRAS, after stating the case, delivered the opinion of the court.

Several of the assignments of error complain of the action of the Circuit Court of Appeals in not rendering a decree for the enforcement of those portions of the order of the Interstate Commerce Commission which prescribed rates, to be thereafter charged by the defendant companies, for services performed in the transportation of goods.

Discussion of those assignments is rendered unnecessary by the recent decisions of this court, wherein it has been held,

[ 168 U.S. Page 162]

     after elaborate argument, that Congress has not conferred upon the Interstate Commerce Commission the legislative power of prescribing rates, either maximum, or minimum, or absolute; and that, as it did not give the express power to the Commission, it did not intend to secure the same result indirectly by empowering that tribunal, after having determined what, in reference to the past, were reasonable and just rates, to obtain from the courts a peremptory order that in the future the railroad companies should follow the rates thus determined to have been in the past reasonable and just. Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific Railway v. Interstate Commerce Commission, 162 U.S. 184; Interstate Commerce Commission v. Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific Railway, 167 U.S. 479.

Errors are likewise assigned to the action of the court in having failed and refused to affirm and enforce the report and opinion of the Commission, wherein it was found and decided, among other things, that the defendants, common carriers which participate in the transportation of class goods to Troy from Louisville, St. Louis and Cincinnati, and from New York, Baltimore and other Northeastern points, and the defendants, common carriers which participate in the transportation of phosphate rock from South Carolina and Florida to Troy, and the defendants, common carriers which participate in the transportation of cotton from Troy to the ports of New Orleans, Brunswick, Savannah, Charleston, West Point or Norfolk, as local shipments or for export, have made greater charges, under substantially similar circumstances and conditions, for the shorter distance to or from Troy than for longer distances over the same lines in the same direction, and have unjustly discriminated in rates against Troy, and subjected said place and dealers and shippers therein to undue and unreasonable prejudice and disadvantage in favor of Montgomery, Eufaula, Columbus and other places and localities and dealers and shippers therein, in violation of the provisions of the act to regulate commerce.

Whether competition between lines of transportation to Montgomery, Eufaula and Columbus justifies the giving to

[ 168 U.S. Page 163]

     those cities a preference or advantage in rates over Troy, and, if so, whether such a state of facts justifies a departure from equality of rates without authority from the Interstate Commerce Commission under the proviso to the fourth section of the act, are questions of construction of the statute, and are to be determined before we reach the question of fact in this case.

It is contended, in the briefs filed on behalf of the Interstate Commission, that the existence of rival lines of transportation and, consequently, of competition for the traffic, are not facts to be considered by the Commission, or by the courts, when determining whether property transported over the same line is carried under "substantially similar circumstances and conditions," as that phrase is found in the fourth section of the act.

Such, evidently, was not the construction put upon this provision of the statute by the Commission itself in the present case; for the record discloses that the Commission made some allowance for the alleged dissimilarity of circumstances and conditions, arising out of competition and situation, as affecting transportation to Montgomery and Troy respectively, and that, among the errors assigned, is one complaining that the court erred in nor holding that the rates prescribed by the Commission in its order made due allowance for such dissimilarity.

So, too, in In re Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 1 Int. C.C. Rep. 31, 78, in discussing the long and short haul clause, it was said by the Commission, per Judge Cooley, that "it is impossible to resist the conclusion that in finally rejecting the 'long and short haul clause' of the House bill, which prescribed an inflexible rule, not to be departed from in any case, and retaining in substance the fourth section as it had passed the Senate, both houses understood that they were not adopting a measure of strict prohibition in respect to charging more for the shorter than for the longer distance, but that they were, instead, leaving the door open for exceptions in certain cases, and, among others, in cases where the circumstances and conditions of the traffic were affected by the

[ 168 U.S. Page 164]

     element of competition, and where exceptions might be a necessity if the competition was to continue. And water competition was beyond doubt especially in view."

It is, no doubt, true that in a later case, Railroad Commission of Georgia v. Clyde Steamship Co., 5 Int. C.C. Rep. 326, the Commission somewhat modified their holding in the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company case, just cited, by attempting to restrict the competition, that it is allowable to consider, to the cases of competition with water carriers, competition with foreign railroads, competition with railroad lines wholly in a single State; but the principle that competition in such cases is to be considered is affirmed.

That competition is one of the most obvious and effective circumstances that make the conditions, under which a long and short haul is performed, substantially dissimilar, and as such must have been in the contemplation of Congress in the passage of the act to regulate commerce, has been held by many of the Circuit Courts. It is sufficient to cite a few of the number: Ex parte Koehler, 31 Fed. Reb. 315; Missouri Pacific Railway v. Texas & Pacific Railway, 31 Fed. Rep. 862; Interstate Com. Com. v. Atchison, Topeka &c. Railroad, 50 Fed. Rep. 295; Same v. New Orleans & Texas Pacific Railroad, 56 Fed. Rep. 925, 943; Behlmer v. Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 71 Fed. Rep. 835; Int. Com. Com. v. Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 73 Fed. Rep. 409.

In construing statutory provisions, forbidding railway companies from giving any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage to ro in favor of any particular person or company, or any particular description of traffic, in any respect whatever, the English courts have held, after full consideration, that competition between rival lines is a fact to be considered, and that a preference or advantage thence arising is not necessarily undue or unreasonable. Denaby Main Colliery Co. v. Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway, 11 App. Cas. 97; Phipps v. London & North Western Railway, 2 Q.B.D. 1892, 229.

But the question whether competition as affecting rates is an element for the Commission and the courts to consider in

[ 168 U.S. Page 165]

     applying the provisions of the act to regulate commerce, is not an open question in this court.

In Interstate Com. Commission v. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 145 U.S. 263, it was said, approving observations made by Jackson, Circuit Judge, (43 Fed. Rep. 37,) that the act to regulate commerce was "not designed to prevent competition between different roads, or to interfere with the customary arrangements made by railway companies for reduced fares in consideration of increased mileage, where such reduction did not operate as an unjust discrimination against other persons travelling over the road. In other words it was not intended to ignore the principle that one can sell at wholesale cheaper than at retail; that it is not all discriminations or preferences that fall within the inhibition of the statute, only such as are unjust or unreasonable;" and, accordingly, it was held that the issue by a railway company, engaged in interstate commerce, of a "party-rate ticket" for the transportation of ten or more persons from a place situated in one State or Territory to a place situated in another State or Territory, at a rate less than that charged to a single individual for a like transportation on the same trip, does not thereby make "an unjust or unreasonable charge" against such individual within the meaning of the first section of the act to regulate commerce; nor make "an unjust discrimination" against him within the meaning of the second section; nor give "an undue or unreasonable preference or advantage" to the purchasers of the party-rate ticket within the meaning of the third section.

In Texas & Pacific Railway v. Interstate Com. Com., 162 U.S. 197, it was held that "in passing upon questions arising under the act, the tribunal appointed to enforce its provisions, whether the Commission or the courts, is empowered to fully consider all the circumstances and conditions that reasonably apply to the situation, and that, in the exercise of its jurisdiction, the tribunal may and should consider the legitimate interests as well of the carrying companies as of the traders and shippers, and in considering whether any ...

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